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Патент USA US2119650

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June 7, 1938.
P. F. RossMANN
Filed Jan. l0, 1935
Planted im; l'1, 193s
Moron vaincu: nasxn
_ y
Peter F.
corporation of Mi
Appunti“ .mmm 1o, 1935, sei-MN». 1,252
11 calm.
(ci. 1st-15m.
are associated with the front s , ringwheels (not
This `invention relates to actuator means and
more particularly to actuator means employed to
In each drum is arranged a pair òf
pivotally mounted segmental brake shoes I nor- .
operate mechanism forming apart of a motor
mally held in released position by spring 9,. Be
tween the free ends of the pairs of shoes are actu- 5
An object of the invention is to provide a com
ator cams 1 fixed on control rods I3 which are
pact structure which is operated by `either com
bined physical and power created force or entirely rotated by >front and rear‘brake rods Il'and 2l
Aconnected respectively to arms 2i and. 22 Vßxecl
by physical eiiort to actuate a mechanism.
Another object of the invention is to provide a on cross shaft 23. This crossshaft is carriedulby
10 linkage actuator for motor vehicle mechanism suitable bracket means 2l' ñxed to the side sills Il 10
which includes power means, control valve means, and by a bracket 25 yñxed to the cross frame brace
and physical reaction means.
member il extending adjacent thereto.
,f _
In order to actuate the cross rod or ’a similar
A further object of the invention is to provide
regulating mechanism,- I associate therewith
- a unitary actuator means, operable by a manual
means which is responsive to physically created ` 15
and power created force, in which a casing, a
valve structure and physical reaction means are
interdependent and interacting.
force or to force created physicallyV and by power.
Foot lever 28 is rotatably mounted on shaft 21'
fixed in a'bearing 2l extending from one side of
the transmission casing. The -rod 30 of a power
piston 3| is pivotally connected by link 32 with 20
Still another object of the invention is `to pro
vide actuator means operable through the ef
20 fect of physical and power applied forces in which
physical reaction means is power operated.
Other objects of the invention wili- appear from
the following description taken in connection with
the drawing, which forms a part-of this Aspeciilca
tion, and in which:
an anchor eye bolt 33 iixed to the intermediate ì
frame cross member adjacent the brake croœ rod.
-The threaded stem ‘34'of a valve 3l is screwed in- `
Fig. 1 is a plan view of a motor vehicle chassis
having .my invention associated therewith for
operating brake mechanism.V
Fig. 2 is a vertical sectional view of the actuator
30 means in ineffective position..
Flg.-3 is a similar vertical sectional view of the
actuator means in eifective brake applying posi
Fig. 3a is an enlarged fragmentary portion of
35 the valve means shown in Fig. 2.
to a member 36 .which is pivotally connected to
the lower end of lever 26. The valve stem and 25 f
piston rod are preferably arranged so that the
extend substantially in axial augment.
Associated with the valve, power piston and.
.brake cross rod is a casing forming aligned cham
bers 31, 38, and 39. Chambers 31 land 33 are de- ,30- '
iined by a two diameter cylindrical structure, the
larger diameter portion 40 of which contains the
power piston and the smaller diameter'portion 4I
ofv which contains a physical reaction piston I2.
Chambers 31 and 38 are separated by a partition .35
43 suitably secured in the cylindrical structure '
of the actuator means attached to the chassis ' Yand the other end of the reaction chamber. is de
Fig; 4 is a perspective view showing a fragment
and the brake mechanism cross rod.
Fig. 5 is a sectional view taken on line l-l of
fined by the end wall 4l of the cylindrical struc
An end wall l5 is suitably fixed to the
cylindrical structure and deñnes the rear end of 40
the power chamber. Extensions 4l project from
the wall I5 and are pivotally connected to arms 41
reference, a motor vehicle main frame is illus- ' depending from a hub 43 iixed on the brake cross
Fig. 1 showing thev brake mechanism in one of
the brake drums.
