Патент USA US2119538код для вставки
2,119,538 Patented June 7, 1938 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE ' 2,119,538 METHOD OF TRANSPORTING ASPHALTS AND THE LIKE William Henry Hampton, Berkeley, Calif., as signor to Standard Oil Company of California, San Francisco, Calif., a corporation of Dela ware No Drawing. Application March 28, 1934, Serial No. 717,795 . 4 Claims. (Cl. 214-152) nary bulk ?uid handling devices at ordinary tem This invention pertains to a new and advan tageous method of commercially distributing as phalts and the like and relates more particularly to an improved method of transporting the higher melting asphalts in bulk form. peratures. My herein disclosed invention utilizes and ex tends this discovery to a general system of pro cedure whereby it now becomes possible in e?ect 6 to transport any asphalt in bulk containers, any . As is well known, a very large proportion of all the asphalt marketed at the present time in ' desired distance, with a facility and at an ex regions distant from the point of manufacture is pense substantially identical with that involved packaged in either metal or wooden barrels orv in the transportation of an equal volume of an 10 drums. This practice has long been recognized inherently ?uid liquid such as water. The broad object'of this invention is to make as being decidedly uneconomical and thoroughly unsatisfactory in a number of ways. The lack of available to the producer and to the consumer of economy in marketing a relatively low value asphalts the inherent economies of bulk trans product in containers which approach in cost portation. Another object of the invention is to provide the value of the contained product is quite ob vious and becomes impressively so when, as is a method whereby high melting asphalts and usually the case with, asphalts, the containers other solid hydrocarbons may by handled at are non-returnable. The cost of transferring ordinary temperatures by ?uid handling devices. packaged goods and especially barreled goods is Still another ‘object of the invention is to pro i always high as compared to bulk handling, while vide a procedure by which regions ‘remote from 20 a source of supply of asphalts may. be provided ' the space wastage in transport is also substan tially at a maximum with barrel shaped packages. with a limited number of, usually two, bulk mate Many and varied have been the attempts to rials from which asphalts of a wide range of ?nd a method whereby the ever increasing vol characteristics can be easily prepared to meet ume of asphalt'consumed could be distributed in the exact requirements of the job in hand. bulk form, but each such proposal has encoun Further objects of the invention will be readily tered di?iculties so considerable as to preclude apparent from the description and discussion adoption on more than a very limited scale under certain very specialized conditions inspite of the enormous potential savings possible to a really operable procedure. ' ' The veryvhard natural asphalts and asphaltites which follows. ' . In the general practice 01 producing asphalts from petroleum, the tar remaining after the more volatile constituents of the crude oil have been 0 . removed by distillation at atmospheric pressure have been shiped in coarsely broken or lump form is run to steam stills often operated under re similar to coal. This procedure has, however, duced pressure, whereupon distillation is con been found impracticable when applied to the , tinued until the bottoms remaining in the still 0: 5 lower melting asphalts derived from petroleum. 'The broad idea of dissolving asphalt in an appropriate solvent to give a ?uid pumpable at ordinary temperatures has not proven feasible because of the cost of the solvent and/or the di?iculties and expense of its removal with a satisfactory re-procluction of the originalasphalt. The practice of pumping even the lower melt ing asphalts in molten condition into and out of the bulk shipping container has. due to the very great di?iculty of returning the asphalt to a molten condition at its destination, proven ap plicable to only a very limited extent when the bulk container to be used was a tank car or truck and never at all with larger containers such as tank ships. _ vI have now discovered that, asphalts and par ticularly the higher melting asphalts may be pro duced in or converted to a form in which they may be transferred from vessel to vessel byordi . possess the required physical properties, pene tration, melting point, etc. The lower the pene tration and the higher the melting point de sired, the greater is the amount of distillate which it is necessary to take o?. The residuum is then run from the still, while still hot, into containers for marketing, which, for local distribution, may consist 01' either heated and/or insulated tank cars or trucks, while for distant consumption, wooden or steel barrels are almost invariably used. In the production of a very hard “A” grade asphalt having a melting point well above 200° F., which ‘approaches the practical limit to which such distillation may be carried without cracking the residuum, asphalts of all lower melting points progressively exist in the still, commencing with the “E" grades of 80° F. or lower melting point and passing in order to "D", "C”, “B” and ?nally as. o . 