Патент USA US2119698код для вставки
72,119,698 Patented June 7, 1938 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE, SUCKER ROD AND PROCESS OF MANUFAC TURING THE SAME ' Frank B. Bayle'ss, Oil City, PaQassignor to Oil Well Supply Company, Dallas, Tex.,_a corpo ration of New Jersey No Drawing. Application July 6, 1935, Serial No. 30,170 ' 2 ‘Claims. My present invention relates to an alloy re sistant to corrosion by mineral acids, such as (Cl. 148-12) better will'be the result. The percentage of man ganese in the alloy should not, be above about 0.20%, and the less manganese below this upper sulphuric and hydrochloric acids, and to corrosive compounds, such as salt or saline waters, of hy 5 drogen, sulphide. It relates particularly to an al _loy that may be hardened to give it an increased, limit, that is, the nearer the amount of..manga- ' nese approaches zero, the better will be‘ the re- 5 \sult. ‘tensile strength suitable for the construction of oil pumping equipment, such as pumping ele-‘ ments,vsucker rods, connectors, tubing,‘ etc., and 10 remain resistant to hydrogen sulphide or or ganic sulphides, and to saline waters occurring in certain oil wells. ' ‘ should be low. , While there is no de?nite upper ' limit for either of .these two elements,»the best quality will be obtained when the phosphorus is 10 not over 0.03% and the sulphur is not over 0.035%. _ , The percentages of phosphorus and of sulphur ' ~ ~ The alloy may be made and sold as a rimmed operating the pumps of deep oil wells, must have Y grade but is preferably made as free as possible Pumping equipment, such as sucker'rods for 15 a, high elastic limit inasmuch as they must sup port the column of oil standing in the tubing as of oxygen by deoxidizing in .a furnace so that a ‘15 uniformldeoxidation may be accomplished under well as the weight of the sucker rods and pump suitable conditions in an open hearth furnace or, lng mechanism. preferably, in an electric furnace. ‘ . During the pumping of the well the sucker rod, and certain other pump elements, are subjected > The metal is cast into ingots and the ingots are rolled to blooms ‘at a temperature interval of 20 to periodic stresses as the pump moves in its al-. 2600“,F., to 2200° F. The rolled bloom product is cooled and equalized at 2000° F., and converted ternate upward and downward strokes. The" r necessity for obtaining a high’ elastic limit and to,billets at a ?nishing temperature of 1750° F. the recurrent stress modi?cations render the sucker rods and similar equipment particularly susceptible to the corrosive action of sulphides ‘and saline or acidic substances present in the oil from some ?elds. My present invention provides an alloy, and sucker ‘rods and other equipment made from 30 such‘alloy, having an added resistance to cor rosion under the conditions prevailing in oil wells, The rerolling of the billets to ?nal round bars is performed in an interval between 2000° F., and a 25 ?nishing temperature of 1680” F. After the alloy has been rolled to rods, the latter are cut to an appropriate length and the ends heated and up-‘ set to form the enlarged squared length and the end tubular length for receiving screw threads. 39 These ends are then normalized by heating to a temperature of about 1600° F., for 45 minutes and also of general application as a corrosion re and permitted to cool in the air. sisting alloy for other purposes. ', The invention also provides methods whereby the alloy may be suitably worked and shaped to The sucker rods may then be hardened and straightened by the process described in my co- 35 I pending application Serial No. 639,929, now Pat .ent No. 2,049,830. For this purpose the rods are reheated to a temperature of about 1650” F., and The corrosion resistant alloy of my invention is then quenched ‘in cold water to harden them. During this quenching, the tubes or other articles 40 formed of a substantially pure iron to which ‘lim '40 ited quantities or proportions of nickel and mo will become distorted or warped, even though they , lybdenum have been added. The percentage of may be held to prevent excessive distortion such nickel in the alloy is preferably about 3.50%, or as would interfere with subsequent handling. from 3.35% to 3.75%. The percentages may, The rods are then reheated to draw the hardness however, vary somewhat from these optimum per or to temper them. For this purpose they are 5 centages. The lowest limit that may be used is preferably heated to a temperature of 1200° F., obtain the various articles into which it is to be made. ‘ ‘ ‘ 2%, and