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Патент USA US2119338

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May 31,1938.
'
BEMILLS
‘
2,119,338
APPARATUS FOR CONDITIONING AIR
Filed Sept. 24, 1934
2 Sheets-Sheet l
May 31, 1938.
B. E. MILLS
2,119,338
APPARATUS FOR CONDITIONING AIR
Filed Sept. 24, 1934
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
2,119,33t
PAATUS lFiHiR ECQNDII‘EEUUG R
a n. Mills, carries, llllL, assignor it li/iillis
’
Novelty il‘oinpany, @hicago, iii, a corporation v
of llilinois
application September 24, 19341, Serial No. 'ii5,li‘i5
t illlaims. (ill. 62-915)
This invention relates to an improved appa
ratus for conditioning air, and particularly to
an apparatus for cooling, and regulating the
moisture content of, the air to be treated, by the
5 use of a solidi?ed refrigerant such as carbon
embodying the improved air conditioning appa
ratus, portions of the front wall of the_cabinet
being broken away to show the construction of
the cooling tubes and the liquid level adjusting
mechanism;
Fig. 2 is a top plan view of vthe cabinet, the
“One of the important objects of the invention j top wall of the cabinet being broken away to
is to provide an apparatus for emciently utilizing show the construction of the inner top wall;
a refrigerant, such as solidi?ed carbon dioxide. ' I Fig. 3 is a horizontal section through the cabi
net taken on line 3-3 of Fig. l; and
10 for the cooling of air ‘in o?ices and similar places
Fig. 4 is a vertical section through the cabinet
where it would not be practical or feasible to use
a costly compressor-condenser type of refriger
taken on lined-t of Fig. 1.
ating equipment.
‘
Referring to the drawings in detail, the appa
Another object of the invention is to provide ratus in the embodiment shown is embodied in
a double walled cabinet consisting of a rectangu
15 an air conditioning apparatus wherein a mass
of solidi?ed refrigerant, such as carbon dioxide, lar base 5, a pair of spaced front walls 5 and
is efficiently utilized to cool the air through the ‘I, a similar pair of spaced back walls t and t,
provision of a plurality of air‘ ?ow tubes which side walls I i and i2 extending between the inner
pair of walls ‘i and 9, and outer side walls l3
are submerged in a body of liquid which is main
and I4 extending between walls 6 and t and
tained
in
contact
with
the
mass
of
refrigerant,
2O
the liquid, by reason of its complete contact with spaced from walls I I and I2, respectively. The
the exterior surfaces of said tubes, providing an space between‘ the inner and outer vertical walls
of the cabinet is ?lled with a body of insulating
almost perfect medium for transfer of heat be
tween the walls of the tubes and the mass of ‘material I5 such as Dry Zero, or the like. The
dioxide.
2
'
,
refrigerant.
‘
,
'
thereby reducing the humidity. of the air in the
.room as well as cooling the same to a comfortable
degree.
A further objectpof the invention is to arrange
the cooling tubes in such position that the mois
ture forming therein will be‘drained from the
tubes and automatically removed from the path
40
‘
-
type speci?ed, means for regulating the exwnt
to which the mass of refrigerant is immersed
in the body of liquid, thereby adapting the ap
paratus to variations in the rate of 'cooling, de
pending‘ upon the volume of air being treated.
Other objects and advantages of the‘inven
tion will be apparent from the following detailed
description taken in connection with the ac
50 companying drawings wherein I have shown the
preferred form in which I have thus far con
templated applying the principles of ‘the inven
.
'
Referring to the drawings:
55
20
,
rectly on base 5, is closed by a pair of metal walls
it and ii, the space between these walls being
similarly ?lled with a body of insulating mate
rial it.-
'
.
1
The several walls of the cabinet are suitably
joined to form liquid-tight joints, and the‘upper
edge portions of the inner vertical walls are.
?anged outwardly as indicated at it, these.
?anged portions being either welded or riveted to the adjacent upper edge portions of the outer
walls. The packing of insulating material is‘ thus
completely enclosed and serves to e?ectively pre-'
vent transmission of heat to the interior of the
.cabinet.
A still ‘further object of the invention is to
provide in an air conditioning, apparatus of the
tion.
15
bottom of the cabinet, which is supported di
'
Another object, of the invention is to provide
a cooling apparatus of the character set forth
in which the cooling tubes through which the air
is circulated are arrangedyto operate as con
30 densers for removing moisture from the air dur
ing the course of its passage through the tubes,
of air ?ow.
