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Патент USA US2119305

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May 31, 1938.
E. F. ZAPARKA
2,1 19,305
SIMPLIFIED FLAP OPERATING MEANS
Original Filed June 12, 1953
4 Sheets-Sheet 1
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May 31, 1938.
2,1 19,305
E. F. ZAPARKA
‘SIMPLIFIED FLAP OPERATING MEANS
Original Filed June 12 , 1933
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May 31, 1938.v
E. F. ZAPARKA
2,119,305
SIMPLIFIED FLAP OPERATING MEANS
original Filed June 12, 1935
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4 Sheets-Sheet 3
May 31, 1938.
2,119,305
E. F. ZAPARKA
SIMPLIFIED FLAP OPERATING MEANS
Original Filed June 12, 1933
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Patented May 31, 1938
2,119,305
‘ UNITED STATES PATENT ‘OFFICE
2,119,205
‘
snurtmeo me orsaa'mwo MEANS
Edward F. Zaparka, Baltimore, Md., assignor to
Zap Development Corporation, Baltimore, Md.,
awcorporation of Delaware
Application June 12, 1933, Serial No. 675,486
Renewed December 19, 1936
.18 Claims. ' (Cl. 244-42)
My invention relates to means for operating
wing ?aps, and particularly relates to mecha
type of mechanism illustrated in Figures 1 to 5
nisms for supporting the wing ?ap in its posi- "
1 Fig. 10 Isa graph similar to that shown in
inclusive;
‘
Figure 9, but illustrative of the geometrical re
lationship of the parts in the type of ?ap illus
4 tions of extension and retraction.
In wing ?aps of the Zap type whether used on
airplane wings or control surfaces, it is desirable
that the trailing edge of the flap in positions of
extension and retraction shall lie substantially
directly below the trailing edge of the airfoil to
which they are ancillary. Another way of stat
ing this is that the trailing edge of the flap in' its
various positions of extension shall lie within
the locus of perpendiculars drawn to the datum
lines of the airfoil sections which pass through
trated in Figures 6 and 7.
’
airplane having a fuselage I, motor 2, a propeller
3 and wings 4.
The empennage surfaces, com- _
prising ‘rudder, stabilizer and elevator surfaces, 10
I have designated generally by the numeral 5.
Mounted above the trailing edge of the wings
4 are ailerons of the Zap type which I have desig
nated by the numeral 6. These are supported
on stream-lined aileron horns ‘I which are for 15
' 1- 5 the trailing edge of the airfoil.
An object of my invention is to provide a flap
wardly extended, as indicated at 8, to provide
supporting and operating means which is sturdy
room for housing operating parts for the wing
in construction and easy of repair and replace
?ap.
ment.
5
Referring to the drawings, I have shown an
'
'
‘
‘
‘I have also shown in Figure 1 streamlined
‘
housings 9 for the flap operating parts. These 20
streamlined housings 9 house the operating parts
for the ?aps at the stations most adjacent to the
substantially in the locus of perpendiculars drawn ' fuselage I. It may not always be necessary to
Another object of my invention is to provide
a flap supporting and operating means, which
will permit the trailing edge of the flap to lie
20
have such housings 9, as the ailerons 6 may be
made long enough so that the aileron horns ‘I will
serve entirely to house all of the operating
mechanism for the ?aps at all of the stations
to the datum lines of the airfoil sections which
25 pass through the trailing edge of the airfoil.
' A further object of my invention is to provide
wing flaps which are positive‘ in operation and
have few operating parts, and in which the
mechanisms for supporting and operating the
0 ?aps lie largely without the airstream passing
along the wing. The housings 9 are substan
tially of the shape indicated by the aileron horns
‘I; with their forward extensions 8. ‘ In the case
of the housings 9 the construction‘v will not’ be
extended to any marked degree above the‘level
of the upper surface 8. It will be noted’ that'in
Figure 3, because the aileron horn 1 supports an
over the surface of the airfoil.
In the drawings: '
Figure 1 is a top plan view of an airplane
equipped with wing flaps and Zap ailerons;
'
Fig. 2 isa detail view in perspective showing
the flap operating mechanism mounted on the
plane indicated in Figure 1;
Fig. 3 is a ‘detail view in side elevation of a
portion of the flap operating mechanism;
Fig. 4 is a sectional view taken along the line
40
4-4 of Figure 3, looking in the direction of the
aileron, it is necessary to extend the aileron horn
well above the upper surface 8 of the forward
35
arrows;
.
