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Патент USA US2119446

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May 31,‘ 1938. .
>
J. IGJSHOLES
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'
2,119,446‘
SELF ADMINISTRATION OF GASEOUS ANESTHETICS
'
Filed Dec. 11, 1936
2 ‘Sheets-She'et 1
ATTORNEYS
May 31, 1938- .
J. G. SHOLES
-
2,119,446
SELF ADMINISTRATION OF GASEOUS ANESTHETICS
Filed Dec. 11, 1936
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
55
g‘ ?t
INVENTOR
ATTORNEY§
2,119,446
Patented May 31, 1938 ‘
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,119,446
‘SELF ADMINISTRATION OF GASEOUS
ANESTHETICS
Justin G. Sholes, Cleveland, Ohio, assignor to The
Ohio Chemical and Manufacturing Company,
Cleveland, Ohio, a corporation of Ohio
Application December 11, 1936, Serial No. 115,327
9 Claims.
(01. 128-403).
[In many cases arising in the practice of medi
cine, surgery and dentistry, in which analgesia,
that is relief from pain, is wanted rather than
anesthesia, it is sometimes desirable to have the
gas (or vapor)‘ administered by the patient.
Thus in parturition the patient knows best when
the pain becomes too severe, and it is therefore
of advantage to have the administration of the
gas'under her control. Self-administration may
10 also be advantageous in minor surgery such as
the lancing of a boil or abscess, the cleaning and
dressing of a wound or a burn, the setting of a
fractured bone, or, in dentistry, the preparation
of a tooth for ?lling.
It is accordingly an object of the present in
vention to provide a simple and convenient ap
paratus for the self-administration of a gaseous
anesthetic, using this term hereinafter to in
clude vapors as well as gases.
Another object
20 is to provide an apparatus in which the delivery
of the anesthetic to the patient requires a pur
poseful e?ort on the latter’s part, so that if by
taking too much he or she should become uncon
scious or semi-conscious the supply of anesthetic
25 will cease or will fall to so low a rate that he will
speedily regain consciousness. A further object
is to provide an apparatus in which the maxi
mum amount of the anesthetic delivered by an
actuation of the apparatus can be determined by
the physician. Still another object is to provide
simple and convenient apparatus which may be
operated by the doctor to produce anesthesia, for
example for the brief period needed in minor op
eraticns such as the lancing of a boil or abscess,
setting a fracture or reducing a dislocation, prob
ing a wound, removing skin blemishes, cleaning
and dressing painful wounds and burns, etc., an
esthesia for such purposes being particularly de
sirable in the .case of children. To these and
40 other ends the invention comprises the novel fea
tures and combinations hereinafter, described. In
its broader aspects the invention comprises the
connection with a suitable source of the anes
thetic and with an inhaling “mask” of con
venient shape to ?t over the nose or mouth or
over the nose and mouth of the patient. Con
nected with the mask I provide a chamber or 5
reservoir, preferably composed in part of a ?ex
iblc corrugated tube of suitable length, into one
end of which air may be drawn at each inhala
tion and at the other end of which the pump is
connected so- that the patient inhales a mixture 10
of air and anesthetic.
'
Referring to the annexed drawings:
Fig. 1 illustrates one form of the invention,
comprising a pump operated'by the patient, a
mask, and a source of anesthetic; the source of 15
the latter in the present instance being a rubber
bag to hold a supply of the anesthetic inhalant.
Fig. 2 is a sectional view, on a larger scale, of
a suitable pump, actuated pneumatically by the
patient.
20
Fig. 3 is a part-sectional view illustrating on
a larger scale than that of Fig. 1 the preferred
air-gas reservoir.
'
Fig. 4 is a detail cross-sectional view of a sim
ple form of check valve which may be used at the 2
air inlet of the/air-‘gas reservoir and at the mask.
Fig. 5 is a detailed sectional view showing the
connection between the pump and the inhaling
mask.
