Патент USA US2119285код для вставки
May 31, 1938. 2,119,285 T. H.’ MORGAN ' VIBRATOR 2 Sheet's-‘Sheet 1 Filed July 50, 1936 ' 77/0/1145 #055420 mean/v . BY " ATTORNEY May 31, 1938- _T. H. MORGAN VIBRATOR 2,119,285 ’ ’ Filed July 50, 1936 E- 7- 5 ' I .56‘? .' 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 H if] l\ 4; 16.4: V I ‘ I: MM 5 30/ \ LE IN VEN TOR. Z6 Mom's #058420 MaQGA/V' ATTORNEY Patented May 31, 1938 2,119,285 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,119,285 VIBRA'I'OR Thomas Hubbard Morgan, Kittanning, Pa. Application July so, 1936, Serial No. 93,400 . 9 Claims. (Cl. 121-17) This invention relates to improvements in vi brators of the reciprocating type, and more par ticularly to fluid-operated or pneumatic vibrators capable of operation at high frequencies. 5 Vibrators of the character stated are particu larly advantageous in connection with the con .veyance and classi?cation of materials, the vi brations thereby produced setting the particles or constituents of the materials in motion, whereby 10 said materials may be transferred in a conduit from place to place, or may be graded according to their speci?c gravities, sizes, etc. upon a suit able screen or table. , > My invention contemplates a vibrator of the 15 character stated having a high compression stroke, whereby the reciprocating piston is cush ioned and retarded at the end of each alternate movement for rapid reversal of direction and re sulting high frequency operation. I . A further object is to maintain a substantially constant ?ow of ?uid through the vibrator for greater eiiiciency and economy. ‘I also contemplate the provision of means for selectively varying the stroke of the vibrator for 25 unequal vibrations, to adjustably control and provide relatively high vibrations in one and the same direction. . Additional objects are to provide a device which is simple and inexpensive, and which will‘ operate 30 at relatively low pressures with a minimum con sumption of operating ?uid. tion with the accompanying drawings, wherein: Fig. 1 is an end elevational view of a high fre quency vibrator embodying my invention; and llb, the exponents being employed to desig nate right and left hand relation with respect to the center of the vibrator. At their inner ends, the chambers lla and llb communicate with the interior of the cylinder 2 by ports l2a and I2!) respectively, said ports being spaced equidistant _ longitudinally on either side of the central inlet port Ill. The outer ends of the chambers respec tively communicate with the interior of the cylin der adjacent the ends thereof by ports I30, and l3b. ‘ . Fig. 2, a longitudinal section thereof taken on the line II--II of Fig. 1; Figs. 3, 4, 5 and 6, detail sections taken on the 40 respective lines III-J11, IV—IV, V-V and VI--VI-of Fig. 2; Fig. 7, a view similar to Fig. 2, showing a‘mod i?ed form of my invention; Fig. 8, a sectional view thereof, taken on the 45 line VIII-VIII of Fig. 7; and Fig. 9, a detail sectional view taken on the line IX—IX of Fig. 7. Referring to thadrawings, and particularly to Figs. 1 to 6 inclusive, 2 designates a cylinder hav 50 ing closure heads 3 and I secured thereto in any suitable manner, as by bolts 5. An intake mani 20 A piston or plunger I4 is provided for recip rocation within the cylinder, said plunger having a central groove IS in the periphery thereof for coaction with the ports I0, I21; and lZb, the longitudinal dimension of the groove l5 being such as to provide enclosing communication be-‘ tween the central port l0 and either of the said _ inner ports l2a and l2b, depending upon the right or left hand location of the piston l4. Ilia and l6b designate exhaust ‘ports in the cylinder 2 30 adjacent the ends thereof. My invention may be more readily understood from the following description, taken in connec 35 manifold has a central passage 8 in communi cation with a ?uid inlet conduit 9 connecting with any suitable source of supply of ?uid under pressure, as for example, compressed air. l0 designates a central inlet port extending from the passage 8 to the interior of the cylinder 2. Extending longitudinally of the manifold 6 on ' either side of the central port 8, and out of direct communication therewith, are ?uid chambers lla ' - The ends of the piston l4 are provided with inclined passages "a and "b for establishing communication with the ports I31; and l3b and their respective ends of the cylinder. The said inclined passages are cut diagonally through the peripheral edges of the piston ends, opening through the end faces and peripheral surface of 'the piston, as clearly shown in Figs‘. 