2 2,119,688 to‘ “A’! grades, as more and more of the distill able components are removed. ' , It is a fact, ‘long recognized but little used, that if the distillate produced is going from any lower melting'zjasphaltjg Q'gone- higher, inqthe scale is collected-1 separa't‘ely-i'v it ~may "at" any subsequent time be recombined with such higher member by simply heating the two together, in roughly the proportions in which they originally occurred, 10 with the result that the lower melting asphalt may thus be re-produced with substantially its original properties. “ , Y I have now discovered that if a high melting asphalt such as the “B” or preferably the “A” 15 grade is properly subdivided and properly sluiced, it may be pumped or blown and generally han dled and transferred in bulk form by the usual types of ?uid transferring equipment and may thus be transported in any desired type of bulk liquid containers. ’ . For instance, if an “A” grade asphalt is run hot from the still through a properly constructed ori?ce plate into relatively cold water, it assumes the form of “shot" particles which, while tending 25 more or less toward a “tear-drop” form, retains the essential characteristics of spheres to the point that their suspensions in ordinary ?uids such as water or air are readily handled by ?uid means. 30 asphalt heating equipment which would ordi narily be employed in melting the ?nished asphalt shipped in conventional package form prior to use. It is heated to 350°-400°'F. and the “A" grade shot,'from which the water has been drained and/or blown as completely as possible,v are slow ly added. Upon striking the hot oil, the slight amount of water still adhering to the shot is ?ash vaporized and the hard asphaltwill passv readily into solution and an “E” grade asphalt of more or less the same properties as that existing in the still at the time segregation of the distillate I was started, will result. ' In addition to the economies and convenience accruing from the bulk shipment of two such asphalt components, over the ordinary package shipment of ?nished asphalts, another'vadvan tage of almost equal magnitude results'from" my method of procedure in that the vtwo compo nents may be recombined in any desired propor-' tions. Thus, an asphalt of any desired proper-. ties intermediate between the “E” grade existing in the still at the start of segregating the distil late and the “A’? grade actually shipped may be reproduced at the‘ will and option of the con sumer. I have thus found that when asphaltic shot or tear-drops averaging from 2 to 5_millimeters in diameter are produced and admixed with suf?~ cient water, usually more than 30% of their gross volume, a slurry results which may be pumped by a centrifugal pump or transferred by other suction or blowing systems with a facility sub stantially equal to that possible in handling water alone. universal ‘at 130° F., may be shipped in bulk by the usual methods. Upon arrival at the point of consumption, this distillate is charged to the _ Such a slurry may be pumped into ‘and out of 40 the hold of a tank ship and since the shot in such condition shows little or no tendency to coalesce or stick together, particularly so long as the voids between particles remain substantially ?lledwith water, a high melting asphalt in this form may 45 be stored for any desired time or shipped any desired distance with all of the advantages and economies inherent in bulk storage and shipment. Since the higher melting “A” and “B” grades of asphalt are utilized in much smaller quantities 50 than the softer “C”, “D” and “E” grades which comprise the bulk of the road building and gen eral construction asphalts, the foregoing discové‘ The extreme simplicity and convenience of a method whereby a‘ whole range ofasphaltic prod ucts of a given type may be distributed through the economical bulk shipment of but two mate rials and its supreme ?exibility so far as the consumer is concerned will readily be understood and appreciated by those skilled in the art. In general any asphalt, natural 'or prepared,‘ steam re?ned or air blown, or in fact any similar hydrocarbon which is solid at normal tempera tures may