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Патент USA US2119285

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May 31, 1938.
2,119,285
T. H.’ MORGAN
'
VIBRATOR
2 Sheet's-‘Sheet 1
Filed July 50, 1936 '
77/0/1145 #055420 mean/v .
BY
"
ATTORNEY
May 31, 1938-
_T. H. MORGAN
VIBRATOR
2,119,285
’
’
Filed July 50, 1936
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ATTORNEY
Patented May 31, 1938
2,119,285
UNITED STATES
PATENT OFFICE
2,119,285
VIBRA'I'OR
Thomas Hubbard Morgan, Kittanning, Pa.
Application July so, 1936, Serial No. 93,400
. 9 Claims.
(Cl. 121-17)
This invention relates to improvements in vi
brators of the reciprocating type, and more par
ticularly to fluid-operated or pneumatic vibrators
capable of operation at high frequencies.
5
Vibrators of the character stated are particu
larly advantageous in connection with the con
.veyance and classi?cation of materials, the vi
brations thereby produced setting the particles or
constituents of the materials in motion, whereby
10 said materials may be transferred in a conduit
from place to place, or may be graded according
to their speci?c gravities, sizes, etc. upon a suit
able screen or table.
,
>
My invention contemplates a vibrator of the
15 character stated having a high compression
stroke, whereby the reciprocating piston is cush
ioned and retarded at the end of each alternate
movement for rapid reversal of direction and re
sulting high frequency operation.
I
.
A further object is to maintain a substantially
constant ?ow of ?uid through the vibrator for
greater eiiiciency and economy.
‘I also contemplate the provision of means for
selectively varying the stroke of the vibrator for
25 unequal vibrations, to adjustably control and
provide relatively high vibrations in one and the
same direction.
.
Additional objects are to provide a device which
is simple and inexpensive, and which will‘ operate
30 at relatively low pressures with a minimum con
sumption of operating ?uid.
tion with the accompanying drawings, wherein:
Fig. 1 is an end elevational view of a high fre
quency vibrator embodying my invention;
and llb, the exponents being employed to desig
nate right and left hand relation with respect to
the center of the vibrator. At their inner ends,
the chambers lla and llb communicate with the
interior of the cylinder 2 by ports l2a and I2!)
respectively, said ports being spaced equidistant
_ longitudinally on either side of the central inlet
port Ill. The outer ends of the chambers respec
tively communicate with the interior of the cylin
der adjacent the ends thereof by ports I30, and
l3b.
‘
.
Fig. 2, a longitudinal section thereof taken on
the line II--II of Fig. 1;
Figs. 3, 4, 5 and 6, detail sections taken on the
40 respective lines III-J11, IV—IV, V-V and
VI--VI-of Fig. 2;
Fig. 7, a view similar to Fig. 2, showing a‘mod
i?ed form of my invention;
Fig. 8, a sectional view thereof, taken on the
45 line VIII-VIII of Fig. 7; and
Fig. 9, a detail sectional view taken on the line
IX—IX of Fig. 7.
Referring to thadrawings, and particularly to
Figs. 1 to 6 inclusive, 2 designates a cylinder hav
50 ing closure heads 3 and I secured thereto in any
suitable manner, as by bolts 5. An intake mani
20
A piston or plunger I4 is provided for recip
rocation within the cylinder, said plunger having
a central groove IS in the periphery thereof for
coaction with the ports I0, I21; and lZb, the
longitudinal dimension of the groove l5 being
such as to provide enclosing communication be-‘
tween the central port l0 and either of the said _
inner ports l2a and l2b, depending upon the right
or left hand location of the piston l4. Ilia and
l6b designate exhaust ‘ports in the cylinder 2 30
adjacent the ends thereof.
My invention may be more readily understood
from the following description, taken in connec
35
manifold has a central passage 8 in communi
cation with a ?uid inlet conduit 9 connecting
with any suitable source of supply of ?uid under
pressure, as for example, compressed air. l0
designates a central inlet port extending from
the passage 8 to the interior of the cylinder 2.
