Патент USA US2119338код для вставки
May 31,1938. ' BEMILLS ‘ 2,119,338 APPARATUS FOR CONDITIONING AIR Filed Sept. 24, 1934 2 Sheets-Sheet l May 31, 1938. B. E. MILLS 2,119,338 APPARATUS FOR CONDITIONING AIR Filed Sept. 24, 1934 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 2,119,33t PAATUS lFiHiR ECQNDII‘EEUUG R a n. Mills, carries, llllL, assignor it li/iillis ’ Novelty il‘oinpany, @hicago, iii, a corporation v of llilinois application September 24, 19341, Serial No. 'ii5,li‘i5 t illlaims. (ill. 62-915) This invention relates to an improved appa ratus for conditioning air, and particularly to an apparatus for cooling, and regulating the moisture content of, the air to be treated, by the 5 use of a solidi?ed refrigerant such as carbon embodying the improved air conditioning appa ratus, portions of the front wall of the_cabinet being broken away to show the construction of the cooling tubes and the liquid level adjusting mechanism; Fig. 2 is a top plan view of vthe cabinet, the “One of the important objects of the invention j top wall of the cabinet being broken away to is to provide an apparatus for emciently utilizing show the construction of the inner top wall; a refrigerant, such as solidi?ed carbon dioxide. ' I Fig. 3 is a horizontal section through the cabi net taken on line 3-3 of Fig. l; and 10 for the cooling of air ‘in o?ices and similar places Fig. 4 is a vertical section through the cabinet where it would not be practical or feasible to use a costly compressor-condenser type of refriger taken on lined-t of Fig. 1. ating equipment. ‘ Referring to the drawings in detail, the appa Another object of the invention is to provide ratus in the embodiment shown is embodied in a double walled cabinet consisting of a rectangu 15 an air conditioning apparatus wherein a mass of solidi?ed refrigerant, such as carbon dioxide, lar base 5, a pair of spaced front walls 5 and is efficiently utilized to cool the air through the ‘I, a similar pair of spaced back walls t and t, provision of a plurality of air‘ ?ow tubes which side walls I i and i2 extending between the inner pair of walls ‘i and 9, and outer side walls l3 are submerged in a body of liquid which is main and I4 extending between walls 6 and t and tained in contact with the mass of refrigerant, 2O the liquid, by reason of its complete contact with spaced from walls I I and I2, respectively. The the exterior surfaces of said tubes, providing an space between‘ the inner and outer vertical walls of the cabinet is ?lled with a body of insulating almost perfect medium for transfer of heat be tween the walls of the tubes and the mass of ‘material I5 such as Dry Zero, or the like. The dioxide. 2 ' , refrigerant. ‘ , ' thereby reducing the humidity. of the air in the .room as well as cooling the same to a comfortable degree. A further objectpof the invention is to arrange the cooling tubes in such position that the mois ture forming therein will be‘drained from the tubes and automatically removed from the path 40 ‘ - type speci?ed, means for regulating the exwnt to which the mass of refrigerant is immersed in the body of liquid, thereby adapting the ap paratus to variations in the rate of 'cooling, de pending‘ upon the volume of air being treated. Other objects and advantages of the‘inven tion will be apparent from the following detailed description taken in connection with the ac 50 companying drawings wherein I have shown the preferred form in which I have thus far con templated applying the principles of ‘the inven . ' Referring to the drawings: 55 20 , rectly on base 5, is closed by a pair of metal walls it and ii, the space between these walls being similarly ?lled with a body of insulating mate rial it.- ' . 1 The several walls of the cabinet are suitably joined to form liquid-tight joints, and the‘upper edge portions of the inner vertical walls are. ?anged outwardly as indicated at it, these. ?anged portions being either welded or riveted to the adjacent upper edge portions of the outer walls. The packing of insulating material is‘ thus completely enclosed and serves to e?ectively pre-' vent transmission of heat to the interior of the .cabinet. A still ‘further object of the invention is to provide in an air conditioning, apparatus of the tion. 15 bottom of the cabinet, which is supported di ' Another object, of the invention is to provide a cooling apparatus of the character set forth in which the cooling tubes through which the air is circulated are arrangedyto operate as con 30 densers for removing moisture from the air dur ing the course of its passage through the tubes, of air ?ow. Ni ' ' In accordance with my invention I provide 40 in the cooling cabinet a plurality of air flow