Referring now to the drawing by characters of
trated as comprised of side sills i0 and cross sill
' members il. A power unit, consisting of an in
ternal combustion engine l! and a transmission
unit I3, is> supported upon the frame, and suit-,
.able driving means extends rearwardly from the
transmisison unit to actuate driving mechanism
contained within the rear axle structure Il. 'I'he
engine is provided with the usual intake mani
fold I5 through which` >fuel charges are moved
into the engine cylinders.
Brake drums i6 are associated Vwith the rear
'I‘he valve is contained in chamber 3l
formed by a pair of shells I3 and Il, the shell 43 45
telescopinglthe reduced end of the cylindrical
structure and being suitably secured thereon.
The adjacent edges of the shells are, secured to
gether and the adjacent .portions are of larger
diameter yforming annular shoulders Il servina _60
The valve is formed with a stein ,l2 which ex
tends through axial openings in the wall I4 and
the partition wall 43 and has .a close slidingfiit -
56 4driven wheels (not shown) _and brake drums Il >with amable bearings extendinzfmm
The valve also has a circular iiange portion Il
Extreme compression o! the valve -ringsagainst
telescoping a portion of the stem 34 which has
a close sliding fit with the open end wall of the
the shoulders Il is prevented by_suitab1e stop
means including an angular linger 18 secured to l,
` ~ shell Il. Coil spring I4 encircles the stem I2 in _ the vshell 5_0 by a screw 14. This linger extends
Cl ’ the chamber 3| and exerts a light pressure urg-across the end of the shell ll'and is formed with f
an opening- through which the threadedvalve
on the shell Il, such spring serves onlyto in
>stem 34 extends. Nuts-1l and 'Il‘are threaded _
sure thatV the: valve> will engage :shoulder l If, on onl the stem and are spaced to engage >the linger
vthe shell .Il when toot'. p'rcssureÁis'V released from’ _ to= limit the degree »e of valve'. ring;V compression ‘Y
pedal 2i. The physical reaction piston in the upon engaging the shoulders Il.
ing the valve structuretoward ythe shoulder il
_ chamber '38 is suitably held axially against a>
shoulder on the valve stem 52 by a nut 2l
screwed on the stem.
The shell
Y ,The casing .'i'orming> the power chamber,
physical reaction chamberand the valve cham- ' s I i is an'> integral unit and is connected to oper- Y
49 has openings ,_ lltherethrough.,
connecting the chamber I9 'with atmosphere.
p and the reduced diameter >cylindrical structure -
ate the _cross_ shaft o!Y the brake mechanism'.n
' The valve structure associatedwith the casing -
is. connected with the .foot lever 2l. Buch valve-
has openings“ therein, adjacent the partition, « structure and casing have a small relative axial '
` connecting the physical reaction chamber with> movement lrbut -otherwise they form a direct '
atmosphere. _The rcylinder wall-4l has an `open-'`
ing l1' therethrough connecting the power cyl-l
actuator link__between the levers 2l and 41 which
are connected to move directly with the foot
inder with atmosphere. ' A cylinder of’fllteringï lever 2B and -the shaft 23»k respectively.- Actua-> " '
» material 5l covers the openings S5 and.“ »and is _ tion of the cross shaft is obtained through torce
held'around the reduced portion of the cylindri
exerted on the casing and such force is obtainedï.
>cal structure and` the ‘shell -49 by a circular
screw 59.'
by combined physical Aand power eiiorts, or'en‘- \
'I'he _valve proper is circular in_#outline and»
tirely byphy‘sical eiiort whenfthe power fails.
