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Патент USA US2119226

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May 31, 1938. _
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F, ERNST
INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE‘
Filed Aug. 2'7, 1936
2,119,226
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2 Sheets-Sheet l
May 31, 1938.
2,119,226
F, ERNST
INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE
Filed Aug. 27, 1936
2 Shee’Ls-Sheet 2
Fr
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Patented May 31-, ‘193s’ " i d
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2,119,226
UNlT-EDISIATES‘ PATENT OFFICE
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_2,119,22s
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V ': INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE
’ FritzErnst, Kron'shagen, near Kiel, Germany, as
signorvto Fried. Krupp-Germaniawerft Aktien
gese'llschaft, .Kiel-Gaarden, Germany
Application August 27, 1936, Serial No. 98,127
{ In Germany September 7, 1935 _
11 Claims. (Cl. 123-48)
This invention relates to internal combustion‘ ating like a
engines of the type in which inlet or outletports
‘are controlled by a ,slide'valve arranged in the
; cylinder head.
‘ In engines of this type the drawback has ap
peared that the high cylinder pressure occurring
during the combustion and explosion period has
10
to be taken up by the valve control gear.
'Various ways have already been suggested and
tried to keep these high pressures temporarily_
bayonet joint .with counter teeth 0 '
provided on an extension p of the cylinder.
The turning movement of the piston slide valve
I required for locking and unlocking it is e?ected
by two cams r1, 12 which are mounted on the cam 91
shaft 2' on both sides of the main actuating cams
q and are displaced from one. another by 180
degrees, and by means of two connecting links
s1, s2 (see Figure 2).
1
The described two-stroke engine operates as 10
follows: After injection of the fuel into the work
from the actuating members proper, viz. cams or
cranks, by means of suitable locking members, ' ing cylinder, which has begun shortly before the
such as slot and‘ crank or crank connections. working piston‘e has reached the upper dead cen
With- all these known constructions, however, I ter position, as illustrated in Figure 1, expansion
there still remain parts of the control gear which of the gases of combustion takes place during the
are stressed by the pressure acting upon the downward stroke of the working piston 6. Short
slide valve, forexample at least the link imme
diately moving the slide valve, and its bearing
places.
a
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this part of the slide valve gear from ‘injurious
,
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the outlet ports d are uncovered by the piston
' slide valve 1‘.
‘
, The invention has for its object to relieve also
forces. '
' ly before the latter uncovers the inlet ports 0,
f
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In order that the invention may be clearly un
derstood and readily carried ‘into effect, two em
bodiments of the invention are illustrated by way
of example in the accompanying drawings as‘ ap- “
plied to. a vertical‘ two-stroke cycle Diesel engine,
After the scavenging. action has
been terminated, the outlet ports ‘d are covered 20
again, whilst the inlet ports still remain open.
Now charging and compression of the fresh air
takes place.
j
During the compression stroke of the working
piston e and particularly during the subsequent “
combustion as well as during the‘ ?rst part of the '
expansion of the gases of combustion the end
scavenged in longitudinal direction.“ In; ‘these’ surface of the piston slide valve 1‘, which here
drawings
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Figure 1 shows the ?rst embodiment by, a‘ lon
, gitudinal section of the working cylinder,
Figure 2 is the corresponding plan view,‘. and
Figures 3 and 4 show the otherrembodiment,
in views corresponding to‘ Figures I and 2, Figure
4 being a plan view, partly in section.-of ‘the em
bodiment shown in vvertical “section in Figure 3.
all)
The cylinder body a has mounted in ita liner
b in‘ the lower portion of'which are provided inlet
, ports 0 for the scavenging air- while, the upper
forms the cylinder cover, is exposed to very high “
pressure which in the present embodiment equals
the pressure acting upon the end surface of the
working ‘piston e.
In order totake up this pres
v sure, according to the invention after the outlet ~
ports '11 have been covered,that is, shortly before
the compression begins, the piston slide valve 1‘ 35
while in its lower dead center position is turned
by means of the cams r1, 1'2 and through the in
termediary of rods s1, 82 to such an extent, that '
its teeth 11 exactly register with the companion
portion has outlet‘ports d. The inletports are , teeth 0 of the cylinder extension 12. In this locked
position the ‘piston slide valve ,1‘ under theload
controlled by the working piston e and ‘the out
let ports 11 by a piston slide valve j'which‘ has the of the pressure prevailing in the working cylin
same diameter-as the'workingpiston.‘ Thefuel
injection- nozzle 9 is disposed laterally in‘ the
‘cylinder wall at the level of the combustion space
h ‘formed between the workingpiston e and the
40
der immediately abuts against the extension p
?xed to the cylinder body a. Hence, the lines
of force’ pass only through fixed parts of the’ 45 ‘
engine, whilst the whole actuating gear of the
piston slide valve f, inclusively of the link mdi
-rectly ?xed‘ to the piston slide valve j and the
The piston slidevvalve f is actuated by, a cam bearings oi the former, are completely relieved
‘shaft i by means of a two-armed bifurcated lever from the high pressure prevailing in the cylinder 50
lcjand a link in‘ ?xed to theslide' valve 1‘ by a ball during the period of time the piston'slide valve f
piston slide valve 1’.