Ni
'
'
In accordance with my invention I provide 40
in the cooling cabinet a plurality of air flow
tubes 2i which are preferably formed of sheet
metal. As shown in Fig. 4, these tubes extend
between walls ‘I and 9, the ends of the tubes
being welded as indicated‘ at 22 to the circum
45
ferential edges of openings which are formed
in walls ‘I and 9 to receive the ends of the tubes.
The portions of the outer vertical front wall 6
which register with the ends of tubes 2| are cut
away to provide openings 23, and the lower por?
tion of back wall
2| is cut away to
is riveted at 20
through tubes 2|
8 opposite the bank of tubes
receive a fan jacket 24 which
to wall 8. Airv is circulated
by a fan 25 which is driven
Fig. 1 is a front elevational ‘view of a cabinet - by an electric motor 26, the latter being remov- ‘
to
2,119,338
ably secured by a series of bolts 21 -to casing
24, said casing being provided with openings 28
through which air may pass to the tubes 2|. If
preferred, the blower unit consisting of ~fan 25
and motor 28 may be made entirely separate
from the cabinet. In fact an ordinary electric
fan may be used for this purpose by merely plac
ing it opposite the tube openings in rear walls
8 and 3.
" 10
‘
.
The apparatus is designed to cool the air dur
ing its passage through tubes 2| under the ac
tion of fan 25. In the embodiment shown I
employ a mass of solidi?ed carbon dioxide 28
which is supported in the cabinet above tubes
15 2| ‘on a screen 3|, the latter being supported in
_ the cabinet on a pair of angle bars 32 and 33
20
which are secured to walls 1 and 9, respectively.
In accordance with one of the important fea
tures of the invention, the mass of solidi?ed car
locking position against the front wall as shown
in Fig. 2.
.
By locating the vent tube 35 at the top of the
refrigerant chamber (the space defined by walls
9, top 36, and screen 3|) , and keeping the latter
covered, a ‘blanket of vaporized carbon dioxide is
constantly maintained around the entire body of
unmelted refrigerant, insulating the same from
‘such heat as may ?nd its way to the inner walls 9.
At the same time, the excess (and least cold) 10
carbon dioxide is allowed to ?ow o?, while the
colder portion of the carbon-dioxide blanket, re
mains in the chamber.
By maintaining the body of solid refrigerant
completely above and spaced from, the air tubes 15
2| , it is possible to use solid cakes of the refrig-q
erant of large enough size to fill the refrigerant
chamber, and the conduction of heat thereto
from all of the tubes 2|, will be uniform. This
bon dioxideor dry ice 29, instead of being placed is of particular importance in connection v‘with
in direct contact with tubes 2|, is supported in the use of carbon-dioxide ice, because of the 20
the upper portion of the cabinet, as shown in‘ great difference between the vaporizing tempera
Figs. 1 and 4, and a path for ?ow of heat from ture of the latter and the temperature to which
the walls of tubes 2| to the mass of refrigerant the air is to be cooled. It is undesirable to have
is provided by a body of liquid 34 which extends direct contact between the, air-?ow tubes and the
from the bottom of the cabinet to level slightly solid refrigerant. Maximum cooling e?iciency 25
above screen 3|. The purpose of this liquid is can be_obtained by cooling all of the tubes to
to provide for a more perfect path for flow of uniform'temperature, keeping the body of solid
heat through the walls of tubes 2| to the mass refrigerant insulated from heat absorption by the
of refrigerant than would be obtainable if the enveloping blanket of carbon-dioxide gas above
30
refrigerant were simply placed in direct contact it
and on 'all- sides, and limiting its heat absorp
with the exterior-walls of said, tubes. In the tion to the contact'of its bottom with the liquid
case where dry ice is employed as' the refrigerant, which
carries the heat uniformly 'from all of the
I find that denatured alcohol is a suitable liquid. tubes.
35 to use for this purpose.
In general it may be
‘said that the liquidused must be one which
has a freezing point'below the melting point of
the particular refrigerant employed. Also the
liquid should be one in which the refrigerant will
readily dissolve.
,
_
An apparatus of this type, which uses an ex
pendable refrigerant, must necessarily be de
signed to operate for a period of several hours,
or possibly a day, without requiring replenish
ment of the refrigerant. In thev embodiment
shown, in which the apparatus is especially de
signed for the use of dry ice, I find that most
eillcientuse of the refrigerant is obtained by
adjusting the level of liquid 34 so'that it has _
but very slight contact with the mass of re
frigerant, it being noted from Figs. 1 and 4 that
the surface of the liquid 34 is but slightly abovev
screen 3|. As previously explained, the bodyof
Means for varying the extent of immersion 35
of the mass of dry ice 23 in the liquid 34 is pro
vided-whereby to regulate the container, to the
cooling of a greater or less volume of air as may
be desired. In the embodiment shown I provide .
for this adjustment through the use of a liquid 40
displacement panel 43 which is suspended adja~
cent a side wall of the cabinet by a pair of cables
44 which are wound upon a shaft 45, the latter
being positioned near the top of the cabinet and
journalled at its opposite ends in walls 1 and 9.
Shaft 45 is provided at one end with a worm
wheel 46 which meshes with worm\ gear 41, the
latter being mounted on a crank 48 which pro
jects from the side wall of thecabinet. By turn
ing crank 48, panel (43 may be raised or lowered
in the body of liquid 34, thereby changing the
liquid level to regulate the extent of immersion
of the mass of dry ice 29. If air is being circu
lated through tubes 2| at a comparatively
rapid rate, it may be desired to have the mass
of refrigerant 29 immersed'to a considerable ex
“ mass of refrigerant immersed in the liquid.
tent in liquid 34. On the other hand, if the‘
At ordinary pressures solidi?ed carbon dioxide ' cooling
demand is comparatively light, panel 43
vaporizes without passing through the intenne
may be raised to produce a correspondingly lower
diate liquid stage. The carbon dioxide gas is re— liquid
level and a consequent lessening in the 60
moved from the cabinet through a vent pipe 35
which is positioned in the upper portion of the rate at which" the refrigerant is expended.
I find that by cooling the air through the use
rear wall of the cabinet. The top of the cabinet of tubes 2| in the manner described I am able
is closed by a sheet metal cover plate 36, and an
to likewise control the relative humidity of the
65 inner cover plate 31, formed of suitable insu
air, thereby preventing an oppressive increase in 65
lating material, is provided for sealing the re
the moisture content of the air upon a lowering
frigerant compartment, this cover being pro
in the temperature. It, will be apparent from.
vided at its rear edge with a pair of cleats 39
Figs. 1 and 4 that the use of a plurality of tubes
which are received in sockets formed in the rear 2| arranged as shown, provides a very large sur
wall of the cabinet. The. front edge of cover 31 face which the air may contact during its pas
is provided with sliding latch members 41 which sage through the cabinet. As the temperature 70
are secured in position by channel strips 42. The
cover 31 is locked in position by inserting cleats of the air falls, the saturation point for the lower
temperature is reached, with resultant condensa
39 in the rear cabinet wall after which the slid
tion of moisture on the walls of tubes 2|. I find
75. ing latch members 4| are moved outwardly into that this condensation is su?icient to prevent the
liquid serves as a cooling bath for extracting heat
55 from the walls of tubes 2| , and it is usually un
necessary to have any substantial portion of the
75
aliases
air from becoming excessively humid even where
the temperature drop is as much as 40° F. In
order to remove the ‘ condensed moisture from
tubes 2| I arrange the latter in inclined position
as shown in Fig. 4. With the tubes in this posi
tion the moisture will drain toward the forward
ends of the tubes, and will then ?ow downwardly
along wall ‘I into a drip pan 49, which is placed
; below the cabinet. The condensed moisture is
10 thus automatically removed from the path of air
?ow and I am able to keep the air comparatively
dry regardless of the temperature to which it is
cooled.
The invention provides a cooling unit which is
15 comparatively cheap in that it does not require
the use of the costly compressor-condenser mech-"
anism. which is used in mechanical refrigerating
apparatus. It ?nds an important ?eld of use in
the cooling of o?‘ices and similar places which
20 perhaps would require air conditioning only for
a comparatively short time during the summer
_ months.
25
Under such conditions the outlay re
means for regulating the extent of
the refrigerant in said liquid.
4. Air conditioning apparatus
ersicn oi
comprising,
in combination, a cabinet, a. plurality of air ?ow
tubes extending transversely through said cabi
net near the bottom thereof, the lower portion of
the cabinet enclosing said tubes being adapted
to hold a body of liquid extending to a level above
the uppermost of the tubes, and means for sup
porting a mass of solid carbon dioxide in the cab 10
inet spaced above the uppermost of said tubes
and in position to be partially submerged by the
liquid contained in the lower portion of the cabi
net.