tubes 2i which are preferably formed of sheet metal. As shown in Fig. 4, these tubes extend between walls ‘I and 9, the ends of the tubes being welded as indicated‘ at 22 to the circum 45 ferential edges of openings which are formed in walls ‘I and 9 to receive the ends of the tubes. The portions of the outer vertical front wall 6 which register with the ends of tubes 2| are cut away to provide openings 23, and the lower por? tion of back wall 2| is cut away to is riveted at 20 through tubes 2| 8 opposite the bank of tubes receive a fan jacket 24 which to wall 8. Airv is circulated by a fan 25 which is driven Fig. 1 is a front elevational ‘view of a cabinet - by an electric motor 26, the latter being remov- ‘ to 2,119,338 ably secured by a series of bolts 21 -to casing 24, said casing being provided with openings 28 through which air may pass to the tubes 2|. If preferred, the blower unit consisting of ~fan 25 and motor 28 may be made entirely separate from the cabinet. In fact an ordinary electric fan may be used for this purpose by merely plac ing it opposite the tube openings in rear walls 8 and 3. " 10 ‘ . The apparatus is designed to cool the air dur ing its passage through tubes 2| under the ac tion of fan 25. In the embodiment shown I employ a mass of solidi?ed carbon dioxide 28 which is supported in the cabinet above tubes 15 2| ‘on a screen 3|, the latter being supported in _ the cabinet on a pair of angle bars 32 and 33 20 which are secured to walls 1 and 9, respectively. In accordance with one of the important fea tures of the invention, the mass of solidi?ed car locking position against the front wall as shown in Fig. 2. . By locating the vent tube 35 at the top of the refrigerant chamber (the space defined by walls 9, top 36, and screen 3|) , and keeping the latter covered, a ‘blanket of vaporized carbon dioxide is constantly maintained around the entire body of unmelted refrigerant, insulating the same from ‘such heat as may ?nd its way to the inner walls 9. At the same time, the excess (and least cold) 10 carbon dioxide is allowed to ?ow o?, while the colder portion of the carbon-dioxide blanket, re mains in the chamber. By maintaining the body of solid refrigerant completely above and spaced from, the air tubes 15 2| , it is possible to use solid cakes of the refrig-q erant of large enough size to fill the refrigerant chamber, and the conduction of heat thereto from all of the tubes 2|, will be uniform. This bon dioxideor dry ice 29, instead of being placed is of particular importance in connection v‘with in direct contact with tubes 2|, is supported in the use of carbon-dioxide ice, because of the 20 the upper portion of the cabinet, as shown in‘ great difference between the vaporizing tempera Figs. 1 and 4, and a path for ?ow of heat from ture of the latter and the temperature to which the walls of tubes 2| to the mass of refrigerant the air is to be cooled. It is undesirable to have is provided by a body of liquid 34 which extends direct contact between the, air-?ow tubes and the from the bottom of the cabinet to level slightly solid refrigerant. Maximum cooling e?iciency 25 above screen 3|. The purpose of this liquid is can be_obtained by cooling all of the tubes to to provide for a more perfect path for flow of uniform'temperature, keeping the body of solid heat through the walls of tubes 2| to the mass refrigerant insulated from heat absorption by the of refrigerant than would be obtainable if the enveloping blanket of carbon-dioxide gas above 30 refrigerant were simply placed in direct contact it and on 'all- sides, and limiting its heat absorp with the exterior-walls of said, tubes. In the tion to the contact'of its bottom with the liquid case where dry ice is employed as' the refrigerant, which carries the heat uniformly 'from all of the I find that denatured alcohol is a suitable liquid. tubes. 35 to use for this purpose. In general it may be ‘said that the liquidused must be one which has a freezing point'below the melting point of the particular refrigerant employed. Also the liquid should be one in which the refrigerant will readily dissolve. , _ An apparatus of this type, which uses an ex pendable refrigerant, must necessarily be de signed to operate for a period of several hours, or possibly a day, without requiring replenish ment of the refrigerant. In thev embodiment shown, in which the apparatus is especially de signed for the use of dry ice, I find that most eillcientuse of the refrigerant is obtained by adjusting the level of liquid 34 so'that it has _ but very slight contact with the mass of re frigerant, it being noted from Figs. 1 and 4 that the surface of the liquid 34 is but slightly abovev screen 3|. As previously explained, the bodyof Means for varying the extent of immersion 35 of the mass of dry ice 23 in the liquid 34 is pro vided-whereby to regulate the container, to the cooling of a greater or less volume of air as may be desired. In the embodiment shown I provide . for this adjustment through the use of a liquid 40 displacement panel 43 which is suspended adja~ cent a side wall of the cabinet by a pair of cables 44 which are wound upon a shaft 45, the latter being positioned near the top of the cabinet and journalled at its opposite ends in walls 1 and 9. Shaft 45 is provided at one end with a worm wheel 46 which meshes with worm\ gear 41, the latter being mounted on a crank 48 which pro jects from the side wall of thecabinet. By turn ing crank 48, panel (43 may be raised or lowered in the body of liquid 34, thereby changing the liquid level to regulate the extent of immersion of the mass of dry ice 29. If air is being circu lated through tubes 2| at a comparatively rapid rate, it may be desired to have the mass of refrigerant 29 immersed'to a considerable ex “ mass of refrigerant immersed in the liquid. tent in liquid 34. On the other hand, if the‘ At ordinary pressures solidi?ed carbon dioxide ' cooling demand is comparatively light, panel 43 vaporizes without passing through the intenne may be raised to produce a correspondingly lower diate liquid stage. The carbon dioxide gas is re— liquid level and a consequent lessening in the 60 moved from the cabinet through a vent pipe 35 which is positioned in the upper portion of the rate at which" the refrigerant is expended. I find that by cooling the air through the use rear wall of the cabinet. The top of the cabinet of tubes 2| in the manner described I am able is closed by a sheet metal cover plate 36, and an to likewise control the relative humidity of the 65 inner cover plate 31, formed of suitable insu air, thereby preventing an oppressive increase in 65 lating material, is provided for sealing the re the moisture content of the air upon a lowering frigerant compartment, this cover being pro in the temperature. It, will be apparent from. vided at its rear edge with a pair of cleats 39 Figs. 1 and 4 that the use of a plurality of tubes which are received in sockets formed in the rear 2| arranged as shown, provides a very large sur wall of the cabinet. The. front edge of cover 31 face which the air may contact during its pas is provided with sliding latch members 41 which sage through the cabinet. As the temperature 70 are secured in position by channel strips 42. The cover 31 is locked in position by inserting cleats of the air falls, the saturation point for the lower temperature is reached, with resultant condensa 39 in the rear cabinet wall after which the slid tion of moisture on the walls of tubes 2|. I find 75. ing latch members 4| are moved outwardly into that this condensation is su?icient to prevent the liquid serves as a cooling bath for extracting heat 55 from the walls of tubes 2| , and it is usually un necessary to have any substantial portion of the 75 aliases air from becoming excessively humid even where the temperature drop is as much as 40° F. In order to remove the ‘ condensed moisture from tubes 2| I arrange the latter in inclined position as shown in Fig. 4. With the tubes in this posi tion the moisture will drain toward the forward ends of the tubes, and will then ?ow downwardly along wall ‘I into a drip pan 49, which is placed ; below the cabinet. The condensed moisture is 10 thus automatically removed from the path of air ?ow and I am able to keep the air comparatively dry regardless of the temperature to which it is cooled. The invention provides a cooling unit which is 15 comparatively cheap in that it does not require the use of the costly compressor-condenser mech-" anism. which is used in mechanical refrigerating apparatus. It ?nds an important ?eld of use in the cooling of o?‘ices and similar places which 20 perhaps would require air conditioning only for a comparatively short time during the summer _ months. 25 Under such conditions the outlay re means for regulating the extent of the refrigerant in said liquid. 