Extending longitudinally of the manifold 6 on '
either side of the central port 8, and out of direct
communication therewith, are ?uid chambers lla
'
-
The ends of the piston l4 are provided with
inclined passages "a and "b for establishing
communication with the ports I31; and l3b and
their respective ends of the cylinder. The said
inclined passages are cut diagonally through the
peripheral edges of the piston ends, opening
through the end faces and peripheral surface of
'the piston, as clearly shown in Figs‘. 2 and 5.
One end of the ‘piston I4 is drilled or formed 40
with a longitudinal bore l8, disposed eccentrically
of the longitudinal axis of said piston, for the
purpose of receiving a guidestud l9 secured in
the head 4 as by a threaded engagement 20. A
spring 2l surrounds the inner end of the stud l9, 45
and is seated in the bore. l8, and contacts an abut
ment 22 on‘the‘stud, said spring. being operable
in a manner hereinafter described. The function
of the guide I!) is to insure proper alinement of
the cooperating and registering ports in the pis 50
ton and cylinder, by preventing relative rotation
= fold 6 extends longitudinally of the cylinder and i of the said parts without interference with the
may comprise an integral part ‘thereof, or as
shown, may be separately formed and secured to
55 the cylinder walls as by bolts or screws ‘I. .This
reciprocation of the piston.
‘
i
It willv be understood that vibrations are pro
duced with my invention by a rapid reciprocation 55
'
2,119,285
2
of the piston, whereby the change of directional
movement of said piston causes alternating re
active forces to be imparted to the cylinder and to
the device to which said cylinder may be attached
or connected.
_
The operation of my invention is as follows.
With- the piston H in the left-hand end of the
cylinder 2, as in Fig. 2, the exhaust port ISD is
closed by the piston, and the said end of the
cylinder is in open communication with the pres
sure supply line 9 through piston passage i'lb,
port l3b, chamber Ill), and ports lZb, l0 and
inlet chamber 8, the ports I!) and I2?) being
or air at atmospheric pressure, but upon pro
viding su?icient piston area, I am enabled to pro
vide a compression cushioning in advance of the
limits of the cylinder which will effect a rapid
deceleration and reversal of the piston.
Vibrator operation without striking or ham
mering eliminates the attendant noise, and also
prevents upsetting of the metal of the piston and
cylinder which may result from striking contact
and cause injury to the parts. Likewise, it is
evident that the striking contact of piston and
cylinder must be accompanied by a low com
pression stroke, whereby the speed and frequency
connected by means of the groove IS in the pis- . of the vibrations will be less than that obtained
15 ton.
Hence, upon applying ?uid‘ from line 9,
. through any suitable valve, the applied pressure
by my invention.
' A further important feature of my invention
acts upon the left-hand head b of the piston, 'resides in the construction and relation of the
moving the same to the right. During this initial ?uid ports and passages to obtain maximum effi
ciency. As stated, the piston has a relatively
or impulse pressure or the beginning of the pis
20,
ton travel, the right-hand end of the piston is short stroke, which stroke in some constructions
subjected to atmospheric pressure due to the may be less than one-half of an inch in length,
whereby it becomes essential to construct the
open exhaust port lGa, whereby a rapid move
?uid passages in a particular manner in order to
ment is imparted to the piston.
obtain the said maximum efficiency of the oper
Upon traversing a distance equal to the lon
25
gitudinal width of the exhaust ports, the port ating ?uid.
To this end, I have provided the series of ports
|6a is closed by the piston and the port I6!) is
opened to the atmosphere. Likewise, this travel , l0, l2a, I2b, l3a, l3b, [6a and lGb of minimum
of the piston 14 closes the port l2b, cutting off width or dimension in a‘ direction longitudinally
of the cylinder 2 while maintaining their cross
the ?uid supply to the left-hand end of the cyl
sectional or ?ow areas substantially equal to that 30
inder. Under these conditions, the piston con
tinues its movement under the momentum of of the supply line 9, by extending said ports trans
versely of the cylinder in the form of slots. The
the applied impulse, until the body of ?uid en
closed in the right-hand end of the cylinder 2 is groove IS in the piston is also of minimum depth
compressed sufficiently to negative the force of and has a transverse dimension equal to that‘ of
momentum, whereby the piston is cushioned and its coacting ports "I, l2a and [2b, and by making
' the ?ow area of the chambers Ila. and llb also
stopped before striking the cylinder head 4.