5. Air conditioning apparatus comprising, in 15
combination, a cabinet,..: plurality of air ?ow
tubes extending transversely through said cabi
net near the bottom thereof, the lower portion
of the cabinet enclosing said tubes being adapted
to hold a body of liquid extending to a level above 20
the uppermost of the tubes, means for support
ing a mass of solid carbon dioxide in the cabi
quiredl for a mechanical refrigerating unit would
net spaced above the uppermost of said tubes and
be prohibitive.
in position to be partially submerged by the liquid
'
The foregoing detailed description has been
given for clearness' of understanding only, and
contained in the lower portion of the cabinet, and 25
means for circulating the air to be treated _
no unnecessary limitations should be understood through said tubes.
6. Air conditioning apparatus comprising a .re
therefrom, but the appended claims should be
construed as broadly as permissible in view of ceptacle having a plurality of air flow tubes ex
30 the prior art.
tending transversely therethrough, means ‘for 30
.
What I regard as new and desire to secure by
supporting a mass of solid carbon dioxide in said
receptacle spaced out of contact with said tubes,
1. Air conditioning apparatus comprising, in .. a body of liquid disposed in said receptacle around
combination, a cabinet, a plurality of air ?ow the tubes and in contact with a portion of the
35 tubes extending transversely through said cabi-. vmass of refrigerant, the freezing point of said
net near the bottom thereof, the lower'portion liquid being below the melting point of the re
of the cabinet enclosing said tubes being adapted frigerant, and means for circulating the air to
to hold a body of liquid extending to a level above be treated through said tubes.
7. Air-conditioning apparatus comprising: a
the uppermost of the tubes, means for supporting
a mass of a solidi?ed refrigerant in the cabinet cabinet, a plurality of air-?ow tubes extending 40
above said tubes and in position to be partially transversely through the lower regionv of said
submerged by the liquid contained in the lower cabinet, a refrigerant chamber being formed
Letters Patent is:
r
' portion of the cabinet, and means for regulat
lng'the extent of immersion of the mass of re
frigerant in said liquid.
'
2. Air conditioning apparatus comprising, in
‘combination, a cabinet, a plurality of air ?ow
tubes extending transversely through said cabi
net near the bottom thereof, the vlower portion of
the cabinet enclosing said tubes being‘ adapted
50 to hold a. body of liquid extending to a level above
above said tubes, said chamber being closed on
all sides and at the top, and of such dimensions
as to receive a. mass of carbon-dioxide ice and
provide a closed space around all sides of and
above said mass, means'to support said mass
above and out of contact with, said tubes, and
means for withdrawing the vapor, resulting‘from,
vaporization of said mass, from the upper region 50
of said chamber, the region of said cabinet below
said chamber being adapted to hold a body of
ing a. mass of a solidi?ed refrigerant in the cabi- 1 liquid extending to a level in contact with the
bottom of said mass, forming the bottom of said
net above said tubes and in position to be par
tially submerged by the liquid contained in the closed space in which said vapor is con?ned in 55
.55
the form of an insulating blanket enveloping all '
lower portion of the cabinet, and means com
sides or‘ said mass except its bottom.
prising a vertically movable ?uid displacing mem
8. Air conditioning apparatus comprising, in
her for varying the level of liquid in the cabinet
whereby to regulate the extent of immersion of combination, a cabinet, a plurality. of air ?ow
tubes extending transversely through said cabi
60 said mass of refrigerant in the liquid.
3. Air' conditioning apparatus comprising a re
net near the bottom thereof, the lower portion or
the cabinet enclosing said tubes being adapted
' ceptacle having a plurality of air ?ow tubes ex
tending transversely therethrough; means for to hold a body of liquid extending to a level above
the uppermost of the tubes, means for support,
supporting a mass of a solidi?ed refrigerant in
65 said receptacle above said tubes, a body of liquid
disposed in said receptacle around the tubes and
the uppermost of the tubes, and means for sup
porting a mass of solid carbon dioxide in the cab 65
inet spaced out of contact with said tubes and in
in contact with a portion of the mass of refrig
position to be partially submerged by the liquid
erant, the freezing point of said liquid being be
low the melting point 'of the refrigerant, and
contained in the lower portion or the cabinet.
BERT E. MILLS.
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