‘
Fig. 5 is a' sectional view taken along the line
5-75 of Figure 3, looking in the direction of
45 the arrows;
‘
Fig. 6 is a sectional view showing a portion of
- the operating mechanism of another type;
Fig. 7 is a view taken along the line 'I—'I of
50
Figure 6, looking in the direction of the arrows;
Fig. 8 is a view in side elevation which is some
what schematic, and shows another type of ?ap
operating mechanism;
Fig. 9 is a graph showing the geometrical re
55 lationship of the parts and of the flap in the
.
extension.
The wing ?aps I have designated by the nu
meral I0. They comprise a'smooth lower sur
face II and a corrugated upper surface I2. On
the corrugated upper surface I2 I have provided
supports I3 which are suitably riveted or other
wise attached to the upper corrugated surface
I2 of the flaps Ill. ‘
These supports I3 are provided with upwardly
extending ?anges It in which are'journaled stub
shafts I5. The stub shafts I5 are surrounded
by collars I6 to which are attached arms I‘! of
bell crank levers I8. The bell crank levers I8
have other arms I9, and there are bracing mem 50
bers 2| which brace the bell crank construction
and give it desirable rigidity with lightness. The
bell crank levers are pivoted to pivots 22 which
are supported on support members 23 which ex
tend above the upper wing surface 24’, as shown
~~~2
2,119,305
in Figure 3. Pivoted to the bell crank arms I8
at 24 are ?ap operating arms 35 which are
slightly bent, as indicated at 28, to permit of
their operation within .the confined space
provided.
-
.
Pivoted to pivots 31 on the supports 33 above
, mentioned are links 38 whose other ends are piv
wardly extending arms 48 of the bell cranks 44
are pivoted at II to ?ap operating rods 83 which
do not have to be bent as were the flap operating
rods 28. The ?ap operating rods 82 are pivoted
at 53 to the crank arms 33 previously described.
The ?anged support members 43 are riveted at
54 to ?anges 88 on ?anged support members 58
which are attached by bolts 51 to a rear wing
oted to pivots 23 in the front part of the support
members l3. The pivots 29 comprise stub shafts
spar 38. The shaft 34 is journaled at 59 in the
which pass from one of the supports l3 to the
upwardly projecting ?anges of ?anged supports
other, being journaled in the upwardly extend
ing parts l4 of the supports IS.
The ?ap operating arms 25 are pivoted at their
other ends 3| to pivots 32 which are supported
15. between crank‘arms 33 attached to a shaft 34.
88 and the crank arms 33 are adapted to rotate
10 ~
The shaft 34 is provided with a worm wheel 35
engaging a worm 36 on an operating shaft 3'!
which has a beveled gear 38 engaging another
beveled gear 39 which is mounted on a shaft 4
20 driven by a crank handle 42.
‘
By rotating the crank handle 42 the shaft 4|
between the upstanding ?anges of the ?anged
supports 56. The ?anged supports 56 are pro
vided with slots 8|, indicated in dotted lines in
Figure 6. The slots 6| are cut, in Figure 7, to 15
show the lower part of the slot which is formed
by cutting an aperture in the supports 56 and
bending out the edges as indicated in Figure 7.
Adapted to travel in the slots 6| are rollers or
slide members 62 which are carried on upstand
ing ?anges 83 of ?anged support members 84,
is rotated to rotate the beveled gear 38 which
which are attached to the upper corrugated ele
rotates beveled gear 39 and shaft 31. {The rota
ments of the wing ?aps. The crank arms 43 of
the bell cranks 44 are pivoted at 65 in the up
tion of shaft 31 is transmitted through the worm
25 36 to the worm wheel 35 to rotate the shaft 34.
This moves the aileron operating rods 25 either
forwardly or rearwardly.
When the aileron rods 25 are pulled forwardly
through the bell crank levers l8, the flaps are
30 pulled backwardly and shoved downwardly. The
links 28 and the bell cranks i8 are so proportioned
that the front edge of the ?aps shall remain sub
stantially level with the lower wing surface. The
trailing edges of the ?aps. lie substantially within
the locus of perpendiculars drawn to the datum
lines of the wing sections which pass through
the trailing edge of the wings.