During the momentum travel of the piston, the substantially equal to that of the supply line 9,
port l5 connects the ports I!) and [2a, whereby it will be ‘seen that I maintain a constant and
the right-hand end of the cylinder 2 is opened to maximum pressure ?ow through the vibrator cir 40
culating passages. The maximum dimension of
~10 the pressure in the supply line 9 through cham
ber H a, port Ba and passage I 1a of the piston. the said ports being transverse with respect to the
At the instant after the piston is cushioned as direction of movement of the piston, it is evident
that the ports are opened to capacity in the
above stated, it is caused to move in a reverse
direction under the pressure of the supply source shortest possible time interval.
By means of the aforesaid construction, my
acting upon the right-hand .piston head a, where
upon the operation is alternated from left to right improved vibrator utilizes the greatest amount
with exceptional rapidity. In moving the piston of available energy of the operating ?uid, by
I 4 from right to left, the other ports and ?uid providing for capacity as well as uniform ?ow
passages will be employed in a like manner, as therein. Since the ?ow area through the ports
and passages is substantially constant, there will
will be readily understood.
Attention is directed to the free or ?oating be a constant ?ow without undesirable expan
piston M which is operated without striking or slon and accompanying pressure losses. By so
utilizing the supplied ?uid, I am enabled to oper
hammering against the cylinder ends in the man
ner of many present pneumatic devices. This ate my invention at minimum pressures and at an
low rate of consumption of ?uid.
actionis due to the provision of a relatively high exceptionally
These factors, together with the cushioning re
compression stroke in my vibrator, whereby the
tardation and reversal of the piston, provide for
piston is retarded and reversed against and by extremely
high frequency operation at low cost.
means of a pressure ?uid cushion.
For example, I have successfully operated a vi
The measure or amplitude of vibrations to be
brator of the character herein set forth having 60
60 produced by vibrators of the character stated is
equal to the product of the reciprocating weight an 18-pound piston of 4% inches diameter, on
and the distance through which it moves. Hence, compressed air supplied at 50-90 pounds per
for a required amplitude, the weight and stroke square inch gage. The measured speed of said
of the piston may be suitably related by the vibrator was from '7000 to 10,000 strokes per min
ute, with a low consumption of air per minute.
This vibrator was found capable of carrying con
However, I have found that’extxeedingly in
creased efficiency may be obtained by providing siderably heavy loads when associated with a
vibrating screen or a conveyor conduit.
the piston of increased diameter, while maintain
The spring 2|, mounted on the stud 20, func
ing its weight at the desired amount, whereby the
increased area of the piston will provide su?icient tions to insure the proper positioning of the pis
compression pressure in advance of said piston ton [4 when inactive, by preventing said piston
to e?ect the proper cushioning retardation above from coming to rest in mid-center position. Said
spring further provides a means of unbalancing
referred to.
the
stroke of the piston by increasing the tension
It will be observed that the initial ‘portion of
_, the stroke of piston l4 takes place against ?uid thereof through adjustment of the screw stvd 20.
designer.
2
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'
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‘
2,119,285
Increasing the spring tension will provide for
vibrations of greater magnitude in one direction
than in the other by varying the speed of said
strokes.
'
I further contemplate a more sensitive and con
3
for various purposes, said vibrator being connect
ed with the device to be vibrated as by means
of the bolts 5 or any other suitable connecting
ormounting means whereby the vibrations may
be properly related as to their direction with re
sistently uniform control for unbalancing the
vibrations to produce greater vibratory impulses
spect to the purpose to be served.
in one direction than in the other, as is desir
able in the conveyance of materials by means
1. A vibrator including a cylinder and a pis
ton reciprocable therein, means for alternately
admitting ?uid to the ends of the cylinder in 10
cluding a pair of ?uid supply ports, a pair of
exhaust ports adjacent the ends of the cylinder,
said ports being in the form of transversely dis
posed slots having minimum dimension in the
direction of piston movement and coacting with‘
the piston to provide a short stroke and high
. of vibration. .One or both of the chambers Ha
and lib may be provided with a control valve
23 in the form of an apertured tapered plug hav
ing a projecting stem 24 threaded to receive a
tightening nut 25. A spring 26 is disposed be
tween the nut and the side wall of the manifold
6; whereby the proper tension maybe imparted
to the taper ?t of the valve or valves to main
tain the same in ?xed position without leakage.