be transported in bulk entirely free from all the disadvantages of package distribu tion by 'a proper application of the foregoing pro cedure. Asphalts or other products of less than about 170° F. melting point being handled by the two component method, while asphaltsi of greater than about 170° F. melting point may be shipped directly in shot or other appropriate subdivided form. " > ' While the shot form herein described will usu ally be found to be the easiest ‘and most eco 50 nomical form of ‘subdivision to produce as well as- being most free ?owing and having the least _ ,. ery will ?nd its'widest application in making pos- \ tendency to coalesce or agglomerate, under cer sible the economical distribution of these softer 55 products. The shipment~of a low melting asphalt. by my method is, of course, indirect since it is not the low melting asphalt as such that is shipped, but "rather the componentsfrom which it may be re-produced upon arrival at the point of ultimate consumption. ‘ ' In the distillation of a typical California crude, if, when the contents of the still approximates a 65 300 penetration or “E” grade asphalt,‘ the distil late passing over isv segregated and collected un til an ‘.‘A’’ grade,‘approximately 220—240° F. melt ing point, residuum remains in the still, roughly particles. The size‘ of particles is likewise op tional, being dependent upon the nature of the ?uid handling‘ means‘ subsequently to be em ployed, rather than upon. any principle of the broad method-herein contemplated. Similarly, 60 ‘My invention may be well understood by refer ence to the following speci?c example. tain conditions it may be more desirable to adopt some other form such as ground ‘or extruded ' while water will, for obvious reasons, usually con stitute the ?uid medium, other liquids and even other ?uids such as air may, ‘under certain con- . - ditions, be'substituted. While it might occa- - sionally be vdesirable to ship less water than nec essary to ?ll the voids and with the higher melt ing products it might be found entirely practica-‘ ble so to. do it will, in general; be found to be 75% of distillate and 25% of asphalt, “A” grade,v good insurance against ‘the highly undesirable 70 'will ‘result. vThe “A”v grade asphalt, --having a that would attend coalescence or ag speci?c gravity slightly greater than unity, may results lomeration to keep the voids full of water or other then beconverted to shot vby proper injection similar liquid at all times. " ’ intowater, as previously described, and will ‘thus In such application of this invention as con- ' be inform for‘ bulk shipment. The distillate, ‘a’ templates the use of my two component method, ' v75 viscous liquid of viscosity about 1600 sec. Saybolt ' the point at which collection of the distillate 3 2,119,588 should be begun will, in general, depend upon the softest grade of asphalt which it is desired to provide to a given region or locality. Certain other modi?cations of the procedure herein described will be apparent to those skilled in the art and will be readily recognized as a part of my invention in its broadest scope. Having now described my invention and the methods whereby it may be utilized to advan tage, what I claim is: 1. The method of transporting to' a region re mote from the point of its production, an as 2. The method of transporting asphalt as in claim 1, wherein the voids between asphalt par ticles are maintained full of water during trans- - port. 3. A method for the bulk transportation of as phalt over long distances and in the absence of any solvent therefor, which comprises the steps of reducing asphalt of melting point above about 170° to 5 ring bull: F. to free ?owing shot-like particles oi’ 2' millimeters average diameter, of transfer 10 said particles by ?uid handling means to a container, of maintaining said particles phalt of melting point greater than about 170° E which comprises the steps of pumping said in said container wet with an aqueous medium asphalt in the form of free-?owing, shot-like par ticles of substantially uniform size and several millimeters in average diameter admixed with water into the hold of a tank ship, of maintain said asphalt from said container by ?uid han dling means at substantially atmospheric tem ing said particles in said hold continually wet with water at substantially atmospheric tempera ture during transport and of ?nally pumping said asphalt particles, admixed with water, from said ship’s hold at substantially atmospheric temperature. during transport and of subsequently removing 15 perature. 4. K method for the bulk transportation of asphalt as in claim 3 wherein the voids between particles are maintained substantially ?lled with 20 the aqueous medium. WILLIAM HENRY HAMPTON.