The bag I0, for holding a supply of the anes
thetic inhalant, is connected to a head by which
it may be connected with an ampule or cylinder
or bottle containing the gas. ,The head shown at
H is provided with a corrugated nipple l_2.over
which a rubber tube, not shown, may be ?tted,
for temporary connection with a cylinder or bot
tle. The nipple may have a valve l3, which,
when closed, will prevent escape of anesthetic
into the air. A valve may also be provided, in
dicated at M, to control, and shut off entirely 40
when desired, the out?ow of anesthetic to the
pump.
A. nipple I5 is shown for connection of
combination of a source of anesthetic gas or va
por; an inhaling mask adapted to ?t over the pa
tient‘s nose or over both mouth and nose, and
the head II with the pump I6 by means of a
rubber tube H. The pump is connected by a
in communication with the atmosphere so that
at each inhalation air may be taken into the
patient’s lungs; and between the mask and said
source, control means to be operated by the pa
be of any suitable form and construction. The
pump is actuated by a rubber bulb 20 which the
rubber tube. It! to the mask 19, which latter may
patient can compress by hand.
The bulb (pref
erably of the type commonly employed for spray
tient, such means requiring positive, and prefer
ably intermittent, operation by the patient, to
'ing'a liquid from an atomizer nozzle) is shown 50
deliver the anesthetic gas to the mask.
In the preferred form of the invention I pro
The tubes ll, 18, 2| are preferably rather long
so as to permit placing of the pump and bag at
vide a “pump” operated pneumatically by the
patient, say by his hand or foot, and adapted for
from the patient.
as connected to the pump by a rubber tube 2|.
any convenient point or points, near or remote
It is desirable to have the 55
n
2
_ 2,119,446
bag or reservoir In large enough to hold sufficient
anesthetic for a considerable range of operations
on patients widely different in their susceptibility
stem 33 to which it is connected. For the pur
pose of adjustment the stem is threaded in a disk
to the gas, but it will of course be understood that
the doctor can put into the bag no more gas than
suitable distance from the septum 23.
his experience and judgment tell him will be
needed. If the operation is to be performed at
the patient’s home, for example, the doctor can
take with him a small bottle or several ampules
10 of the gas for replenishment of the supply in the
bag as may be necessary. It is also desirable to
or‘ plate 34 threaded to the pump body 22 at a
At its top
the stem is rigidly attached to a rotatable mem
5
ber 35, so that by turning the latter the stem‘
and the disk 3| can be adjusted toward or from
the diaphragm.
The member 35 may be in the
form of a cup or cap, as shown, with its skirt
or ?ange 36 extending down over the pump body
and ?tting ‘the same closely enough to aid the
have the bag as light as possible, so that even - stem 33 'to resist breakage or bending by drop- ,
when it is well ?lled the gas therein will be under
ping on the ?oor or other rough usage. A rather
but slight pressure, but little above atmospheric close ?t will also give the cap su?icient frictional
15 at the most.
’
The pump, shown in detail in Fig. 2, comprises
a hollow body portion or casing 22 divided into
two chambers or parts by a transverse partition
23. Below the latter the casing has a nipple 24
20 for the tube l1 and a nipple 25 for tube I8, and
may have check valves 26, 21, to permit ?ow of
gas in the direction of the arrows only. These‘
. valves may be of any suitable construction, pref
erably with provision for adjustment to deter
25 mine the pressure required to open them, and
since check valves of‘ such type are well known
it is unnecessary to illustrate the construction
of the same here.
'
,
The lower chamber of the valve body 22 is
30
spanned by an elastic rubber diaphragm 28, held
hermetically in place by a screw cap 29 equipped
with a nipple 30 for the tube 2| leading to the
hand bulb 20. Above the diaphragm is a plate
or disk 3| carried by an adjustable stem extend
35 ing through an opening in the septum 23.
