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Патент USA US2119288

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May 31, 193s.v
G, RAYMOND
A
2,119,288
APPARATUS FOR TESTING GAS
Filed June 8, 1956
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Gwyn/7e Raymond
’ BY
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WATTORW
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Patented May 31, 1938
‘ 2,119,288
UNITED STATES
PATENT OFFICE "
2,119,288
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APPARATUS FOR TESTING GAS
Gwynne Raymondpoklahoma City, 0lrla., ‘as
. signor to Black, Sivalls & Bryson, Inc., Okla
homa City, Okla, a corporation of Maine~
.
Application June 8, 1936, Serial No. 84,130
7 Claims. (CI. 73-51)
' This invention relates to an apparatus for deé
termining liquid and solid matter entrained in
gas, as‘ for example the amount of oil remaining
in gas discharged from a separator, gasoline
5 scrubber, or similar equipment.
-
when devices are used at- a producing well to
separate gas from .oil, water, and substances that
are undesirable in gas, such equipment'should
remove all particles of oil spray or other. liquid
10 carried in the gas, and the separation should be‘
?ow is separated from the oil, water, and impuri: ‘
ties that may be contained in the ?ow. After
separation, the gas is carried oil. from the upper
end of. the separator through a‘ gas discharge
line 3, leading to a source of disposal.
'
In separation of this gas, the e?iciency ofsepa
ration may be ascertained by determining the
quantity of liquid oil spraycarried over with the gas,
and I have provided for catching the free liquid
oil, and- other suspended ‘material, by diverting a 10
accomplished without aid of temperature change portion of the gas ?ow through a ?ltering agency.
or appreciable change of pressuraso that the gas
Since the oil and gas are‘similar in constituents
discharged therefrom is' entirely free‘ from. oil, but different in phase or state, any temperature
water, and other impurities. If the equipment is ' change and/or pressure change will‘ e?ect. the
15 not operated e?lciently, much oil is lost by being ratio of the oil and gas content of the stream, 15
carried o? with the gas. For example, if a well that is,as the temperature increases and/or pres
is ?owing fifteen million cubic feet of gas per day sure decreases, oil will-pass to the gas state or.
and loosing six gallons of oil per million feet of condition, and as the temperature drops and/or
gas, the ‘loss in oil is over two barrels per day, pressure increases the gas begins changing to the
20 and while it will be noted that the loss in 011
oil phase.
Therefore, in order to determine ac- 20
represents an appreciable amount, it is very curately the amount of suspended oil left en
minute in proportion to the gas‘?ow“ Therefore, trainedby the gas, it is essential that the ?ltering
to accurately determine the amount of oil carried - operation be carried on under as nearly as pos
‘off with the gas, the measuring apparatus must‘ - sible the actual working conditions of the sepa
25 ,be one of precision, and operated with substan
-
tial care.
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It is, therefore, the principal object of
pres
, ent invention, to provide ‘for. accurately ascer
taining the tree liquids and‘ solids contained in
' 30 a gas stream' in a facile, manner.
It is also an‘ object of the invention to collect
any suspended material that might be contained.
in a gas stream concurrently with measuring. the
?ow volume of said stream.
35
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rator. ‘It is also necessary that the temperature, 25
pressure, and volume of gas ?owing from the
separator be determined concurrently with ?lter
ing of a measured sample of the ?ow. Hereto
fore this has been a difficult matter, but I have‘
provided a method wherein these calculations are 30
readily accomplished, as now to be described.
'
The gas discharge line 1 is drilled and tapped
as close to the separator as convenient, for ex
ample at 4, for the insertion of an intemaliy
In accomplishing these objects, I have provided threaded bushing 5. Threaded in the bushing is 35
improved details ‘of structure, the preferred. is a nipple 6, carrying a gate valve 1, having its
form of which is illustrated in the accompanying a discharge side provided with a ‘similar nipple 8
drawing wherein:
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that is connected to a stu?ing box I through a
- Fig.1 is sis-perspective view of, an oil and gas reducer ?tting It. The stu?lng box 9 is provided
40 separator equipped with my improved apparatus with an axial channel ll extending through an
for determining the _oil content of the gas stream externally threaded neck It, on which is threaded '
discharged therefro
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gland II for tightening a packing ring
Rig. 2v is'a longitudinal section through the al4’packing
about a draw-o?-tube i5.