This construction is light and sturdy, and gives
the desirable operative characteristics of the ?ap.
40 In the fully extended position of the ?ap the
parts assume the position shown in dotted lines
in Figure 3.
The ailerons 6 pivot on pivots 43 supported by
the aileron horns 1. The aileron horns ‘I, as be
fore described, have a forwardly extending upper
surface 8, and are streamlined as indicated, see
84.
>
' As in the case of all of the forms shown, the
bell crank members and operating rods may be
hollow so as to lighten the construction.
In the form shown in Figure 6, when the ?ap 30
operating rod 52 is pulled forwardly through ro
tation of the shaft 34 in a counterclockwise di
rection, looking at the mechanism from the di
rection in which the view in Figure 6 is taken, the
?ap is extended, as shown in dotted lines. The 35
front edge of the ?ap is retained approximately
in the plane of the lower surface of the wing and
slides forwardly on rollers or slide members 62 in
the tracks 6|. The bell crank connection ex
tends the tip of the ?ap downwardly so that it 40
shall lie approximately in the locus of perpen
diculars drawn to the datum lines of the wing
sections which pass through the trailing edge of
the wing. The mechanism described lies within
thev streamlined supporting horn construction de 45
scribed in connection with Figure 3.
'
Referring to Figure 9 I have shown diagram
forwardly projected portion of the aileron horns
matically the positions occupied by the trailing
edge of the ?ap with respect to angular move
1 permits space for the operation of the links and
The movement of the trailing edge of the- flap
in the form of invention just described, namely
that shown in Figures 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, is graphi
cally depicted in'Figure 9, where the bell crank
55 movement, the link movement andthe movement
> of the trailing edge of the ?ap is plainly indicated,
the position of the trailing edge of the flap being
indicated in terms of angular movement of the
'bell crank lever. It will be seen that the trailing
edge of the ?ap lies substantially within the locus
20
standing ?anges of .the ?anged support members 25
Figure 1 particularly. The space afforded by this
50 bell crank connections previously described.
10
ment in the form of device shown in Figures 1 to
5, inclusive, and likewise I have shown the movement of the trailing edge of the flap in the form
depicted in Figures 6 and 7 in Figure 10. It will
be'noticed that the length of linkages and other
factors can be regulated so that the trailing edge 55
of the flap in the positions of extension and re
traction lies in the de?ned locus which is the op.
timum position for the trailing edge of the ?ap.
In Figure 8 I have shown somewhat schemat
'ically'another type of linkage for the extension 60
of perpendiculars-drawn to the datum lines of of the flap. Here there is a flap operating rod 66
the wing sections which pass through the trail
which I have shown in dotted lines, which is piv
ing edge of the wing. Another way of saying this oted to the crank arms 33 of the shaft 34 at 61.
is that the trailing edge of the ?ap shall lie sub
The other end of the flap operating rod is pivoted
65 stantially directly below the trailing edge of the
at 68 to supports 69 attached to the upper surface 65
wing in all of its extended and retracted posi
of the flap l0. Attached to the upper surface of
the ?ap ID, at ‘H, is a link 12 which is pivoted at
In Figure 6 I have shown another form of hell 13 in the streamlined housing which comprises
crank movementfor operating the ?aps. Here the aileron horn ‘I. Pivoted at a considerable dis
70 there are bell cranks 44 having upwardly ex
tance from the flap and on the lower surface of 70
tions.
'
'
tending arms 45 and arms 46 with bracing mem
bers 41. The bell cranks 44 are pivoted on pivots
v48 on ?anged support members 49 carried within
the wing but projecting beyond 'the upper wing
75 surfaces, indicated clearly in Figure 6. The up
the wing, as indicated at 14, is a link 15 which is
pivoted near the rear of the flap, as indicated at
16, to the under surface of the flap. On rotating
the shaft 34 in a counterclockwise direction, look
ing at the parts from the direction in which the 75
3
2,119,305
view in Figure 8 is taken, the flap will be ex
tended, as indicated in dotted lines, and the link
12 will occupy its rear dotted line position, while
the link 15 will assume its dotted line position.
The position of the ?ap fully extended is indi
cated in dotted lines.