2 and 5. One end of the ‘piston I4 is drilled or formed 40 with a longitudinal bore l8, disposed eccentrically of the longitudinal axis of said piston, for the purpose of receiving a guidestud l9 secured in the head 4 as by a threaded engagement 20. A spring 2l surrounds the inner end of the stud l9, 45 and is seated in the bore. l8, and contacts an abut ment 22 on‘the‘stud, said spring. being operable in a manner hereinafter described. The function of the guide I!) is to insure proper alinement of the cooperating and registering ports in the pis 50 ton and cylinder, by preventing relative rotation = fold 6 extends longitudinally of the cylinder and i of the said parts without interference with the may comprise an integral part ‘thereof, or as shown, may be separately formed and secured to 55 the cylinder walls as by bolts or screws ‘I. .This reciprocation of the piston. ‘ i It willv be understood that vibrations are pro duced with my invention by a rapid reciprocation 55 ' 2,119,285 2 of the piston, whereby the change of directional movement of said piston causes alternating re active forces to be imparted to the cylinder and to the device to which said cylinder may be attached or connected. _ The operation of my invention is as follows. With- the piston H in the left-hand end of the cylinder 2, as in Fig. 2, the exhaust port ISD is closed by the piston, and the said end of the cylinder is in open communication with the pres sure supply line 9 through piston passage i'lb, port l3b, chamber Ill), and ports lZb, l0 and inlet chamber 8, the ports I!) and I2?) being or air at atmospheric pressure, but upon pro viding su?icient piston area, I am enabled to pro vide a compression cushioning in advance of the limits of the cylinder which will effect a rapid deceleration and reversal of the piston. Vibrator operation without striking or ham mering eliminates the attendant noise, and also prevents upsetting of the metal of the piston and cylinder which may result from striking contact and cause injury to the parts. Likewise, it is evident that the striking contact of piston and cylinder must be accompanied by a low com pression stroke, whereby the speed and frequency connected by means of the groove IS in the pis- . of the vibrations will be less than that obtained 15 ton. Hence, upon applying ?uid‘ from line 9, . through any suitable valve, the applied pressure by my invention. ' A further important feature of my invention acts upon the left-hand head b of the piston, 'resides in the construction and relation of the moving the same to the right. During this initial ?uid ports and passages to obtain maximum effi ciency. As stated, the piston has a relatively or impulse pressure or the beginning of the pis 20, ton travel, the right-hand end of the piston is short stroke, which stroke in some constructions subjected to atmospheric pressure due to the may be less than one-half of an inch in length, whereby it becomes essential to construct the open exhaust port lGa, whereby a rapid move ?uid passages in a particular manner in order to ment is imparted to the piston. obtain the said maximum efficiency of the oper Upon traversing a distance equal to the lon 25 gitudinal width of the exhaust ports, the port ating ?uid. To this end, I have provided the series of ports |6a is closed by the piston and the port I6!) is opened to the atmosphere. Likewise, this travel , l0, l2a, I2b, l3a, l3b, [6a and lGb of minimum of the piston 14 closes the port l2b, cutting off width or dimension in a‘ direction longitudinally of the cylinder 2 while maintaining their cross the ?uid supply to the left-hand end of the cyl sectional or ?ow areas substantially equal to that 30 inder. Under these conditions, the piston con tinues its movement under the momentum of of the supply line 9, by extending said ports trans versely of the cylinder in the form of slots. The the applied impulse, until the body of ?uid en closed in the right-hand end of the cylinder 2 is groove IS in the piston is also of minimum depth compressed sufficiently to negative the force of and has a transverse dimension equal to that‘ of momentum, whereby the piston is cushioned and its coacting ports "I, l2a and [2b, and by making ' the ?ow area of the chambers Ila. and llb also stopped before striking the cylinder head 4. During the momentum travel of the piston, the substantially equal to that of the supply line 9, port l5 connects the ports I!) and [2a, whereby it will be ‘seen that I maintain a constant and the right-hand end of the cylinder 2 is opened to maximum pressure ?ow through the vibrator