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testing apparatus. -
45
"
Fig. 3, is a cross-section on the line 8-‘! o! Fig. 2.
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Fig. 4 is an enlarged detail section through
the inlet end of the filter element.
The draw-oil tube It is of suitable diameter
to he slid through an opening il‘ in the gland, 45
and through the packing ring it into the chan
nel.ll, and has a closed, rounded end l1 pro
vided with one or more inlet openings l8, ex
Pig. 5 is a detail section. particularly illus
50 trating the tube for diverting a portion of the tending through the wall of the tube-in the-man
ner of a Pitot tube. The opposite end of, the tube
gas stream into the testing apparatus. _
- I5 is connected by a union I! with a nipple 2|,
‘Referring more in detail to the drawing:
l designates a separator'which- is connected connected to the inlet side of a shut-off‘ valve 2|.
with the ?ow line I of ‘an oil well (not shown), The outlet side of_.the valve II is provided with .
55 and wherein the natural gas content of the well a nipple 22 that is screwed into the inlet‘ ?tting 55
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2,119,288
The removable head 23 of the casing 25 is pro
vided with a threaded opening 51 which aligns
with the axis of the ori?ce 54, to mount a nip
23 of a gas sampler 24, embodying the features
of the present invention.
The sampler 24 includes a cylindrical outer
casing 25, having a closed end 26 carrying the
inlet ?tting 23, and having its opposite end pro “
ple 58 that connects with the inlet side of a nee
dle valve 59, having its outlet side connected by
a nipple 50 with a back pressure chamber 61.
vided with an annular external ?ange 21, to
The back pressure chamber includes a cylin
which is connected a removable head 28, to close
that end of the cylinder as is clearly shown in
drical casing 62 having a threaded outer end 63
for mounting an ori?ce adapter cap 64 having
an ori?ce plate seat 55. Removably inserted in
be readily removed to allow removal of the head. the seat 65 is an ori?ce plate 66, having a criti-'
The ?tting 23 is ?xed to the end wall 25 of the - cal ?ow ori?ce 61 therein for regulating ?ow of
casing 25 in an internally threaded ‘?ange 30. gas from the back pressure chamber v6|. The
Fixed within a bore 3! of the ?tting is a tube 32, ori?ce plate 56 is removably retained in its seat
by a suitable fastening device 68. _
15
15 having one end aligning with the nipple 22, and
In order to obtain the temperature of the gas
its opposite end extending through a packing
within the casings 25 and 62, they are provided
recess 33 in the ?tting, and through an open
with wells 59 and ‘I3 in which thermometers ‘ii
ing 34 in the end wall that conforms in diam
and 12 are inserted to record the temperatures
eter with the opening of the ?ange 30. Posi
therein, as later described. The casings are
20 tioned in the packing recess is a packing ring
Fig. 2, the head 28 being secured to the ?ange
10 21 by suitable fastening devices 29, which may
also provided with pressure gauges ‘l3 and 14
respectively, wherew'ith pressure of the gas in
the chambers may be indicated.
The apparatus thus described may be sup
ported in aligned position within the valve 1
35 for encircling the tube 32, and to form a seal
for the end of a ?lter cartridge, later described.
Fixed to the inner face of the wall‘ 25 is a
25
?ange 35, having an internally threaded open
ing 31 aligning with the opening 34, and in which
is threadedly mounted a nipple 38, which carries
on a trestle 15, of any suitable construction.