the- highest about 5% . The percentage of molybdenum is between 0.15% and 0.30%. The percentage of molybdenum may be somewhat 50 above the upper limit of 0.30% to a possible max imum of 1%. The alloy should, however, in every case contain at least 0.15% molybdenum. ' ' The percentage of carbon in the iron or steel must in no-case be greater than about 0.10%, and the nearer the percentage of carbon is to zero, the although this temperature may be in some cases as low as 1000° 'F., or as high as 1400" F. When the rods have been brought to the tempering 5o temperature they are stretched beyond their yield point as described in the above co-pending ap plication. This straightens the rods and removes any warping or distortion. Thereafter the rods are permitted to cool to atmospheric temperature. 55 ‘2.. 2,119,698 The required ?nishing‘alnd threading of the ends same conditions, ran to only 700,000 cycles before _ may then be accomplished. failure. A 3% nickel wrought iron, tested/under the same con tions, ran only 850,000 cycles to Sucker rods formed of the above alloy as de scribed above have a hardness and elastic limit materially above those of pure, corrosion resist ant iron, but have a resistance to corrosion greater than, that of steel containing a higher percentage of carbon. The alloy has the very failure. particular reference to vsucker rods for which _ it is particularly applicable and advantageous, it will be understood that it may be used for other desirable property that it is highly resistant to the pumping equipment such as pump ?ttings, tub ing, etc., and may be employed for the construc 10 tion of various other equipment in which ‘resist 10 action of hydrogen sulphide and saline waters when subjected to alternate or recurrent stresses such as sucker rods are subjected to in pumping a well. ' ’ Y . While my invention has been described with ' ance to corrosion coupled with strength and hard ‘ nesspis desired. Whereas hardened steels and even wrought iron ' } What I-claim is- 15 are rapidly attacked by such corrosive compounds ‘ Y . ‘ i 1. IL sucker rod comprised of low carbon nickel under the alternating"”stretching and release of molybdenum steel, said steel consisting of be tween 2 and 5%. nickel, between .15 to 1% molyb denum, less than .10% carbon, less than 20% successivev pump strokes, sucker rods made in ac cordance with this invention are highly resistant to these corrosive materials and may have a life from 40% to 80% longer than that of wrought 15 manganese, , the said steel being substantially free from oxygen‘, phosphorus and sulphur. 20 2. The method‘ of hardening a sucker rod com-p A ‘table of properties typical of ‘my! alloy asv _ .prised of' low carbon nickel-molybdenum steel applied to sucker rods and similar apparatus is _< ‘iron or steel. having the composition specified in claim 1, which as follows: _ comprises heating the rod to temperatures'ap Typical physical properties secured' from made "8” steel after various heat a > treatments ,_ Yield -30 . ' . All tests made on %” rounds , . Natural or as rolled condition .36 (?nish rolling above 1900’ F) .-_. ormalized 1650" F ........................ and air cooled irom_. ‘ quenched 1650° F. in Tensile lbs./sq.in. cold water . 21???" Red. - Bmmu w, oi round area pered at 1400° F’. ______________ .- 43 42 _ ' Endurance pact it. limit in air lbs. lbs/sq. in. - 30 75 134 79 133 _ ...... _- __ I - ' 63,250 ‘ 72, 250 35% 163 93 52, 000. 153 85 .............. . I ' , 56,000 08,000 40 A test piece of the alloy was subjected as a ro ‘tating beam to reversed stresses or 30,000 lbs. per square inch computed outer fibre stress at the rate 45 of 361/2 R. P. M. while surrounded by well water and hydrogen sulphide, air being excluded. It ran to 1,260,000 R. P. M. before failure. A .50 carbon steel normalized, quenched and drawn to 250 Brinell hardness and having a tensilestrength 50 of 115,000 lbs. per ; Puma-cent 65, 150 06.1!)0 irom Quencbed in cold water from 1650° F. Drawn-back or tem- Izod im- ‘hardness Per ( 44, 800 48, ‘ 500 Drawn-back or tem- pered to 1200° F _______ .-_ ...... -- > point (beam) (drop of) strength lbs.,sq.|‘n. square'inch, tested under the. 80 proximating 1650° F., quenching the heated rod in water, reheating the quenched rod to tempera tures-within the range 1000° F. to 1200° F. to temper the rod and ‘during the tempering heat I. treatment subjecting the rod to tensile stresses adapted to stretch the rod beyond its elastic limit,’ and thereafter cooling the stretched and tem pered rod to atmospheric temperatures. FRANK B. BAYLESS. '