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joint w.~ I‘nmorder to be locked for the purpose
set forth, the piston slide valve ~f-is provided at
the top with a'suitable number of teeth-n uni
I formly distributed on its periphery ‘and co-oper
is locked as described hereinbefore.
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, Before the outlet ports (1 are opened again, the
piston slide valve f is turned back to initial‘ posi
tion in‘ which during‘ the subsequent upward 55
2,110,226
2
stroke the teeth n can pass with sufficient clear
ance between the ?xed companion teeth 0.
The gear of the piston slide valve J‘ is designed
in such a manner that only very small power is
required for the'locking and unlocking turning
motions of the slide valve. This is obtained by
the main driving cam q on the downward stroke,
that-is, previous tothe locking movement, ‘mov
ing the piston slidevalve downwards to suchan
extent, that thereji's a certain clearance between
the teeth 11 and-[the companion teeth 0 in the
direction of stroke of the valvewqpnsequently
in this position the piston slide valve f is turned
into the locking position without any‘substantial
What I claim is:-
p
1. In an internal combustion engine, a cylin
der, 2. piston in said cylinder, a slide valve in said
cylinder opposed to the head of said piston, said
cylinder having ports controlled by. said slide
valve, mechanical means for reciprocating said
slide valve in synchronism with the movement of
said piston, .and means for intermittently locking
said slide valve to said cylinder in a predeter
mined position in which‘ said ports are covered
10'
by said valve during a period beginning prior to
and continuing through the time of greatest
pressure upon said valve.
2. In an internal combustion engine, a cylin—
der, a piston in said cylinder, a slide valve in said 15
friction. The con?guration of the respective
cam, further, is such that the following section ‘cylinder opposedto the head of said piston, me
of its operating surface recedes somewhat, so that chanical means for reciprocating said slide valve
the teeth n of the piston slide valve 1‘ under the ‘ in synchronism with the movement of said piston,
said cylinder having ports controlled by said slide
action of the pressure increasing during the com
valve, interlocking stops on said valve and said 20
20 pression come to abut against the ?xed teeth 0.
Upon unlocking the operation is inverse, that is, ‘cylinder for locking said valve against sliding
the cam moves the piston slide valve j a small movement, and means for intermittently engag
ing said stops during a period beginning prior
distance downward against the pressure prevail
to and continuing through the time of greatest
ing in the cylinder, which pressure is compara
tively low in the last section of the expansion pressure upon said valve and then disengaging 25
_
period of the gases of combustion, so that again said stops.
3. In an internal'combustion engine, a cylin
clearance is formed between the teeth 11 and the
teeth 0, before the piston slide valve 1‘ is turned der, a piston in saidcylinder, a slide valve in saidv
cylinder opposed to the head of said piston, said
back by the same amplitude.
While in the embodiment described herein cylinder having ports controlled by said slide 30
30
before the whole piston slide valve is turned'to' valve, interlocking teeth on said valve and said
the locking and back to unlocking position, the cylinder, and means for relative angular move
piston slide valve f1 of the second embodiment ment of said teeth to bring them into and out of
shown in Figures 3 and 4 is locked by means of a alinement, said teeth being adapted to slip past
ring t rotatably mounted on the cylinder. Like each other in one relative position to permit said 35
in the ?rst embodiment the piston slide valve 1‘ valve to slide.
4. In an internal combustion engine,ea cylin
has teeth n1 which co-operate with teeth 01 pro
The latter is
der, a piston in said cylinder, a slide valve in said
turned by two rods ul, n2, similar to the rods s1, s2
of ?rst embodiment, but provided with rack teeth
engaging teeth 01, '02 on the ring t. These rods
cylinder having ports controlled by said slide
vided on the rotatable ring it.
cylinder opposed to the head of said piston, said
valve, means comprising a cam shaft for recip
rocating said slide valve, interlocking stops on
cam shaft 1' and relatively displaced by 180°. In said valve and said cylinder, and means con
the locked position of_ the piston slidev valve f trolled by said cam shaft for engaging said stops
the ring t‘under the action of the pressure pre ‘during a period beginning prior to- and continu
vailing in the working cylinder, abuts against the ing through the time of greatest pressure upon
said valve and then disengaging said stops.
cylinder extension 91 which is ?xed to the cylin
are actuated by two cams r1, 12 mounted on the
der and has a suitable con?guration.
Sincethe
piston slide valve in this arrangement is not
turned, but executes only a reciprocating motion,
actually a simple link connection between' the
slide valve I1 and its connecting rod m1 would
su?ice.
'
In this embodiment the acceleration forces to
be exerted by the cam shaft 1'1 for locking the
piston slide valve f1 are smaller than in the ?rst
described embodiment, since the rotatable ring t
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5. In an internal-combustion engine, a cylin
der, a piston in said cylinder, a slide valve mem
ber in said cylinder-opposed to the head of said 50
piston, mechanical means for reciprocating said
slide valve in synchronism with the movement
of said piston, said cylinder having ports con
trolled by said slide valve member, a locking
member on said cylinder, said slide valve mem
ber having stops engaging said locking member
to prevent the valve member from sliding, and
has a much smaller‘ mass than the piston slidev means for relatively turning said members to
valve j of Figures 1 and 2. This is of advantage engage said stops during a period beginning prior
in particular with engines of large size in which to and continuing through the time of greatest
the piston slide valve has a corresponding great pressure upon said valve and then to release said
stops.
weight.
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~ place in inverse sense, that is, in which'the inlet
6. In an internal combustion engine, a cylin—‘
der, a piston in said cylinder, a slide valve mem
ber in said cylinder opposed to the head of said
ports are controlled by the piston slide valve dis
posed in the cylinder head, whilst the outlet ports
are controlled by the working piston.‘ Further
said slide ,valve member, a locking member on
said cylinder, said slide valve member having
The invention can be applied also to engines
in which the longitudinal .scavenging action takes
more, instead of a piston slide valve an annular
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piston, said cylinder having ports controlled by
stops engaging said locking member to prevent
slide valve having a’?xed central body may be the valve member from sliding, and means oper
provided, in order to allow of a central injection - ating in unison with the movement of said piston
of the fuel from above. Finally, the invention to reciprocate said slide valve member and to
can also be applied with the same advantage to turn one of said members with respect to the
four stroke cycle engines the inlet or outlet ports other, ?rst to engage said stops with said locking
member in the inner position, 0'! said slide valve
of whieh'are controlled by slide valves.
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2,119,226
member during a period beginning prior to and
continuing, through the time of greatest pressure
upon said valve, and then to disengage said stops
cylinder, means for relatively turning said mem4
bers, interlocking means on said members adapt
ed to be engaged and disengaged by the relative
to allow said slide ‘valve member to move out
rotation thereof, and cam‘ means operating in
ward.
,
7. In an internal combustion engine, a cylin
der, a piston in said cylinder, a‘ slide valve in said
unison to reciprocate saidslide valve member‘and
relatively to rotate said members, said cam means ‘
being adapted to move said slide valve member
cylinder opposed to the head of said piston, said
to a position .in which ,said interlocking means
cylinder having ports controlled by said slide
move freely to and from interlocking position
and to release said slide valve member when said 10
'10 valve, mechanical ‘means for reciprocating said
slide valve in synchronism with the movement of
said piston, a rotary locking member on said
interlocking means are in operative position,
whereby the full stress exerted upon said slide
cylinder, and stops on said slide ‘valve adapted
valve member is intermittently taken up by said
to be blocked by said locking member in one
interlocking means, thus relieving said cam
‘
15 position of the latter during a period beginning means thereof. '
15
prior to and continuing through the time of
10. In an internal combustion engine, a cylin
greatest pressure upon said valve, in order to pre , der, a piston in said cylinder, a slide valve in
vent said valve from sliding, said stops being re-. said cylinder opposed to the head of said piston,
said cylinder having ports‘controlled by said slide
leased when said locking member is moved to an
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20 other position._ _
valve, means for reciprocating said slide valve, 20
8. In an internal combustion engine, a cylin—
stops on said cylinder having a ?xed axial posi
der, a piston in said cylinder, a slide valve in said tion thereon, stops ?xed on 'said slide valve in
cylinder opposed to the head of said piston, said position to move past the stops on said cylinder
‘cylinder having ports controlled by said slide on the inward movement ofv said slide valve, and
as valve, mechanical means for reciprocating said means for relatively turning said stops to bring 25
slide valve in synchronism with the movement‘ of ‘
said piston, a rotary locking member of" relatively
slight mass on said cylinder, and stops on said
slide valve adapted to be blocked by said locking
30 member‘ in one position of the latter during a
period beginning prior toand continuing through
them into interlocking relation.
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11. In an internal combustion engine, a cylin
der, a piston in said cylinder, a slide valve in,
said cylinder opposed to the head of said piston,
said cylinder having ports controlled by said slide 30
valve; mechanical means for reciprocating said
the time of greatest pressure upon said valve, in
order to prevent said valve from sliding, said 1 slide valve in synchronism with the movement
stops being released when said locking member of said piston, and'means for intermittently lock
ing said slide valve to said cylinder at approxi
is moved to another position.
‘
9. In‘an internal combustion engine, a cylin mately the innermost limit of its reciprocation
during a period beginning prior to and continu- , '
der, a piston in said cylinder, a slide valve mem
berin said cylinder opposed to the head of said ‘ ing through the time of greatest pressure upon.
piston, said cylinder having ports controlled by
40 said valve member, a locking member on said
said valve.
'
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FRITZ ERNST.
40
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