cir 40 culating passages. The maximum dimension of ~10 the pressure in the supply line 9 through cham ber H a, port Ba and passage I 1a of the piston. the said ports being transverse with respect to the At the instant after the piston is cushioned as direction of movement of the piston, it is evident that the ports are opened to capacity in the above stated, it is caused to move in a reverse direction under the pressure of the supply source shortest possible time interval. By means of the aforesaid construction, my acting upon the right-hand .piston head a, where upon the operation is alternated from left to right improved vibrator utilizes the greatest amount with exceptional rapidity. In moving the piston of available energy of the operating ?uid, by I 4 from right to left, the other ports and ?uid providing for capacity as well as uniform ?ow passages will be employed in a like manner, as therein. Since the ?ow area through the ports and passages is substantially constant, there will will be readily understood. Attention is directed to the free or ?oating be a constant ?ow without undesirable expan piston M which is operated without striking or slon and accompanying pressure losses. By so utilizing the supplied ?uid, I am enabled to oper hammering against the cylinder ends in the man ner of many present pneumatic devices. This ate my invention at minimum pressures and at an low rate of consumption of ?uid. actionis due to the provision of a relatively high exceptionally These factors, together with the cushioning re compression stroke in my vibrator, whereby the tardation and reversal of the piston, provide for piston is retarded and reversed against and by extremely high frequency operation at low cost. means of a pressure ?uid cushion. For example, I have successfully operated a vi The measure or amplitude of vibrations to be brator of the character herein set forth having 60 60 produced by vibrators of the character stated is equal to the product of the reciprocating weight an 18-pound piston of 4% inches diameter, on and the distance through which it moves. Hence, compressed air supplied at 50-90 pounds per for a required amplitude, the weight and stroke square inch gage. The measured speed of said of the piston may be suitably related by the vibrator was from '7000 to 10,000 strokes per min ute, with a low consumption of air per minute. This vibrator was found capable of carrying con However, I have found that’extxeedingly in creased efficiency may be obtained by providing siderably heavy loads when associated with a vibrating screen or a conveyor conduit. the piston of increased diameter, while maintain The spring 2|, mounted on the stud 20, func ing its weight at the desired amount, whereby the increased area of the piston will provide su?icient tions to insure the proper positioning of the pis compression pressure in advance of said piston ton [4 when inactive, by preventing said piston to e?ect the proper cushioning retardation above from coming to rest in mid-center position. Said spring further provides a means of unbalancing referred to. the stroke of the piston by increasing the tension It will be observed that the initial ‘portion of _, the stroke of piston l4 takes place against ?uid thereof through adjustment of the screw stvd 20. designer. 2 - ' - ‘ 2,119,285 Increasing the spring tension will provide for vibrations of greater magnitude in one direction than in the other by varying the speed of said strokes. ' I further contemplate a more sensitive and con 3 for various purposes, said vibrator being connect ed with the device to be vibrated as by means of the bolts 5 or any other suitable connecting ormounting means whereby the vibrations may be properly related as to their direction with re sistently uniform control for unbalancing the vibrations to produce greater vibratory impulses spect to the purpose to be served. in one direction than in the other, as is desir able in the conveyance of materials by means 1. A vibrator including a cylinder and a pis ton reciprocable therein, means for alternately admitting ?uid to the ends of the cylinder in 10 cluding a pair of ?uid supply ports, a pair of exhaust ports adjacent the ends of the cylinder, said ports being in the form of transversely dis posed slots having minimum dimension in the direction of piston movement and coacting with‘ the piston to provide a short stroke and high . of vibration. .One or both of the chambers Ha and lib may be provided with a control valve 23 in the form of an apertured tapered plug hav ing a projecting stem 24 threaded to receive a tightening nut 25. A