From the foregoing it will be seen that if the
' bulb is compressed the air forced thereby through
the tube 20 will expand the diaphragm '28, say
to the position indicated by the dotted lines in
Fig. 2, thus expelling gas and. any air present
from the lower pump-chamber through check
valve 21, the valve 26 preventing back-?ow into
tube l1. When the patient relaxes his hand the
bulb expands, thus allowing the diaphragm 28 to
resistance to rotation to prevent unintentional
alteration of the setting of the gas-volume plate
or disk 3 |. If desired, the pump body may carry
graduations, as indicated in Fig. 1, for example,
to show, by the position of the edge of ?ange
36 as an index, the position of the volume-control 20
disk 3|. The edge of the ?ange may be beveled
for convenient reading. The graduations may
be spaced to be read in any suitable units, as for
example cubic centimeters or cubic inches. It
will be seen that the pump serves not only to 25
supply the anesthetic to the patient but also
measures the amount so supplied as the bulb is
compressed and that the amount can be varied
as desired by the physician by a simple adjust
ment.
'
30
v
To prevent leakage of gas along the stem 33
a yielding gasket- 31 may be ‘provided, to be
pressed against the stem by a neck 38, projecting
from the disk or closure 34.
I
The volume-control disk shown at 3| is formed 35
to give free communication between the spaces
above and below it. This may be done in various
ways, as by making it smaller than the internal
cross section of the pump chamber, or notching
its edge at one or more points, or by perforating 40
it, as indicated in Fig. 2.
>
By preference the tube |8,- leading from the
pump I6, is not connected to discharge, directly
into the mask but is connected to an air and gas
collapse. As this occurs the check valve 21 closes ' reservoir which is itself connected to the mask,
through which reservoir the patient receives air
and the suction opens valve 26, thus causing more
gas to enter the pump chamber from the gas
bag I" until the pressure in the former is su?i
cient to permit valve 26 to close, this pressure
being insufficient to open valve 21.
A small vent may be provided, say in the nipple
30 as shown at 32. Then it the patient, having
compressed the bulb, does not at once relax his
grip the outflow of air through the vent will \_
reservoir may comprise a simple tube 4| of the
corrugated non-collapsible type, and a tubular 50
elbow 40 by which it is connected to the mask
permit the diaphragm to collapse notwithstand
4| being open to the atmosphere. Or the reser 55
voir may include a light, easily 'expansible rubber
ing, and draw in a fresh supply of gas. How
ever, to ‘deliver more gas to the mask the patient
must relax his pressure on the bulb and wait
until it has expanded, more or less, by in?ow of
60 air through the vent or through the check valve
(not shown) with which an atomizer» bulb is
usually provided. This has the advantage that
i if his continued pressure on the bulb had been
' of a convulsive nature,‘due to his becoming un
conscious or semi-conscious, he will not need more
gas until he has regained consciousness far
enough to feel the need and will then be su?‘l
ciently awake to remember to’ release the bulb.
The amount of gas that can be drawn into
the pump chamber by collapse of "the diaphragm
for breathing, so that the gas which he takes into
his lungs is admixed with air. The air and gas
and to which the tube I8 is connected so that
gas delivered to tube l8 by the pump will be dis- .
charged into the elbow; the other end of tube
bag 4|a enclosing the tube 4|, the latter having
openings, as 4|b, for communication with the
interior of the bag. At the discharge end of the
elbow 40 is an inhaling check valve 42 and the 60
mask is equipped with an exhaling check valve
43, so that 42 opens and 43 closes when the pa
tient inhales, andvice versa when he exhales.
If desired the outer end of tube 4| may be pro
vided with a check valve to permit free in?ow of
air but prevent loss of the anesthetic gas from
'65
the air-gas reservoir through such end of the
tube. A suitable valve for the purpose is shown
in Fig. 4, comprising a septum 44 having an an
nular series of openings 45, and a thin rubber disk 70
28, and the amount that can be delivered to the , 46 fastened at its'center to the septum or plate
mask I!) by the expansion of the diaphragm, is by a screw 41 so that at inhalation the disk will
ordinarily determined with all necessary accu
?ex away from the openings 45 and thus admit
racy or closeness by the position of_ the plate or air. The inhaling valve 42 at the elbow 40 may
disk 3|, adjustable in position by means of. the have a slightly higher tension than valve 46. 75
.
2,1 19,446
Then by continued pumping, more or less gas can
be accumulated in the bag Ma without loss of
gas through either valve, and this accumulation
can be drawn upon by deep or vigorous inhalation.