The gas discharge line is also drilled and tapped
a casing 39 for the ?lter cartridge 40. The cas-'
ing 38 includes a sleeve 4i, of smaller diam
beyond the valve 1, as at 16, to provide for '
the insertion of a Pitot tube 11, or similar ap
eter than theinner diameter of the casing 25,‘
paratus, wherewith the ?ow volume of the gas 30
through the line 3 may be determined in a well
and of shorter length, to freely accommodate a.
head 42 for closing ,the end thereof. The head
42 is welded directly to one end of the sleeve 4!,
and has an internally threaded opening“ for
accommodating the nipple 38 to secure the car
known manner.
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In using an apparatus constructed as described,
the cylinder portion of the ?lter cartridge is
?lled with a quantity of ?lter material, such as
tridge casing concentrically within the casing
‘_ 25. The nipple 38, after being screwed into the
f head 42, is then ?nally welded therewith.
35
glass-wool, rock-wooLor the like, that is non
absorptive, after which the stopper is inserted
in the cartridge, and the cartridge containing the
Inserted within the opposite end of the sleeve
?ltering material is accurately weighed. The
weighed cartridge. is then inserted through the
is the v?lter cartridge 40, which preferably in
cludes a glass cylinder 45, having a reduced neck
46 at one end, of suitable diameter to freely
pass through the nipple 35 so that the end there;
of sealingly engages the packing ring 35. The
reduced portion of the cartridge also forms an
annular shoulder 41 to sealingly engage against
45
the packing ring 48 that is mounted _in the
40
open end of the casing 25, so that the neck there
40
of sets ‘against the packing rings 35 and 48.
The plate 43 is placed against the stopper 50,
and the stopper'is inserted in the open end of
the cartridge and clamped in position by apply
ing the nuts 53. The tube i5 is inserted through
the stui?ng box 9 and on into the pipe 3, through
the valve 1 which has been opened. The gland
recess of the head 42. The opposite end of the
?lter cartridge projects from the free open end
I3 is then tightened and the tube i5 is connected
of the sleeve 4|, and is provided with a bell ?ange
49 to receive a conical-shaped stopper 50. The _ to pipe 20 by the union 18. The tube i5 is marked
‘so that the aperture or apertures at the end ex
head 43 includes a ?at bar of substantially great
er length than the ‘diameter of the sleeve 4|, and tending into pipe 3 may be turned up-stream.
A portion of the gas stream is then diverted
has openings to engage over the threaded ends
of draw bolts 5| that are anchored in a ?'ange through the tube I5, valve 21, and through the
52 ?xed to the periphery of the sleeve 4|, the ?ltering material, into the interior of the casing
55 draw
25 where the pressure thereof is indicated by the
bolts 5i being provided with nuts 53 where
by the head may be drawn against the stopper gauge 13, and the temperature by the thermom
to wedge it ?uid tight within the belled end of eter ‘ll. Upon opening the needle valve 59, the
the filter cartridge. The head 43 is provided with gas will ?ow into the back pressure chamber and
through the ori?ce 51 of the plate 66. The rate 60
an opening 54 that communicates with the in
teriorof the cartridge through an aligning bore ‘of ?ow of gas through the tester is regulated
55 in the stopper 53. .
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- to pass the maximum amount of gas at a reason
It is thus apparent that when the stopper is
drawn in sealed engagement with. the open end
able low pressure drop across the ?ltering car
tridge. This is important because if the pressure
of the ?lter cartridge, the pressure applied by
drop acrossthe ?lter is great, ‘the high velocity
the nuts 53 also causes the cartridge to be tight
ly sealed against the packing ring 35, ‘and when
to
the nipple 33 of the shell 4| is screwed home in
35, the small end of the cartridge slides over tube,
32 and vseats against the packing ring 35.
Contained, within the ?lter cartridge is a ?l _
terlng material 55, preferably consisting of glass
>wool,-rock-wool, or similar material, that does
not vcause absorption of gases, but ‘which ?lters
from the gas all entrained liquids and solids.
of the gas passing through the ?lter will result in
“rivers" or small passageways being opened
through the ?ltering medium, and should this
occur practically all the ?ltering e?iciency would
be lost. The prmsure drop is determined by the 70
size of the tubing l5, cartridge 40 and the ori?ce
51, which are so proportioned that when the
cartridge 4| is packed‘in proper manner with glass
wool or the equivalent, the pressure drop will be
the desired amount. The temperature and pres- 75
a,1i'e,ase
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sure of the gas in the back pressure chamber is nite ?ow of. gas ‘through the ?ltering material,
indicated by the pressure- gauge ‘I4 and ther- - aback pressure chamber connected with said
inometer 12. The gas is allowed to ?ow through ?ow control means and having a gas outlet, an
the ?ltering medium for ade?nite length oi.’ time ori?ce plate controlling said outlet,‘ and means
during which time temperature and pressure of for determining temperature and pressure of the
gas in said back pressure chamber. I
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the gas is made of record. Likewise, the tempera
ture and pressure in the back pressure chamber is
also made of "record. Having the temperature
and pressurevof the ,gas in the back pressure
3. In an apparatus for determining the amount
of liquid and solid matter entrained in a gas in
cludiri'g avcasing having inlet and outlet connec
chamber, and knowing the size of the ori?ce 61, tions, a packing in the inlet connection, a car- 10
the ?ow volume of the gas passing through tridge containing shell oi’ smaller diameter than
the casing to provide an annular gas containing
the ?ltering medium is readily ascertained.
During taking of these recordings, the ?ow vol
chamber, means connecting the shell with the
ume through the delivery pipe 3 is also ascer
casing concentrically with the inlet connection, a
by the Pitot tube ‘I1. Thus the relative' gasket ring in the shell,v a ?ltering cartridge hav
15. tained
proportion of th'e'?ow through the ?ltering nie ing a reduced neck portion for engaging the pack
dium and the flow through the delivery pipe
nular seat engaging the gasket ring, afplug clos-- -
ing through .the ?ltering cartridge, is relieved of
ing the opposite end of-the?ltering cartridge
and having an outlet opening into.the chamber, '20
means connected with the shell for retaining the
20 any ‘entrained liquid which is trapped ‘on the
?ltering media. After the ?ow has continued
for a de?nite period vthe valve 2| is closed.
At the close of a run, valve ii is closed, and
the back pressure chamber is disconnected by re
26 moving bolts 29. ' The nuts 53 are then loosened
to allow the bar 13 to beswung aside, whereafter
the “cartridge 40 is removed. The ?ltering car.
tridge containing the ?ltering material is then
carefully weighed to ‘determine the change in
.80 weight, which represents the weight 0!» the ma
terial that has been ?ltered from that portion of
the gas stream that has‘been measured through
the ori?ce 61 for the recorded time interval.
Then, since the temperature and pressure at
which the ?ltered material was collected are
knowmand since the size of the ori?ce is known,
the volume of gas‘ ?owing through the ?ltering
device, corrected to maintain discharge gas con.
' ditions, can be readily calculated.
40
ing at the inlet connection and forming an an- '
may be readilycalculated. The gas, upon ?ow
With the
plug, means for admitting gas to the inlet con-v
nection, and means for discharging the gas. at
predeterminedsvelocities through the outlet con
nection.
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‘ 54. In an apparatus for determining the amount
25
of liquid and solid matter entrained in a gas in
cluding a casing having inlet and outlet connec
"tions, a packing in the inlet connection, a car
tridge containing shell of emaller diameter than
.the casing to provide an annular gas containing
chamber, means connecting the shell ‘with the -
casing concentrically with the inlet connection, a
gasket ring in the shell, a ?ltering cartridge hav
ing a reduced neck portion for engaging the
packing at. the inlet connection and forming an
annular seat engaging the gasket ring, a plug
closing theopposite end of the ?ltering cartridge
and having an outlet opening into the chamber,
weight of the entrained'oil, liquid, and solids that ‘ means connected with the shell for retaining the 40
have been removed fromthis volume of gas and
plug, means for admitting gas to the inlet con
with the total volume of gas ?owing from the nection, a back pressure chamber, valved means
separator known, the amount’ of oil“, liquid ‘and connecting the back pressure chamber with the
. solid matter passing with the gas from the separ outlet connection, and an ori?ce plate connected
with the back pressure‘chamber for discharging
0
s
45 rator is readily calculated.