/Thev actuator means’a's shownfin» Fig. 2 is in'
is, formed 4with radially extendingA passages l0
.the position taken when the brake mechanism
open tothe' enlarged portion of chamber I9 ex`-_
is entirely released, and 'in Fig. 3 the actuator l
means is shown _in the position taken whenz» the
30 low and is open tothe power chamber at‘itsfree; brake mechanism is fully appliedm To apply the'
end and to the- radial passagesvin the'valve at its . brake mechanism, the foot pedal 2O Vis rocked
other end. There are also openings 6| through counterclockwise, as viewed »in Figs. 2 and 3,>
the stem portion in__the physical reaction cham- » against the action of spring 1l and the releas-`
b'er in_advanoe ofthe' -piston42. 'I'he valve and ing springs 9 in the‘brakemechanism. such
movementv of> the lever is transmitted to theH
35 steni,v 52 thus _establish communication ’between
the' three kchambers and such chambers have >valve structure iorcingzthe valve against shoul
_der 5i on the shell 4l and‘thereby closing the
Y openings connecting'thei'nV with atmosphere.
’ I teriorlyfoi'the shoulders Si. ‘ The stem 52 is hol
^ A pressure lower’thanatmospheric- pressureis major portion ofthe valve chamber to the ports . l
created in the chambers bysuitablej means, such , 55 and opening the »same to the vacuum conduit v
as by connection with theint'ake manifoldof ' B6. The radial passages OI and the'hollow valve
the engine. To'this end -a conduit _$4 leads from ' stem 52 are thus openV to the conduit “so that'.
' ’
the intake manifold’l! to a reservev tank' 65 and pressure Vin ’chambers 31 and 38 at ' the i'ront`
of the .pistons therein _'isvless4 than`atmosphericl_¿_,>r
a conduit" leads from such tank to the cham
ber 39. In the conduit-I4 is'fa'one-way valve 81 pressure. Because of the reduced pressure inthe.
45 which'opens only when there: is a pressure' below ' ’ power cylinder, atmospheric pressure actingî 45. 1
f against the» exterior :i‘rontv end off the 4chamber
atmospheric in the fuel inlet manifold.
The valve iiange M__seals‘ the front> end _of 'the 4» and againstV the rpartition exposed .to chamberv
.shell .il and the valve `serves to selectively-seal-
_oif the _major portion of the ‘chamberïß from
50 the conduit B6 or'from i atmosphere.
38 will move the ycylinderA toward the right which
is rearwardly of the vehicle. 'I‘his casing move
ment rocks the arms- 41 and the brake cross shaft
rings il -a'reiiixedV around thel 'front and rear' 48l in a counter-clockwisedirection >to apply the
» faces of the valve adjacent the periphery inv af brakes.
relation to engage with the shoulders M_. These
_To increase the brake application a contin
rubber rings are preferablyV relatively'soft and ~ ued Vphysical force requisite to holdfthe valve
oi' suñicient thicknessïso that the full movement ' against the shoulder 5l on shell 49 as the casing
of the valve betweenextreme positions of recip
> is moved by power toward therearof the vehicle
-rocation is relatively sm'all. When the valve ring _ ` is'required.
If thefollowing movement of the
~ ~,
vvitlve‘relative tothe casing is `not maintained,_y
' engages the shoulder y5I 'on the shell 5I then the
f conduit 66 isshut oiï Vi‘romv the maior portion . then the valve will '_open and ¿expose the chain;
bers Sland, 38 to'» atmosphere, Athus equalizing
of the chamber 39 and the other ring is spaced
from theV shoulder 5| on the shell 49 opening the
v(i0 ,
pressures on each side of the pistons and thereby . `
maior portion of the chamber to the air` ports
55. _Whenthe valve ring engages the shoulder
5I on the shell 49V communication between the
v65 majonpor'tion ot the chamber I9 and the ports
5I is shut oi'i' and the chamber >communicates*
- with ltheconduit Il.;
In order >Vthat the 'brake Amechanisuractuator
allowing Ythe brake return springs-to move the’l
casing tothe left. Of course if the operator’s foot
holds the> pedal lever stationary, then the valve
will close again but onlyimomentarily but it' will
" open again as soon as the power meansïisïeñec__
tive. It is thus seen that to increase the appli1 f"
cation of the brakes, there must be a continuing `
pressure on the i'oot pedal and that“ any given
70 position,` a-‘coil spring 1I `is* attached at one «,end ‘ brake application will be maintained »by holding
means" will normally he' located in ineil'ective
the'foot pedal in a fixed operative position.
Air in_the portion oi?A chamber Il between the "
casing Il. _ This action of spring 10 is further as- _ piston 42 and the partitionr 4l >exerts atmospheric
sisted by the spring release means'l'in the brake pressure therein. As before stated it acts to cre
to the lever I! and at the other end to a shaftV
'Il extending from a boss 12 on the transmission
ate a force against the partition serving to assist
suction inchamber 31 i’n‘ïmoving the casing to therein, 'means in the casing forming a'pa'ssage
the right’when the valve v,seats against the shoul
adapted to open tothe three separated chambers,
a fixed piston in one end chamber, iluidxactuated
assisting suction in the chamberv to move the' means operable to ycreate physical reaction in thepistonA “toward the left. and as the valve is intermediatechamber, a valve movablefa limited
v fixed axially on the valve stem unseating of the extent in the -other 'end chamber, iluid pressure
valve is thus accomplished >unless foot’ pressure means leading to the -valve chamben'said valve
is suillclent tov hold the valve‘seat‘ed. `When the shutting -off ‘or allowing the. passage of ñuid in~
valve is closed, the portion of chamber 38 on _the A the passage, and physically Aoperable> means con
left of the piston V42 isconnected with conduit lnected to actuate said casing.
2. In'an actuator mechanism, -a unitary rigid
66, so that the pressure therein is'lower than Aon
the other side of the piston, and this pressure casing composed of a two diameter cylindrical
vder 5I on the shell' 49;
It also creates a force
differential provides power means for unseating
the valve unless overcome by pressure by the op
erator on the foot pedal.l It is thus -seen that
physical reaction means‘operated by power forms
a part of the -actuator means.v When the opera
tor holds the foot pedal in a given position the
casing will move toward the left, as previously
described, and the valve will seat against the
shoulder 5I on shelly 49 but as soon as power- is
eifectìve this physical reaction means will unseat
the valve unless foot pressure is increased suil‘l
shell and a'pair of shells forming a valve cham
ber ñxed to said smaller diameter shell portion,
a partition in `vthe cylindrical -two diameter shell
separating it into a power chamber and a physi
cal reaction chamber, a ñxed piston in the power
chamber, a piston in the reaction chamber, iluid
pressure means connected with'the valve cham
ber,- a valve movable a limited extent inthe valve
chamber, ‘said valve connecting one end of the
other chambers with the valve chamber and hav
ing the reaction piston fixed thereto, and phys
Such foot pressure must
ically operative means connected with said valve.
therefore be applied along with the powerv de
veloped pressure to apply the brake mechanism.
'I'he ratio of foot pressure required relative to
power developed pressure is determined by the
manifold,l of _actuator means for said mechanism
cient to overcome it.
area of piston 42 relative to piston 3l. v
When pressure on the footv pedal is rbeing re
lieved or released, the power means is ineffective
and the brake mechanism release springs will
move the casing to the left and the spring 'l0
will move the foot lever in a clockwise direction'.
When the actuator means is in inoperative posi
tion the spring 54 will assure seating of the valve
against shoulder 5I on shell 50 to shut off the
conduit 66 so that pressure lower than atmos
phere is stored for use when the> engine is not
40 running, or the suction created when the engine is
running is limited. The spring 'l0 will normally
perform the function of holding the valve in the
closed position just mentioned and spring 54 is.
’required only as an accessory for- this purpose.