‘Suitable handles or wrench faces may be pro—
vided on the valve stems for manual adjustment
thereof as desired. It will be seen that the ?ow
through the chambers I la and 1 lb may be varied
while the vibrator is in operation, whereby the
desired magnitude of unbalanced vibration may
be accurately provided by varying the angular
position of the valve apertures with respect to
the said chambers.
It will also be noted that by varying the ?ow
of ?uid to one or both ends of the cylinder, a
30 differential of speed may be obtained in the pis
ton travel as desired, whereby said piston travels
faster in one direction than in the other, and
thus sets up vibratory impulses of greater mag
nitude in one direction than in the other.
Figs. 7 to 9 inclusive illustrate a modi?ed form
of vmy invention, wherein the cylinder 2a is pro
vided with right and left hand inlet ports 21a
and 21?) connected with the supply line 9a through
adjustable control valves 23a and branch pipes
40 or conduits 28.
Exhaust ports Mia and lBb are
provided as, before._
7
The piston Ma is formed with angular end ports
29a and 29b‘ respectively coacting with the inlet
ports 21a and 21b to alternately admit ?uid from
45 the supply line to opposite ends of the cylinder?
Said ports are in the form of narrow transverse
I claim:
-
frequency piston movement.
~ 2. A vibrator including a cylinder and a piston‘
reciprocable therein, means for alternately ad
mitting ?uid to the ends of the cylinder includ
ing a pair of ?uid supply ports, a pair of exhaust
ports adjacent the ends of the cylinder, said ports
being in the form of transversely disposed slots
having minimum dimension in the direction of
piston movement and coacting with the piston to
provide a short stroke and high frequency piston
movement, the ?uid admission means having sub
stantially equal ?ow areas throughout.
3. A vibrator including a cylinder and a piston
reciprocable therein, means for alternately ad' 30
mitting ?uid to the ends of the cylinder include
ing a central inlet port to the cylinder, a pair
of ?uid chambers on either side of said central
port each havingv an inner port communicating
with the interior of the cylinder adjacent said
central port and an outer port communicating
with an end of the cylinder, the piston having
a central port for alternately connecting the cen
tral inlet port with said inner ports, said ports
and chambers having substantially equal ?ow
40
areas, a pair of exhaust ports adjacent the ends
of the cylinder, the central port andinner and
exhaust ports being in the form of transversely
disposed slots having minimum dimension in the
direction of piston movement and coacting with
the piston to provide a short stroke and high fre
'
_
slots'as before to provide equal ?ow areas for quency piston movement.
undiminished passage of the ?uid therethrough.
4. A vibrator including a cylinder and'a pis
As in the form of Figs. land 2, the piston Ma ton reciprocable therein, means for alternately
is of enlarged diameter to provide for a high admitting ?uid to the ends of the cylinder in
compression stroke in the manner set forth. The cluding an inlet port adjacent each end thereof,
operating ?uid will be alternately admitted to the piston having a port in each end thereof
the left and right hand ends of the cylinder to opening in its periphery and extending outward
reciprocate the piston and produce a vibrating 'ly in angular relation through the piston heads
55 action.
for direct communication with the ends of the
To insure proper registering alinement of the cylinder, the piston and inlet. ports having sub
ports in the cylinder and piston, the latter may stantially equal ?ow areas, a pair of exhaust
be provided with a longitudinal slot 30 tov receive ports adjacent the ends of the cylinder, all of
said ports being in the formof transversely dis
-a stud or key 3| mounted on the cylinder, where
69
by-the piston is prevented from, rotation rela
tive to its cylinder. See Fig. 9.