On the other hand, if the patient, getting more
gas than necessary, becomes unconscious, or
partly so, and ceases to pump, his continued
breathing, even though light, exhausts the stored
gas in the reservoir and thereafter he breathes
10 air with no gas, or very little, until he begins
pumping again. Either valve may be omitted
but it is preferred to have at least one, and in
some cases both are desirable.
‘
It will be observed that what the patient takes
into his lungs by inhalation when be squeezes the
bulb is a mixture of air from the reservoir M-?la
and gas from tube i8 leading from the pump l6,
and that the maximum amount of gas in the
mixture which can be so taken into the lungs is
20 determined by the setting of an adjustable part
or parts of the pump. It will also be observed
that the patient can not draw gas from the
elbow 40 without drawing air therefrom also, and
that the cross section of elbow 40 and chamber
25 4| is large in comparison with the size of the gas
inlet on the elbow. Hence the suction of a sud
den and powerful inhalation by the patient will,
in general, be expanded chie?y upon the atmos
phere through the reservoir 40—4l—4l a, leaving
30 but slight suction, if any, to be exerted on the
check valve 21; so that by proper tensioning of
the latter, or of valve 25, or both, the possibility
of the patient drawing gas from the pump by
inhalation alone can be eliminated, but still leav
35 ing itsuf?ciently easy for gas to be delivered
through the supply tube i 8 by manual actuation
of the pump.
‘The air and gas reservoir M, Ma, Mb, with its
associated apparatus, as described above, is a
part of my invention, and is believed to be novel
and patentable per se; it is claimed in my co
pending application Serial Number 151,569, ?led
July 2, 1937, for “Apparatus for self-administra
tion of anesthetics”.
It is to be understood that the invention is not
con?ned to the construction herein speci?cally
described but can beembodied in other forms
without departure from its spirit as de?ned by
the following claims.
50
I claim—
1. Apparatus for the administration of an an
esthetic, comprising, in combination, a source of
anesthetic gas, a gas pump adapted to be oper
ated by the patient and connected with said
source for intermittent operation to receive gas
therefrom, an inhaling mask for the patient, a
reservoir connected with the mask and adapted
to receive air from the atmosphere and deliver
the same to the mask when the patient inhales,
60 and a connection between the pump.and said
reservoir for conveying gas to the latter‘ when the
pump is actuated whereby the patient when in
haling receives a mixture of air from the atmos
phere and gas from the pump.
65
.
2. Apparatus for the administration of an an
esthetic, comprising, in combination, a source of
anesthetic gas, a gas pump connected with said
source for intermittent operation to receive gas
therefrom, pneumatic means adapted to be oper
ated by the patient for actuating the pump, an
inhaling mask for the patient, a reservoir con
nected with the mask and adapted to receive air
directly from the atmosphere and deliver the
same .to the mask when the patient inhales, and
a connection between the pump and said reser
3
voir for delivery of gas to the latter when the
pump is actuated whereby the patient when in
haling receives a mixture of air from the atmos
phere and gas from the pump.
3. Apparatus for the administration of an an
esthetic, comprising, in combination, a source of
anesthetic gas; an expansible pneumatic bulb
adapted to be compressed by the patient for ex
pulsion of air; a gas pump connected with said
source and said bulb and having means_for ex 10
pelling gas when the bulb is compressed and
drawing gas from said source when the bulb ex‘—
pands; an inhaling mask for the patient; a reser
voir connected with the mask and adapted to
receive air from the atmosphere and deliver the
same to the mask when the patient inhales; and
a connection between the pump and said reservoir
for delivery of gas to the latter when the bulb is
compressed whereby the patient when inhaling
receives a mixture of air from the ,atmosphere 20
and gas from the pump.
4. Apparatus for the administration of an an~
esthetic, comprising, in combination, a source of
anesthetic gas; an inhaling mask for the patient;
a reservoir connected with the mask and adapted ‘
to receive air from the atmosphere and deliver
the same to the mask when the patient inhales;
a gas pump connected with the source of gas
and with the reservoir for supplying gas from
the former to the latter, the pump having a pneu
matically actuated member movable in one di
rection to force gas to the reservoir and in the
other direction to draw gas from said source;
means for. predetermining the maximum amount
of gas drawn from the source per actuation of 35
said movable means; and a compressible and
expansible pneumatic bulb connected with the
pump to actuate said movable means by alternate
compression and expansion of the bulb.
