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Патент USA US2119546

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June 7, 1938.
D_ w_ KNAGGQ v
Filed Dec. 29, ‘1953
, DoMLDWk/Msas
Patented June 7, 1938
Donald W. Knaggs, City Island, N. Y., assignor‘
to Anigraphic Process, Inc., New_York, N. Y., a
corporation of New York
Application December 29, 1933, Serial No. 704,456
5' Claims.
(Cl. 41-26) ,
This. invention relates to the art' of printing
on a nonabsorptive surface, such as glass con
neither may ‘contain any ingredient which will
cause the other to disintegrate or change its phys
tainers, ceramic materials, metallic containers,
ical or chemical characteristics.
plastics such as bakelite, or any nonabsorptive
5 or nearly nonabsorptive surface. It is particu
. larly related to printing on a glass container.
At present it is customary in most industries
in which bottles are used, to label the bottle
either by moulding, such as is done frequently
10 with milk bottles, or by printing a label on paper
and affixing this label to the bottle by a suitable
adhesive. It is highly desirable for many reasons
to be able to print a label directly on the bottle.
It is possible in this manner to producea product
' having a more pleasing appearance, and this also
avoids the loss of bottles in those industries‘
where bottles are returned to the manufacturer
of the product to be refilled, and is less expensive
than repeated re-labeling.
' It has heretofore been necessary in printing
on a bottle to bake the bottle with its printed .
‘label for many hours at a high or fusing tem
perature in order to make the printing fuse into
the glass.
My invention is of a new means for, and method
of, printing on a-bottle which is simple and easy
to perform and may be done quickly and eco
nomically. and _ at low temperature.
In some
forms in which I practice my‘invention I use
a heating process for a short time but this heat
ing involves only a very small proportion of the
heat or time required in baking processes of the
prior art.
' I may practice my invention on a perfectly
After varnishing the label I heat the bottle for
approximately ?fteen to twenty minutes at a
temperature of approximately 300° F. This tem
perature-and time are the maximum that may
be necessary for the best results. A good product
may be'produced in a somewhat less time. This
heating to 300° does not serve to fuse the design l0
into the glass since the fusing temperature of the
type of glass used is about 1100". The process
may be saidytherefore, to be performed. in the"
absence of fusing heat. The label which is pro
duced by my process as just described adheres
very strongiy to the bottle and has the appear
ance of being practically a part .of the bottle
itself. It may of course be applied in any suitable
color or combination c! colors and therefore ma
present a very attractive appearance.
In washing bottles it is customary to usean
alkali solution of from 2 to 10%, and in some
cases to employ stiff. revolving brushes. Since
my ink and varnish are both alkali-resistant. and
will withstand abrasion and vhot water. a bottle
which has a label printed thereon in accordance
with the process described above will withstand
a considerable number of washings without affect
ing its appearance. Such a process is entirely
suitable for any bottle which is not intended to
be re?lled, such. for example, as ‘a'bottle of per-'
fume, catsup, whiskey, etc. It is also suitable.
as stated above, for a bottle which may be re?lled
a number of times and vigorously'washed- and
sterilized between each two ?llings.
smooth, vitreous surface- It is necessary in prac
ticing my invention to use an ink that is quick
In accordance with another method of prac- '
drying, that is hard-setting in order to with
ticing my invention I ?rst .etch the surface
stand abrasion, that is alkali-resistant, and whose \ which is to be printed by chemical or'physlcal
colors are fast. An ink having these character
40 istics may be produced by anyone skilled in the
art of making ink.
After printing the label on ‘the bottle the ink
must be set as in any case where a hard-setting
ink is used. This is accomplished by a ?ash of
heat. That is the ‘printed label may simply be
means, such as hydro?uoric acid or sand blast‘
ing. I then use the same ink as before to print 40
- on the etched surface and use the same varnish
as before to cover the ink and also to cover the
etched surface if desired. The ink and the var
nish are set in the same manner as in my previ
ous process. The varnish in this case fills the 45
passed over a hot ?ame.
Setting the ink thus roughened surface of the bottle where it has been
requires only a few seconds. It is possible in ' etched and causes the bottle to have the appear
practicing my invention to set the ink without ance of not having been etched at all.
the use of any ?ame, as it will set in a short time
when I practice the process just described the
resulting product is a label which will adhere to
After the ink is set I cover the printed portion
the bottle for its life under any circumstances of
normal use. That is the bottle may be returned
50 by simply exposing it to the air.
v with a varnish. This varnish is a synthetic resin
varnish that is alkali resistant and thermal set:
to the manufacturer time after-time, sterilized
ting, such as bakelite varnish. The varnish and
with a strong alkali solution, and washed with
65 the ink must of course be compatible, that is.
still’ brushes for extended periods without a?ect
ing the label in any way. Such a method is,
therefore, very advantageous for use with milk
bottles and beer bottles, for example, where it
1. The method of printing on a nonabsorptive
surface in the absence of fusingheat'for the said
surface which consists in etching said surface,
printing on said surface, and covering said
is customary for them to be returned over and
printed matter with a varnish.
over for re?lling.
2. The method of vprinting on a nonabsorptiv
It is also possible to produce a product which
is suitable commercially for some purposes by surface in the absence of fusing heat for the said
following the steps just described, but omitting - surface which comprises etching said surface,
That is, if the surface is ?rst
10 etched, the ink will adhere sufficiently well for
printing on said surface with a quick-drying
hard-setting ink, and covering said ink with a 10
syntheticé-resin thermal-setting varnish.
many purposes, but will not withstand the treat
3. The method of printing on’ a nonabsorptive
,ment it will withstand if it is also covered with
7 surface in the absence of fusing heat for the
the varnish.
said surface which comprises etching said sur
In the drawing—
face, printing on said etched surface with a
indicated by the word “label”, have been applied quick-drying hard-setting alkali-resistant ink
in accordance with any of the methods described
The label may in any case appear to be
simply a printed legend applied directly to a clear
and covering said printing with a synthetic-resin
thermal-setting alkali-resistant varnish.
4. The method of printing on a transparent
glass container which comprises the use of a 20
Fig. 2 illustrates a label of more complicated quick-drying hard-setting ink, setting said ink
design than Fig. 1. In this case a background after applying it to the bottle, covering said ink
may be printed on thebottle in one color and the ‘with a synthetic-resin varnish, and then heating
said bottle for approximately fifteen minutes at ‘
label itself printed in a different color. The cir
approximately 300° F.
5. The method of printing on a non-transpar
course, be ?rst etched and then printed in a
color desired and the “label” then printedin ent glass container whichv comprises the use of
a different color. Varnish may then beapplied a quick-drying hard-setting ink, setting said ink
to the ‘entire surface as before described. My after applying it toithe bottle, covering said ink
a synthetic-resin thermal-setting varnish,
30 label may, of course, be printedin reverse, in with
and then heating said bottle for approximately
which event the contents of the bottle may sup
ply the color which causes the label itself to ?fteen minutes at approximately 300° F.
1 stand out. ‘
What is claimed is:
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