It is thus apparent that the measurement of gas from the back pressure chamber.
5. In an apparatus ior determining the amount
.the respective ?ow volumes, temperatures and
of liquid and solid matter entrained in a gas in
pressures are taken simultaneously with the ?l
cluding an outer casing having inlet and outlet
tering out of the foreign material, so that calcu
connections, a cartridge in the casing including
lation
of
the
amount
of
oil
lost
in
extremely
large
50 gas volumes is exceptionally accurate.
a shell formed of material impervious to the pasWhat I claim. and desire to secure by Letters sage oi’ gas and having an inlet sealingly engag
ing with said inlet connection and having an out
I. In an apparatus of the character described, let at its opposite end, a ?ltering material in said
shell for trapping and retaining ‘any liquid and 55
55 a gas sampler including an outer casing, a car
I tridge removably supported in the casing vfor con
solid matter entrained in the gas. said cartridge
?ning a body of ?ltering material, means for pass-v being spaced from the walls of the outer casing
ing gas through the ?ltering material, means con-, to form a gas chamber, means for maintaining
Patent
is:
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nected with the casing for indicating tempera~ ‘ .a de?nite pressure in said chamber to maintain
60
ture'and pressure of the gas passed thi'ough the
a de?nite ?ow of gas through the ?ltering ma
?ltering material means associated with said
terial, and ,means connected with said outlet
sampler .for maintaining a, de?nite ?ow of gas . connection. for deterini
the volume of gas
through the ?ltering material, a back pressure passed through the ?ltering material.
chamber connected with the‘outlet side of the
cartridge, means controlling ?ow 01' gas vfrom
the back pressure chamber, and means indicating
temperature and pressure ‘of the gas in said back
' pressure chamber.
1
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2.' Juan apparatus'of the character described,
70 gas sampler including means for con?ning a body
of‘ ?ltering material, means for passing’, gas
through the ?ltering material,‘ means for indi
cating temperature - and pressure of, the gas
passed through the ?ltering“ material. means as
sociated vwith said sampler for maintaining a de?-.
6. Inan apparatus for determining the amount
or liquid and solid matter, contained in v{gas
including a casing having gas inlet and outlet
connections, a cartridge contained in said casing
' including a shell formed of material impervious -
to the
e or gas and having an inlet con
nected .‘with said inlet connection‘ and . a re
70
stricted. outlet opening to the interior of them
ing, a ?ltering material in the shell for
pping
and retaining the liqui_d___and solid.‘ tteren
trained-in gas delivered_throu'gh. said inlet eon
nectiommeans for controlling pressure oi’ gas in 16
4 7
v9a119,288
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said casing to maintain a de?nite ?ow of gas .cartridge, 9. back pressure chamber for receivins
through the ?ltering material, a back pressure the gas passed through said filtering cartridge
chamber connected with said control means and and having a ?xed ori?ce for the outlet of gas
having an ori?ce plate for controlling flow of gas from the back pressure chamber, nieans con
from the back pressure chamber, and means for nected with the back pressure chamber for in
indicating the pressures and temperatures of the dicating the pressure and temperature of the gas
gas passing through said outer casing and in passed through said chamber,‘ and means having
connection with the ?ltering cartridge for indl~
said back pressure chamber‘
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'7. In an apparatus of the character described, eating the temperatureand pressure of the gas
delivered from the ?ltering cartridge to the back in
10 a ?ltering cartridge, means for delivering gas to
the ?ltering cartridge, means for maintaining a
predetermined ?ow of gas through the ?ltering
pressure chamber.
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GWYNNE RAYMOND.
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