While the valve acts directly -to assist in moving
the casing in opposite directions, ‘its function in
this respect is somewhat relieved by engagement
of the nuts> 15 and 16 with` the finger 13 iixed to
the casing, however the valve engagement is
eilîective prior to engagement of the nuts with the
When the power means is ineffective the actu
ator means provides a unitary structure or link
which can be moved to brake applying position
by foot pressure, the valve‘under such circum
3. In a motor vehicle,` the combination with a 25
brake control mechanism including a cross rod
and spring releasing means, and an engine intake .
comprising arm means fixed on the cross rod, a
pivoted foot pedal, a casing intermediate the arm 30
means and the pedal fixed to rock the arm means,
said casing having three separated> chambers
therein open to atmosphere a. ñxed piston in one
end chamber, a Valve movable a limited extent
in tl'ie other end chamber and operatively con
nected with said pedal, said valve having passage
lmeans for establishing communication between
the valve chamber and the other two chambers, a
physical" reaction piston in the intermediate
chamber fixed on the valve, and a connection be
tween the enginemanifold and the Valve chamber.
4. In a motor vehicle, the combination with
brake control mechanism including across rod
and spring releasing means, and an'enginein
take manifold, of actuator means for the brake 45
control mechanism comprising arm means ñxed
to the brake cross rod, a pivoted physical oper
able part, a casing operatively connected to rock
said arm means and apply the brake mechanism
against the action of the spring releasing means, 50
said casing having three aligned separated cham
bers therein each open at one end to atmosphere,
a» ñxed piston in the chamber adjacent `the por
tion of the casing connected with the arm means,
a valve movable'a limited extent in the chamber
at the end of the casing opposite the fixed pis
ton, means operatively connecting the valve ‘with
substantially rigid linkage operable to apply the the' physical operable part, a connection between
brake mechanism. Such linkage is compact and the engineintake manifold andthe valve cham 60
ber, a valve stem extending into the intermedi
60 contains few parts. Physical reaction means is
incorporated in the actuator means and is power ate physical reaction chamber and the fixed pis
operated. The valve portion of the means co-- ton chamber, and a piston in the intermediate
operates with the other elements, andv besidesr chamber fixed on the valve stein, said valve and
controlling the power means `it serves to eiïect stem having passage means connecting the ends
of the reaction chamber and ñxed piston cham 65
65 operation of the power cylinder".
Although the invention has been described in ber on the opposite sides of the pistons to the
ends >open to atmosphere with the valve cham
connection with specific embodiments, the prin
ciples involved are susceptible of numerous other ber and said valve controlling connection of its
applications which will readily occur to persons chamber with atmosphere or the intake mani
skilled in the art. The invention is therefore
5. In a motor vehicle, .the combination with
to be limited only as indicated by the scope of
brake control mechanism including a cross rod
the appended claims. _
and spring ,releasing means, and an engine in
What is claimed is;y
l. In an actuator-mechanism, a rigid casing take manifold, o'f actuator means for the brake y
having three aligned and separated chambers control mechanism comprising arm means fixedstance moving the casing.
It will be seen that the actuator means forms a
_ vto the brakecross rod, a pivoted physicaloper
manifold, mean’s >operatively connecting ythe yvalve _
able part, acasing operatively. connected to rsalti withy the physical operable . part,m _a ‘valve'fstem
arm means tolap'ply the _brake mechanismaga'inst. “extending intp meintermediate nhysieaifreacë. ~
the -action 0'f_»_ the spring- >releasing '_me'ans,A said. tion chamber and theldxedpistonchamber,
.ci 'casing Y having’ a pair Vof valigned chambers; there
a piston in. the intermediate l' vreaction'’ehalriibfel",Ä
in. each open at one end to atmosphere,`_a ilxed _ ñxed 0n the valve/Siem, Said _Y2-_Ive andstem Tha `
piston in'` the chamber adjacentthe portion of the ing passagemeans connecting the vreaction ¿_cha'm;
casing connected with the arm- means, a valve berfand the ñxefd lpiston'-chanibei‘ attire,"'ends'~
movable a limited'extent in the _otherchamberï opposite those 'open toV atrinfisphel“,:with~ *wel* mve.