‘In this form the flap in its extended positions
arms attached to the flaps and the other of their
arms attached to the ‘?ap operating arms to
move the flaps, a portion of the bell crank levers
lying within the mounting means for the ailerons,
and links pivoted to the flaps in front of the point
of attachment of the bell cranks to ,the ?aps.
7. A ?ap operating mechanism comprising a
tends to have its trailing edge occupy the de?ned wing, a slide in the wing, a ?ap, means mounted
locus or optimum position ‘for the flap, but the on the ?ap and‘ projecting into the slide, an
approximation to a theoretically perfect posi . aileron, an aileron support located above the 10
tion is not as close as in the other forms shown.
wing, a bell crank lever having one arm attached
Parts are duplicated to give ‘desired support.
The type of aileron used is that described in
my co-pending applications Serial Nos. 653,918
and 657,134. Here the aileron is located" within
to the ?ap rearwardly of the ?rst named means,
said bell crank lying at least in part within the
aileron support, and means to operate the bell
the down?ow over the wing. It is to be appre
ciated, of course, that I am not bound to the
utilization of ‘this particular type of aileron ex
cept as I may impose speci?c limitations in some
of the claims.
8. A ?ap operating mechanism comprising a
wing, a slide in the wing, a ?ap whose trailing
edge in operative positions is adapted to lie ap
I claim:
-
1. An airplane construction comprising an
aileron, mounting means for the aileron above
the wing, a ?ap, and means for operating the
?ap located at least partially within the mount
ing means for the aileron.
,
crank lever.
‘
,
15'
proximately directly below the trailing edge of
the wing, means mounted on the flap and pro 20.
jecting into the slide, an aileron, an aileron sup
port located above the wing, a bell crank lever
having one arm attached to the ?ap rearwardly
of the ?rst named means, said bell crank lying
at least in part within the aileron support, and
means to operate the bell crank lever.
9.‘A ?ap operating mechanism comprising a
wing, a slide in the wing, a flap in operative posi
tion adapted to have its trailing edge lie sub
stantially within the locus of lines drawn per 30
30 above the wings having recesses therein for
pendicular to the datum line of the wing section
mounting the ailerons, flaps, and means for oper
ating the ?aps located at least partially within and passing through the trailing edge of the
wing, means mounted on the ?ap and projecting
the mounting means for the ailerons.
3. An airplane construction comprising a wing, ' into the slide, an aileron, an aileron support lo
an aileron, mounting means for the aileron above cated above the wing, a bell crank lever having 35
one arm attached to the flap rearwardly of the
the upper wing surface, a flap. adapted in posi
?rst named means, said bell crank lying at least
tions of extension and retraction to have its trail
in part within the aileron support, and means to
ing-edge approximately directly below the trail
ing edge of the wing, and means for operating operate the bell crank lever.
10. A ?ap operating mechanism comprising a 40
40 the ?ap located at least partially within the
wing, a slide in the wing, a ?ap, means mounted
mounting means for the aileron.
4. An airplane construction comprising wings on the ?ap and projecting into the slide, an
having down?ow thereover, ailerons operating at aileron, an aileron support located above the
least partially in the downflow, mounting means wing, a bell crank lever having one arm attached
to the ?ap rearwardly of the ?rst named means, 45
45 above the wings having recesses therein for
mounting the ailerons, flaps whose trailing edges a bracing member attached to the bell crank
in positions of extension and retraction are lever, said bell crank lying at least in part within
adapted to lie substantially within the locus of the aileron support, and means to operate the
'
pcrpendiculars drawn to the datum line of the bell crank lever.
11. A ?ap operating mechanism comprising a 50
50 wing‘ sections and passing through the trailing
edge of the wings, and means for operating the wing, a slide in the wing, a ?ap in operative posi
tion adapted to have its trailing edge lie substan
?aps located at least partially within the mount
tially within the locus of lines drawn perpendicu
ing means for the ailerons.
5. An airplane construction comprising wings, lar to the datum line of the wing section and
55 ?aps for each wing, an operating shaft, means to passing through the trailing edge of the wing, 55
rotate the operating shaft, crank arms carried means mounted on the ?ap and projecting into
by the operating shaft, ?ap operating arms the slide, an aileron, an aileron support located
adapted to be reciprocated by the crank arms, above the wing, a bell crank lever having one
arm attached to the flap rearwardly of the ?rst
ailerons operating at least partially in the down
named means,‘ a bracing member attached to the 60
60 ?ow over , the wings, mounting means for the
ailerons’ above the. wings and having recesses bell crank lever, said bell crank lying at least in
therein, bell crank levers having one of'their arms _ part within the aileron support, and means to
attached to the flaps and the other of their arms operate the bell crank lever.
12. In a flap operating mechanism, a wing, a
attached to the flap operating arms to move the
trailing edge ?ap, links pivoted beneath the wing
65 flaps, a portion of the bell crank levers lying
and above the flap upon which the ?ap is mounted
‘within the mounting means for the ailerons. '
6. An airplane construction‘comprising wings, for downward and rearward movement, one of
flaps for each wing, an operating shaft, means said links being pivoted to the ?ap‘ at a position
to rotate the operating shaft, crank arms carried forward of the pivot point of the other link to the
by the operating shaft, flap operating arms ?ap, said front link being sufficiently shorter than 70
adapted to be reciprocated by the crank arms, the rear link so that ‘the trailing edge of the flap
moves downward in a substantially straight line.
ailerons operating at least partially in the down
2. An airplane construction comprising, wing
having downfiow thereover, ailerons operating at
least‘ partially in the downflow, mounting means
?ow over the wings, mounting means for the
13. In a ?ap‘operating mechanism, a wing, a
ailerons above the wings and having recesses
trailing edge ?ap, links of different lengths
pivoted beneath the wing and above the ?ap upon 75
75 therein, bell crank levers having one of their
2,119,805
which the ?ap is mounted for rearward and
downward movement, the shorter of said links be
ing pivoted to the flap in a. position forward of
the pivot point of the longer link, said links so
proportioned that the trailing edge of the flap
moves downward in a substantially straight line.
14. In a flap operating mechanism, a wing, a
trailing edge flap, links pivoted beneath the wing
and above the flap upon which the ?ap is mounted
for rearward and downward movement, one of
said links being pivoted to the flap at a position
forward of the pivot point of the other link to the
?ap, said pivot points of the links to the flap be
. ing located on the top of the ?ap, said front link
15 being su?iciently shorter than the rear link so
that the trailing edge of the ?ap moves down
ward in a substantially straight line.
15. In a flap operating mechanism, a‘ wing, a
trailing edge ?ap, links of different lengths
pivoted beneath the wing and above the flap upon
which the ?ap is mounted for rearward and
downward movement, the shorter of said links
being pivoted to the ?ap in a position forward of
the pivot point of the longer link, said pivot
25 points of the links to the ?ap being located on the
top of the link, said links so proportioned that
the trailing edge of the flap moves downward in a
substantially straight line.
16. In a wing, an undersurface ?ap positioned
30 rearwardly of the center of the chord, links con
necting the ?ap with saic‘. wing, the upper ends
of the links being within the con?nes oi the wing
and out of the air stream, one of said links being
pivoted to the wing and to the ?ap at points
forward of the pivotpoint of the other link to
the wing and the flap and the rear link being
longer than the front link whereby the ?ap is
mounted for rearward and downward movement,
and means to operate the ?ap moving mecha
nism, said links being so proportioned that the
trailing edge of the ?ap moves downward in a
substantially straight line. ,
17. In a ?ap operating mechanism, a wing, a 10
?ap mounted at the lower rear side of the wing,
a bell crank lever supported by the wing, a flap
operating arm pivoted to one arm of the bell
crank, the other arm of the bell crank being
pivoted to the ?ap, and a link supported by the 15
wing at one end and pivoted to the flap at the
other, said link being sufficiently shorter than the
arm of the bell crank connected to the ?ap so that
the trailing edge of the flap moves downward in
a substantially straight line.
20
18. In a wing, an undersurface ?ap positioned
rearwardly of the center of the chord, links con
necting the ?ap with said wing, one of the links
being pivoted to the wing and to the flap at points
forward of the pivot point of the other link to the
wing and the ?ap and the rear link being longer
than the front link whereby the flap is mounted
for rearward and downward movement and
means’to operate the ?ap moving mechanism,
said links being so proportioned that the trailing 30
edge of the ?ap moves downward in a substan
tially straight line.
-
EDWARD F. ZAPARKA.
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