‘ posed slots having minimum dimension in the 60
the plunger 33 within its bushingout of engage
ment with the piston Ma. However, in the event
cluding a pair of ?uid ports controlled by the
piston, said ports being in the form of trans
versely disposed slots having minimum dimension
in the direction of movement of and in relation 70
to the stroke of the piston, the ?uid admission
direction of piston movement and coacting with
In place of the spring 2| of the form of Fig. 2, > the piston to provide a ‘short stroke and high fre
'
a starting button 32 may be provided in one of quency piston movement. '
5. A vibrator including a cylinder and a. piston
the cylinder heads, as in Fig. 7, said button hav
65 ing a plunger 33 slidable in a mounting bushing reciprocable therein, means for alternately
34 in said head. A spring 35 normally retracts‘ admitting ?uid to the ends of the cylinder in
the said piston comes to rest in dead center posi
70 tion, the operator may push the button 32, where
by its plunger 33 engages and moves the piston
into registering position for admission 'of ?uid
through ports 2'") and 29b to start the vibrator
75
in motion.
The vibrator of my invention may be employed
means having substantially equal ?ow areas ‘
throughout, an exhaust port adjacent each end
of the cylinder in the form of transverse slots hav
ing minimum dimension in the direction of piston 75
4
2,119,286
movement and controlled by the latter to permit
compression of ?uid in advance of the piston,
thus providing a pressure cushion e?ective to
retard and reverse the piston movement without
striking the ends of the cylinder, and providing a
short stroke and high frequency piston move
ment.
6. A vibrator including a cylinder, a free non
rotatable piston reciprocable therein, said cyl
10
20
inder having a fluid inlet port adjacent each
end thereof, the piston having end ports opening
in the periphery thereof to register with the inlet
ports and extending outwardly in angular rela
tion through the piston heads for direct com
munication with the end portions of the cyl
inder, the cylinder inlet ports and piston end
ports having substantially equal ?ow areas pre
venting pressure drop during communicating ?ow
therethrough, said cylinder also having exhaust
ports adjacent the ends thereof in direct com
munication with theinterior of the cylinder and
the atmosphere, means supplying ?uid to the
inlet ports, the passage of said ?uid to the piston
and cylinder being controlled by the movements
of the piston to alternately stroke the latter.
'7. A vibrator including a cylinder, a free non
rotatable piston reciprocable therein, means pro
viding a'central ?uid supply inlet port to the
cylinder and longitudinally extending ?uid
30 chambers on either side of said inlet port, each
chamber having an inner port communicating
with the interior of the cylinder adjacent the
inlet port and having an outer port communi
cating with an end of said cylinder, the piston
35 having an arcuate central groove extending with
in a portion only of its periphery for alternately
connecting the inlet port, with the said inner
ports, said inlet ports, ?uid chambers, inner
ports, and central piston groove having equal
40 ?ow areas preventing pressure drop during com
municating ?ow therethrough, said cylinder also
having exhaust ports adjacent the ends there
of controlled by the piston for direct communica
tion with the atmosphere.
8. A vibrator including a cylinder and a piston
reciprocable therein, means for alternately ad
mitting ?uid to the ends of the cylinder includ
ing a pair of ?uid supply ports, a pair of exhaust
ports adjacent the ends of the cylinder, said
ports being in the form of transversely disposed 1O
slots having minimum dimension in the direction
of piston movement and coacting with the piston
to provide a short stroke and high frequency
piston movement, and adjustable means for vary
ing the ?ow of ?uid to the ends of the cylinder
to vary the frequency of piston movement in
opposite directions.
9. A vibrator including a cylinder and a piston
reciprocable therein, means for alternately ad
mitting ?uid to the ends of the cylinder includ
ing a central inlet port to the cylinder, a pair of
?uid chambers on either side of said central port
each having an inner port communicating with
the interior of the cylinder adjacent said cen
tral port and an outer port communicating with >
an end of the cylinder, the piston having a central
port for alternately connecting‘ the central inlet
port with said inner ports, said ports and cham
bers having substantially equal ?ow areas, a
pair ofrexhaust ports adjacent the ends of the 3O
cylinder, the central port and inner and exhaust
ports being’ in the form of transversely disposed
slots having minimum dimension in the direc
tion of piston movement and coacting with'the
piston to provide a short stroke and high fre
quency piston movement, and adjustable means
for varying the ?ow of ?uid to the ends of the
cylinder to vary the frequency of piston move
ment in opposite directions.
THOMAS HUBBARD MORGAN.
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