a pair'of spaced annular'shoulde'r's 1in the valve chamber.l
chamber,v a valve stemjoperatively connected .,.¢,3.„In a motor vehicle, the combination, with;
with the physical operable parta connectionbe 'brake~ control mechanism indudmg' -a cm“ 'mdr
tween> the engine intake manifold and-_the valve
_, Y
chamber, said valve being movableïa limited ex-> `fold, of actuator means for` _the gbrake'control.V
15 tentfinits chamber _to engage shoulders for open- . mechanism comprising arm means fixed to the 115
- ing` yorshutting oit the chamber- to‘atniosphere _brake cross rod, a pivoted, physical _operable I
_ or to the corinectionwith the intake vmanifold,
part,¿ a casing operatively connectedto rockwsaid
said ivalve 'including passage means 'extending arm Ímeans and vapply the brake "mechanism_
from'its chamber to the end of thefnñxed piston
the action three'aligned
ofthe 4spring separated
releasing means,
cham- '~
chamber opposite the end open todjatmosphere, » said
~ _”and means associatedwwith said valve stem (and> bers _` therein >each open at oneend rto atmos
' said casing limiting the movement of the valve- _phere,Üa'fi`xed piston in‘the chamber adjacent'> '
-relativeto the casing; ‘
" '
the portion of the'casing connected with the arm
6.„Inëa motor vehicle, the .combination
Y fwith- _means_:aifvalve movable a limitedextent inîthe `
brake control mechanism including va cross' rod >-’chamber at the endoithe casing opposite the "25,
and spring releasing means, and an'intakemani
fixed piston, stems extending from opposite4 faces i ‘
>fold, of actuator__means for thel brake control` " of the valve, means connecting one ofthe stems' '
_ mechanism comprising arm means fixed to the
with the physical operable’part, the other valve y
’brake cross rod,y a pivoted physicaloperable part, stem extending through the intermediate cham
_ a casing' operatively connected at. one end to rock. ber andV into the Ailxecl piston chamber, a conë 30,
said arm means and apply the brake’mechanism.. nection between the engine intake manifold and.
against the action oi the spring releasing means, _ the valve chamber, and aplston in the interme
said casing having three aligned chambers sep«4 diate chamberjñxed _on 'the _valve stem, said
arated by‘a pair of transversely extending walls _ valve and the valve stem extending'through the
35 `and being open. at one end to atmosphere, said intermediate chamber` and into the Afixed piston
transversely ’extending walls ‘having , axially chamber having passage means _thereinconnect
aligned bearings, auñxed piston inthe chamber ing said chamberson-the opposite _side of the pis
adjacent the end'of Athe casing connected to the `tons from the _side open to atmosphere withsaid
arm means, a valveymovable a limited extent in
40 the chamber at lthe end of the caSing'remOte'IrOm Y
» 9. In a motor vehicle, the combination with
the `fixed piston chamber, means1operativel`y, con
brake control meehanismf including a cross rodl
and spring releasing means, and an intake mani
. necting the .valve with the physical operable
part,” a connectionfbetwee'n the engine intake
fold, of actuator` Vmeans for the 'brake control
manifold and the valve chamber, a valve stem `mechanism comprising arm~means nxed'lto the ' ì
45 extendingv through the bearings inthe trans
brake cross rod, a pivotedphysical operable part,_._
ver'sely extending walls ofrthe casingQand a pis-_` a casing operativelyconnected _to rock-said arm
' tonin the kintermediate _chamber fixed on they means-and apply the lbrake .mechanism against>
valve stem, saidvalveand stem having passage v the action of the springreleasing means, said
means leading »from .the valve' chamber to the
casing having three aligned separatedy chambers
-50 ends of the piston chambers remotev kfrom the
therein each open at oneïend to atmosphere, a
endsA open „to _atmosphere and .said valveV con».r iìxed 'piston in the chamber adjacent the portionrl`
trolling' the 'connection Yci! its chamber with at
oi' the casing connectedY with the >arm means, a ~
mosphere >or Athe connection with the-_ intake
f manifold.