5. Apparatus for the administration of an an 40
esthetic, comprising, in combination, a source of
anesthetic gas; an inhaling mask adapted to be
applied to the face of the patient; a reservoir
connected with the mask and communicating
with the atmosphere whereby air is'supplied to 45
the mask for inhalation by the patient, said res
ervoir comprising a perforated non-collapsible
tube in communication with'the atmosphere at
one end and having its other end connected with
the mask, and an expansible rubber bag sur
rounding the tube and communicating with the
latter through the perforations therein; and a
pump adapted to be operated by the patient, the
pump being connected with the said source to
receive anesthetic gas therefrom and with said
reservoir to deliver gas thereto for admixture
with air from the atmosphere to provide a mix
ture of gas and air for inhalation by the patient.
6. Apparatus for the administration of an- an
esthetic, comprising, in combination, a source of 60
anesthetic gas; an inhaling mask adapted to be
applied to the face of the patient; a reservoir
connected with the mask and communicating
with the atmosphere whereby air is supplied to.
the mask for inhalation by the patient, said res 65
ervoir comprising .a perforated non-collapsible
tube in communication with the atmosphere at
one end and having its other end connected with
the mask, and an expansible rubber bag sur
rounding the tube and communicating with the 70
latter through the perforations therein; and a
pump adapted to be operated by the patient, the
pump being connected with the said source to
receive anesthetic gas therefrom and with said
reservoir to deliver gas thereto for admixture 75
4
2,119,446
with air from the atmosphere to provide a mix
ture of gas and air for inhalation by the patient,
the pump comprising a member movable in one
direction ‘by the patient to receive into the pump
a predetermined volume of gas from said source
and in another direction by the patient to de
liver gas to said reservoir._
7. Apparatus for the administration of an an
esthetic, comprising, in combination, a source of
10 anesthetic gas; an inhaling mask adapted to be
applied to the face of the patient; a reservoir
connected with the mask and communicating
with the atmosphere whereby air is supplied to
the mask for inhalation by the patient, said res
ervoir comprising a non-collapsible tube in- com
munication with the atmosphere at one end and
having its other end connected with the mask;
and a pump adapted ‘to be operated by the pa
tient, the pump being connected with the said source to receive anesthetic gas therefrom and
with said reservoir to deliver gas thereto for ad 10
mixture with air from the atmosphere to pro
, connected with the mask and communicating - vide a mixture of gas and air for inhalation by
with the atmosphere whereby air is supplied to
the mask for inhalation by the patient; a pump
15 comprising a hollow body, an expansible and con
tractible elastic diaphragm spanning the interior
of ‘said hollow body, said body being connected
on one side of the diaphragm with the source of
anesthetic gas and with said reservoir; check
20 valves for preventing-?ow of gas from the pump
to the source of gas and from the reservoir to
the pump; and a compressible and .expansible
pneumatic bulb connected with the pump body on
the other'side of the diaphragm therein for actu
ation by the patient to expand and contract the
diaphragm.
8. Apparatus for the administration of an an
esthetic, comprising, in combination, a source of
anesthetic gas; an inhaling mask adapted to be
30 applied to the face of the patient and having in
haling and exhaling check valves; a reservoir
the ‘patient.
9. Apparatus for the administration of an an
esthetic, comprisingain combination, a source of 15
anesthetic gas, an inhaling mask in communica
tion with the atmosphere whereby to- supply air.
therefrom to the patient, a pump comprising a
chamber connected with said source and 'said \
mask, and a member movable in one direction 20
therein- to draw gas from the source into the
chamber and ‘in the other direction to‘ expel gas
from the chamber to the mask, said pump being
connected with said source and the mask and op
erable by the patient to inject gas from said‘
source into the air taken from the atmosphere
into the mask, and means operable to predeter-i
mine the maximum amount of gas so injected
when the'pump is actuated.
_
‘
JUSTIN G. SHOLES.
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