spring 26 is disposed be tween the nut and the side wall of the manifold 6; whereby the proper tension maybe imparted to the taper ?t of the valve or valves to main tain the same in ?xed position without leakage. ‘Suitable handles or wrench faces may be pro— vided on the valve stems for manual adjustment thereof as desired. It will be seen that the ?ow through the chambers I la and 1 lb may be varied while the vibrator is in operation, whereby the desired magnitude of unbalanced vibration may be accurately provided by varying the angular position of the valve apertures with respect to the said chambers. It will also be noted that by varying the ?ow of ?uid to one or both ends of the cylinder, a 30 differential of speed may be obtained in the pis ton travel as desired, whereby said piston travels faster in one direction than in the other, and thus sets up vibratory impulses of greater mag nitude in one direction than in the other. Figs. 7 to 9 inclusive illustrate a modi?ed form of vmy invention, wherein the cylinder 2a is pro vided with right and left hand inlet ports 21a and 21?) connected with the supply line 9a through adjustable control valves 23a and branch pipes 40 or conduits 28. Exhaust ports Mia and lBb are provided as, before._ 7 The piston Ma is formed with angular end ports 29a and 29b‘ respectively coacting with the inlet ports 21a and 21b to alternately admit ?uid from 45 the supply line to opposite ends of the cylinder? Said ports are in the form of narrow transverse I claim: - frequency piston movement. ~ 2. A vibrator including a cylinder and a piston‘ reciprocable therein, means for alternately ad mitting ?uid to the ends of the cylinder includ ing a pair of ?uid supply ports, a pair of exhaust ports adjacent the ends of the cylinder, said ports being in the form of transversely disposed slots having minimum dimension in the direction of piston movement and coacting with the piston to provide a short stroke and high frequency piston movement, the ?uid admission means having sub stantially equal ?ow areas throughout. 3. A vibrator including a cylinder and a piston reciprocable therein, means for alternately ad' 30 mitting ?uid to the ends of the cylinder include ing a central inlet port to the cylinder, a pair of ?uid chambers on either side of said central port each havingv an inner port communicating with the interior of the cylinder adjacent said central port and an outer port communicating with an end of the cylinder, the piston having a central port for alternately connecting the cen tral inlet port with said inner ports, said ports and chambers having substantially equal ?ow 40 areas, a pair of exhaust ports adjacent the ends of the cylinder, the central port andinner and exhaust ports being in the form of transversely disposed slots having minimum dimension in the direction of piston movement and coacting with the piston to provide a short stroke and high fre ' _ slots'as before to provide equal ?ow areas for quency piston movement. undiminished passage of the ?uid therethrough. 4. A vibrator including a cylinder and'a pis As in the form of Figs. land 2, the piston Ma ton reciprocable therein, means for alternately is of enlarged diameter to provide for a high admitting ?uid to the ends of the cylinder in compression stroke in the manner set forth. The cluding an inlet port adjacent each end thereof, operating ?uid will be alternately admitted to the piston having a port in each end thereof the left and right hand ends of the cylinder to opening in its periphery and extending outward reciprocate the piston and produce a vibrating 'ly in angular relation through the piston heads 55 action. for direct communication with the ends of the To insure proper registering alinement of the cylinder, the piston and inlet. ports having sub ports in the cylinder and piston, the latter may stantially equal ?ow areas, a pair of exhaust be provided with a longitudinal slot 30 tov receive ports adjacent the ends of the cylinder, all of said ports being in the formof transversely dis -a stud or key 3| mounted on the cylinder, where 69 by-the piston is prevented from, rotation rela tive to its cylinder. See Fig. 9. ‘ posed slots having minimum dimension in the 60 the plunger 33 within its bushingout of engage ment with the piston Ma. However, in the event cluding a pair of ?uid ports controlled by the piston, said ports being in the form of trans versely disposed slots having minimum dimension in the direction of movement of and in relation 70 to the stroke of the piston, the ?uid admission direction of piston movement and coacting with In place of the spring 2| of the form of Fig. 2, > the piston to provide a ‘short stroke and high fre ' a starting button 32 may be provided in one of quency piston movement. ' 5. A vibrator including a cylinder and a. piston the cylinder heads, as in Fig. 7, said button hav 65 ing a plunger 33 slidable in a mounting bushing reciprocable therein, means for alternately 34 in said head. A spring 35 normally retracts‘ admitting ?uid to the ends of the cylinder in the said piston comes to rest in dead center posi 70 tion, the operator may push the button 32, where by its plunger 33 engages and moves the piston into registering position for admission 'of ?uid through ports 2'") and 29b to start the vibrator 75 in motion. The vibrator of my invention may be employed means having substantially equal ?ow areas ‘ throughout, an exhaust port adjacent each end of the cylinder in the form of transverse slots hav ing minimum dimension in the direction of piston 75 4 2,119,286 movement and controlled by the latter to permit compression of ?uid in advance of the piston, thus providing a pressure cushion e?ective to retard and reverse the piston movement without striking the ends of the cylinder, and providing a short stroke and high frequency piston move ment. 6. A vibrator including a cylinder, a free non rotatable piston reciprocable therein, said cyl 10 20 inder having a fluid inlet port adjacent each end thereof, the piston having end ports opening in the periphery thereof to register with the inlet ports and extending outwardly in angular rela tion through the piston heads for direct com munication with the end portions of the cyl inder, the cylinder inlet ports and piston end ports having substantially equal ?ow areas pre venting pressure drop during communicating ?ow therethrough, said cylinder also having exhaust ports adjacent the ends thereof in direct com munication with theinterior of the cylinder and the atmosphere, means supplying ?uid to the inlet ports, the passage of said ?uid to the piston and cylinder being controlled by the movements of the piston to alternately stroke the latter. '7. A vibrator including a cylinder, a free non rotatable piston reciprocable therein, means pro viding a'central ?uid supply inlet port to the cylinder and longitudinally extending ?uid 30 chambers on either side of said inlet port, each chamber having an inner port communicating with the interior of the cylinder adjacent the inlet port and having an outer port communi cating with an end of said cylinder, the piston 35 having an arcuate central groove extending with in a portion only of its periphery for alternately connecting the inlet port, with the said inner ports, said inlet ports, ?uid chambers, inner ports, and central piston groove having equal 40 ?ow areas preventing pressure drop during com municating ?ow therethrough, said cylinder also having exhaust ports adjacent the ends there of controlled by the piston for direct communica tion with the atmosphere. 8. A vibrator including a cylinder and a piston reciprocable therein, means for alternately ad mitting ?uid to the ends of the cylinder includ ing a pair of ?uid supply ports, a pair of exhaust ports adjacent the ends of the cylinder, said ports being in the form of transversely disposed 1O slots having minimum dimension in the direction of piston movement and coacting with the piston to provide a short stroke and high frequency piston movement, and adjustable means for vary ing the ?ow of ?uid to the ends of the cylinder to vary the frequency of piston movement in opposite directions. 9. A vibrator including a cylinder and a piston reciprocable therein, means for alternately ad mitting ?uid to the ends of the cylinder includ ing a central inlet port to the cylinder, a pair of ?uid chambers on either side of said central port each having an inner port communicating with the interior of the cylinder adjacent said cen tral port and an outer port communicating with > an end of the cylinder, the piston having a central port for alternately connecting‘ the central inlet port with said inner ports, said ports and cham bers having substantially equal ?ow areas, a pair ofrexhaust ports adjacent the ends of the 3O cylinder, the central port and inner and exhaust ports being’ in the form of transversely disposed slots having minimum dimension in the direc tion of piston movement and coacting with'the piston to provide a short stroke and high fre quency piston movement, and adjustable means for varying the ?ow of ?uid to the ends of the cylinder to vary the frequency of piston move ment in opposite directions. THOMAS HUBBARD MORGAN.