' the end of the casing. opposite _the ?xed vpiston
7."In a motor vehicle,`the 'combination> with
` chamber, means operatively connecting the valve l
rod-_ " with the physical operable part, a connection be
brake control lmechanismfincluding a cross
and spring releasingmeans, and an intakeA mani
' valve movable a limited extent in the chamber at
tweenthe engineintake 'manifoldand the valve
fold, of actuator means for the brake .controh chamber, avalve stem extending throughk the
mechanism comprising arm means fixed to the " intermediate chamber and _into 4the --fixed piston
brake' cross rod,'a vpivoted physicaloperable part,
chamber, 'and a piston in the intermediate cham -60
a casing operatively connected. to,v rock said -arm _ bernxed on the valve/stem, said vvalve having "
means and’apply the_ï_brake `mecl'ianism against
radialpassage's therein opening through the pe-k
the action of'fthelispring releasing means,"Y said ' riphery and communicating Awith Aa passage ex
casing having three aligned separated chambers
tendinglthrougb the valve stem, said stem having
therein each _open aty one end to atmosphere,_a >openings communicating with said intermediate
fixed piston inthe chamber adjacent the por@ chamber on the side of the piston therein oppo- '
- tion _of the fcasing» connected Íwith the arm
‘site the sideopen to atmosphere.
means, a connection-between the chamber‘zat the
end of the casing remote from the í'lxed piston
chamber with the intake manifold, 'a valve -mov
and spring releasing'means,«and an intake mani'
able a-limited‘extent in thechamber connected
fold, ofiactuator- lmeans for thevbrake _control ' ß ' ~ I
with the intake manifgid, said valve having rub- 1
berfring means on its marginal Vfaces adapted to
lseat againstl the casing to >seal thechamber from
10Q-Iny a motor vehicle',;'the_ combination' with V _
brake control mechanism including a _cross `»rod
mechanism comprising arm means fined to'the -`
vbrake cross rod, a pivoted physical operable part, _
a casing operatively connected to rock said arm
"15 atmosphere or -the connection withv the intake means and apply the brake mechanism 'against'`
the action of the spring releasing means, said
casing having three aligned separated chambers
therein each open at one end to atmosphere. a
fixed piston in the chamber adjacent the portion
of the casing connected with the arm means, a
valve movable a limited extent in the chamber at
the end of the casing opposite the ñxed piston
chamber, means operatively connecting the valvel
with the physical operable part, a connection be
10 tween the engine intake> manifold and the valve
chamber, a valve stem extending into the inter
mediate chamber and the fixed piston chamber, a
piston in the intermediate chamber fixed on th'e
valve stem, said valve and stem having passage
means connecting the ends of the intermediate
chamber and the fixed piston chamber remote
from the ends open to atmosphere with the valve
chamber and said valvel controlling communica
tion of its chamber with atmosphere or the in
20v take manifold connection. and a spring in the
valve chamber urging the valve into position
opening the chamber to atmosphere.
11. Mechanism for actuating a motor vehicle
element comprising a casing having three sep
arated aligned chambers therein open to atmos
phere, movable means in- th'e casing forming a
passage adapted to open to said three separated
chambers, a ñxed piston in one of the end cham
bers, a valve on said means movable a limited ex
tent in the other of the end chambers, said valve 10
having passage means therein communicating
with the passage in said movable means for estab
lishing communication between the valve cham
_ber and the other two chambers, a reaction pis
ton in the intermediate chamber fixed to said
passage forming means and movable therewith,
physically operable means connected with said
passage forming means, and a suction connection
communicating with the valve chambers.
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