close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

Патент USA US2119369

код для вставки
‘ May 31‘, 1938.
2,1 19,369
C. TWINING
AIRPLANE
Filed Jan. 16, 1937
17
15
m
H
m
E...
.
mmm
md//
0z
vT
.
En
w.
BEL/W
- ATTORNEYS
Patented May 31, 1938.
2,119,369
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,119,369
_
AIRPLANE
Charles Twining, Garden City, N. Y.
Application January 16, 1937, Serial No. ‘120,863
4 Claims.
This invention relates to airplanes and more
particularly to improvements in airplanes having
a propeller and its driving engine mounted for
swinging movement between a position in which
5 the propeller provides traction propulsion to a
position in which the propeller‘ provides lifting
propulsion. In previous airplanes of this type,
the propeller shaft has been ?xed against lateral
movement which has prevented free roll of the
0 fuselage with respect to the propeller shaft when
the latter is in position to provide lifting propul
son.
(Cl. 244—56)
,
An object of this invention is a propeller
mounting which permits relative lateral move
ment between the fuselage and the propeller shaft
when the propeller is arranged in its position of
lifting propulsion and which is provided with
means for easily and accurately returning the
propeller to its position of traction propulsion.
Other objects, novel features and advantages
‘of this invention will become apparent from the
following speci?cation and accompanying draw
ing, wherein:
Fig. 1 is a side elevation of an airplane having '
its propeller mounted in accordance with the
invention;
Fig. 2 is a fragmentary front view withthe
motor in traction propulsion position;
.
Fig. 3 is a fragmentary‘front view with the
30 motor in its position of lifting propulsion;
_
this type. However, it is to be understood that
the invention may be applied to other forms of
airplane engines. A preferably compound pro
peller ‘I1 is attached to the crank shaft of the
engine in the usual manner including a reversing
bevel gear mechanism 30, and a flexible hose I511.
is provided for supplying fuel to the engine.
The engine mounting above described permits
movement of the engine and propellers from the
position shown in full lines in Fig. 1 to the posi 10
tion shown in dotted lines in the same ?gure. In
the full line position, the propellers are arranged
for traction propulsion While in its dotted line
position the. propellers are arranged for lifting
propulsion. In the latter position, the propellers '
may be used to assist in taking off and in landing
or in emergencies by providing an upward pull
ing force. By reason of the pivotal mounting
of the engine in the ring I3, relative lateral move
.ment of the propellers and fuselage is permitted
so that the fuselage may roll laterally as well as
pit'ch longitudinally while being supported by the
propellers.
‘
The rear end of the engine casing is Weighted
so that the engine and propellers tend automati 25
cally to move into the dotted line position shown
in Fig. 1. A latch l8 operated through the me- ‘
’ dium of a rod l9 extending into the fuselage
coacts with one trunnion [4 to hold the engine
and propeller in the full line position of Fig. 1.
Fig. 4 is a plan view of a three engine air
plane with one of the engines mounted in ac
Upon release of the latch 18 by actuation of the‘
rod IS, the engine and propeller. automatically
cordance with‘ the invention, and
assume the .dotted line position shown in‘ Fig. 1.
Fig. 5 is a perspective view of a portion of the
propeller mounting.
.
A cable 20 passes overv a pulley 2| on a. post 22
and is attached to a stud 23 provided at the rear 35
In Fig. 1,. It indicates an airplane fuselage end of the engine case. By means of ‘this cable,
which may be of any suitable type and II desig
the propellers and engine are- pulled from the
nates the wing associated therewith. For sim
dotted line position of Fig. 1 to the» full line posi
plicity’s sake, the airplane has been disclosed as ' tion. Guide members 24 are carried by the "post
a monoplane but it is to be understood that the 22 and terminate at their upper ends in a socket
invention is not limited to any particular type in which the stud 23 is received. This socket is
of plane but can be utilized in connection‘with so arranged that when the stud is seated therein,
any desired type.