4. Air conditioning apparatus ersicn oi comprising, in combination, a cabinet, a. plurality of air ?ow tubes extending transversely through said cabi net near the bottom thereof, the lower portion of the cabinet enclosing said tubes being adapted to hold a body of liquid extending to a level above the uppermost of the tubes, and means for sup porting a mass of solid carbon dioxide in the cab 10 inet spaced above the uppermost of said tubes and in position to be partially submerged by the liquid contained in the lower portion of the cabi net. 5. Air conditioning apparatus comprising, in 15 combination, a cabinet,..: plurality of air ?ow tubes extending transversely through said cabi net near the bottom thereof, the lower portion of the cabinet enclosing said tubes being adapted to hold a body of liquid extending to a level above 20 the uppermost of the tubes, means for support ing a mass of solid carbon dioxide in the cabi quiredl for a mechanical refrigerating unit would net spaced above the uppermost of said tubes and be prohibitive. in position to be partially submerged by the liquid ' The foregoing detailed description has been given for clearness' of understanding only, and contained in the lower portion of the cabinet, and 25 means for circulating the air to be treated _ no unnecessary limitations should be understood through said tubes. 6. Air conditioning apparatus comprising a .re therefrom, but the appended claims should be construed as broadly as permissible in view of ceptacle having a plurality of air flow tubes ex 30 the prior art. tending transversely therethrough, means ‘for 30 . What I regard as new and desire to secure by supporting a mass of solid carbon dioxide in said receptacle spaced out of contact with said tubes, 1. Air conditioning apparatus comprising, in .. a body of liquid disposed in said receptacle around combination, a cabinet, a plurality of air ?ow the tubes and in contact with a portion of the 35 tubes extending transversely through said cabi-. vmass of refrigerant, the freezing point of said net near the bottom thereof, the lower'portion liquid being below the melting point of the re of the cabinet enclosing said tubes being adapted frigerant, and means for circulating the air to to hold a body of liquid extending to a level above be treated through said tubes. 7. Air-conditioning apparatus comprising: a the uppermost of the tubes, means for supporting a mass of a solidi?ed refrigerant in the cabinet cabinet, a plurality of air-?ow tubes extending 40 above said tubes and in position to be partially transversely through the lower regionv of said submerged by the liquid contained in the lower cabinet, a refrigerant chamber being formed Letters Patent is: r ' portion of the cabinet, and means for regulat lng'the extent of immersion of the mass of re frigerant in said liquid. ' 2. Air conditioning apparatus comprising, in ‘combination, a cabinet, a plurality of air ?ow tubes extending transversely through said cabi net near the bottom thereof, the vlower portion of the cabinet enclosing said tubes being‘ adapted 50 to hold a. body of liquid extending to a level above above said tubes, said chamber being closed on all sides and at the top, and of such dimensions as to receive a. mass of carbon-dioxide ice and provide a closed space around all sides of and above said mass, means'to support said mass above and out of contact with, said tubes, and means for withdrawing the vapor, resulting‘from, vaporization of said mass, from the upper region 50 of said chamber, the region of said cabinet below said chamber being adapted to hold a body of ing a. mass of a solidi?ed refrigerant in the cabi- 1 liquid extending to a level in contact with the bottom of said mass, forming the bottom of said net above said tubes and in position to be par tially submerged by the liquid contained in the closed space in which said vapor is con?ned in 55 .55 the form of an insulating blanket enveloping all ' lower portion of the cabinet, and means com sides or‘ said mass except its bottom. prising a vertically movable ?uid displacing mem 8. Air conditioning apparatus comprising, in her for varying the level of liquid in the cabinet whereby to regulate the extent of immersion of combination, a cabinet, a plurality. of air ?ow tubes extending transversely through said cabi 60 said mass of refrigerant in the liquid. 3. Air' conditioning apparatus comprising a re net near the bottom thereof, the lower portion or the cabinet enclosing said tubes being adapted ' ceptacle having a plurality of air ?ow tubes ex tending transversely therethrough; means for to hold a body of liquid extending to a level above the uppermost of the tubes, means for support, supporting a mass of a solidi?ed refrigerant in 65 said receptacle above said tubes, a body of liquid disposed in said receptacle around the tubes and the uppermost of the tubes, and means for sup porting a mass of solid carbon dioxide in the cab 65 inet spaced out of contact with said tubes and in in contact with a portion of the mass of refrig position to be partially submerged by the liquid erant, the freezing point of said liquid being be low the melting point 'of the refrigerant, and contained in the lower portion or the cabinet. BERT E. MILLS.