the propeller shaftis parallel with and lies in the
A pair of standards l2 rest on and are fastened same vertical plane as the main longitudinal axis
of the airplane. The guide members 24 are arcu-_ 45
GI to the top surface of the wing II. The ring l3
has trunnions M journalled in the upper portions ate in side elevation and diverge in plan and
of the standards l2.- The axis of rotation of the front elevation. ,The'lower ends are so arranged
,ring I} is transverse to the longitudinal or main
axis of the airplane. An engine’ I5 is provided
'50 with trunnions I6 which are journalled in the
that when the propellers and. engine are in the
position for lifting‘ propulsion, the stud 23 engages
one of the guide members upon lateral movement
of the propeller shaft through an arc of ‘approxi
to and in the same vertical plane with the main pinately 45° in either direction from vertical posi
or longitudinal axis of the airplane. Preferably, I tion. These guides therefore serve to limit rela
the engine is of the radial cylinder type as the tive lateral movement of the propellers and fuse
55 invention is best adapted to mounting engines of lage as well as ‘to guide the stud into its notch.
ring I 3 with the axis of rotation being parallel
2
Should the propeller shaft be at an angle to the
fuselage when the cable 20 is being pulled, the
guide members will bring the propeller shaft into
longitudinal alinement as it is moved into its
horizontal position.
The plane preferably should be so constructed
that the center of its total weight and load as
well as the center of lift of the wings will lie
approximately in the line of the normal axis of
10 the plane.
Furthermore, the engine mounting
preferably should be so arranged that when the
propellers are in their position of lifting propul
sion, the axis of the propeller shaft is‘ in aline
ment with the center of gravity and center of
16
lift.
.
To bring the engine and propellers from the
dotted line position to the full line position of
Fig. 1, the engine is swung about the trunnions
I! through the medium of the cable 20 and
'20 when it reaches the full line position, the latch
I8 is actuated to hold the engine and propellers
in such position. When it is desired to return
the propellers and engine to the dotted line
position, the latch I8 is released, whereupon the
25 engine and propellers swing about the trunnions
l4 under the force of gravity due to the weight
provided for that purpose in the rear end of the
engine case.
In Fig. 4, the center engine is provided with
30 the mounting just described, while the engines
at either side are mounted in the standard man
ner for traction propulsion only. The center
engine and its propellers may be used for lifting
the plane off the earth and for holding the plane
35 at any desired elevation.
It is of course under
stood that other combinations of engines than
those shown herein might also be used.
The compound propeller l'l consists of two
sets of blades mounted on concentric shafts, one
40 of which is ?xed to the engine shaft. Gearing
30 is interposed between the two shafts so as
to effect offset and equal rotation of the two
shafts and sets of blades, thereby preventing the
_ development of any turning moment in the en
45 gine case, each set of blades being of proper
size and shape as to engage the equal air resist
ance. If desired, identical sets of blades can
be used but in such event the gearing 30 will
be of such a nature as to rotate the two shafts
at such speeds that the two sets of propellers
will engage equal air resistance.
I claim:
1. In an airplane, a frame, a propeller and
engine assembly, means supporting said assembly
from said frame for limited universal movement,
a stud on said engine, a socket to receive said
stud when said assembly axis is parallel to the 10
longitudinal axis of the airplane, and arcuate
converging guide members leading to said socket,
said guide members being engageable by said
stud to limit lateral movement of said assembly
and to direct said stud into said socket.
15
2. In an airplane, a frame, a ring having trun
nions journalled in said frame, a propeller and
engine assembly pivotally supported by said ring,
a stud on said engine, a socket to receive said
stud when said assembly axis is parallel to the 20
longitudinal axis of the airplane, and arcuate
converging guide members leading to said socket,
said guide members being engageable by said
‘ stud to limit lateral movement of said assembly
25
and to direct said stud into said socket.
3. In an airplane, a frame, a propeller and
engine assembly, means supporting said assembly
from said frame for limited universal movement,
said assembly having a pointed tail, a socket
to receive said tail when said assembly axis is 30
parallelto the longitudinal axis of the airplane,
and arcuate converging guide members leading
to said socket, said guide members being engage
able by said tail to limit lateral movement of
said assembly and to direct said tail into said 35
socket.
4. In an airplane,a frame, a ring having trun
nions journalled in said frame, a propeller and
engine assembly pivotally supported by said ring,
said assembly having a pointed tail, 2. socket to 40
receive said tail when said assembly axis is par
allel to the longitudinal axis of the airplane and
arcuate converging guide members leading to said
socket, said guide members being engageable by
said tail to limit lateral movement of said as
sembly and to direct said tail into said socket.
CHARLES TWIN'ING.
45
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
0
Размер файла
311 Кб
Теги
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа