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Патент USA US2119698

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72,119,698
Patented June 7, 1938
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE,
SUCKER ROD AND PROCESS OF MANUFAC
TURING THE SAME
'
Frank B. Bayle'ss, Oil City, PaQassignor to Oil
Well Supply Company, Dallas, Tex.,_a corpo
ration of New Jersey
No Drawing. Application July 6, 1935,
Serial No. 30,170
' 2 ‘Claims.
My present invention relates to an alloy re
sistant to corrosion by mineral acids, such as
(Cl. 148-12)
better will'be the result. The percentage of man
ganese in the alloy should not, be above about
0.20%, and the less manganese below this upper
sulphuric and hydrochloric acids, and to corrosive
compounds, such as salt or saline waters, of hy
5 drogen, sulphide. It relates particularly to an al
_loy that may be hardened to give it an increased,
limit, that is, the nearer the amount of..manga- '
nese approaches zero, the better will be‘ the re- 5
\sult.
‘tensile strength suitable for the construction of
oil pumping equipment, such as pumping ele-‘
ments,vsucker rods, connectors, tubing,‘ etc., and
10 remain resistant to hydrogen sulphide or or
ganic sulphides, and to saline waters occurring in
certain oil wells.
'
‘
should be low. , While there is no de?nite upper '
limit for either of .these two elements,»the best
quality will be obtained when the phosphorus is 10
not over 0.03% and the sulphur is not over
0.035%.
_
,
The percentages of phosphorus and of sulphur '
~
~
The alloy may be made and sold as a rimmed
operating the pumps of deep oil wells, must have Y grade but is preferably made as free as possible
Pumping equipment, such as sucker'rods for
15 a, high elastic limit inasmuch as they must sup
port the column of oil standing in the tubing as
of oxygen by deoxidizing in .a furnace so that a ‘15
uniformldeoxidation may be accomplished under
well as the weight of the sucker rods and pump
suitable conditions in an open hearth furnace or,
lng mechanism.
preferably, in an electric furnace. ‘
.
During the pumping of the well the sucker rod,
and certain other pump elements, are subjected
>
The metal is cast into ingots and the ingots
are rolled to blooms ‘at a temperature interval of 20
to periodic stresses as the pump moves in its al-. 2600“,F., to 2200° F. The rolled bloom product
is cooled and equalized at 2000° F., and converted
ternate upward and downward strokes. The"
r
necessity for obtaining a high’ elastic limit and to,billets at a ?nishing temperature of 1750° F.
the recurrent stress modi?cations render the
sucker rods and similar equipment particularly
susceptible to the corrosive action of sulphides
‘and saline or acidic substances present in the oil
from some ?elds.
My present invention provides an alloy, and
sucker
‘rods and other equipment made from
30 such‘alloy,
having an added resistance to cor
rosion under the conditions prevailing in oil wells,
The rerolling of the billets to ?nal round bars is
performed in an interval between 2000° F., and a 25
?nishing temperature of 1680” F. After the alloy
has been rolled to rods, the latter are cut to an
appropriate length and the ends heated and up-‘
set to form the enlarged squared length and the
end tubular length for receiving screw threads. 39
These ends are then normalized by heating to a
temperature of about 1600° F., for 45 minutes
and also of general application as a corrosion re
and permitted to cool in the air.
sisting alloy for other purposes. ',
The invention also provides methods whereby
the alloy may be suitably worked and shaped to
The sucker rods may then be hardened and
straightened by the process described in my co- 35
I
pending application Serial No. 639,929, now Pat
.ent No. 2,049,830. For this purpose the rods are
reheated to a temperature of about 1650” F., and
The corrosion resistant alloy of my invention is then quenched ‘in cold water to harden them.
During this quenching, the tubes or other articles 40
formed of a substantially pure iron to which ‘lim
'40 ited
quantities or proportions of nickel and mo
will become distorted or warped, even though they
, lybdenum have been added. The percentage of
may be held to prevent excessive distortion such
nickel in the alloy is preferably about 3.50%, or as would interfere with subsequent handling. from 3.35% to 3.75%. The percentages may, The rods are then reheated to draw the hardness
however,
vary somewhat from these optimum per
or to temper them. For this purpose they are
5
centages. The lowest limit that may be used is preferably heated to a temperature of 1200° F.,
obtain the various articles into which it is to be
made.
‘
‘
‘
2%, and the- highest about 5% . The percentage of
molybdenum is between 0.15% and 0.30%. The
percentage of molybdenum may be somewhat
50 above the upper limit of 0.30% to a possible max
imum of 1%. The alloy should, however, in every
case contain at least 0.15% molybdenum. '
'
The percentage of carbon in the iron or steel
must in no-case be greater than about 0.10%, and
the nearer the percentage of carbon is to zero, the
although this temperature may be in some cases
as low as 1000° 'F., or as high as 1400" F. When
the rods have been brought to the tempering 5o
temperature they are stretched beyond their yield point as described in the above co-pending ap
plication. This straightens the rods and removes
any warping or distortion. Thereafter the rods
are permitted to cool to atmospheric temperature. 55
‘2..
2,119,698
The required ?nishing‘alnd threading of the ends
same conditions, ran to only 700,000 cycles before
_ may then be accomplished.
failure. A 3% nickel wrought iron, tested/under
the same con tions, ran only 850,000 cycles to
Sucker rods formed of the above alloy as de
scribed above have a hardness and elastic limit
materially above those of pure, corrosion resist
ant iron, but have a resistance to corrosion
greater than, that of steel containing a higher
percentage of carbon. The alloy has the very
failure.
particular reference to vsucker rods for which _
it is particularly applicable and advantageous,
it will be understood that it may be used for other
desirable property that it is highly resistant to the
pumping equipment such as pump ?ttings, tub
ing, etc., and may be employed for the construc 10
tion of various other equipment in which ‘resist
10 action of hydrogen sulphide and saline waters
when subjected to alternate or recurrent stresses
such as sucker rods are subjected to in pumping a
well.
'
’
Y
.
While my invention has been described with
' ance to corrosion coupled with strength and hard
‘
nesspis desired.
Whereas hardened steels and even wrought iron '
}
What I-claim is-
15 are rapidly attacked by such corrosive compounds
‘
Y
.
‘ i
1. IL sucker rod comprised of low carbon nickel
under the alternating"”stretching and release of
molybdenum steel, said steel consisting of be
tween 2 and 5%. nickel, between .15 to 1% molyb
denum, less than .10% carbon, less than 20%
successivev pump strokes, sucker rods made in ac
cordance with this invention are highly resistant
to these corrosive materials and may have a life
from 40% to 80% longer than that of wrought
15
manganese, , the said steel being substantially
free from oxygen‘, phosphorus and sulphur.
20
2. The method‘ of hardening a sucker rod com-p
A ‘table of properties typical
of ‘my! alloy asv
_
.prised
of'
low
carbon
nickel-molybdenum
steel
applied to sucker rods and similar apparatus is _<
‘iron or steel.
having the composition specified in claim 1, which
as follows:
_
comprises heating the rod to temperatures'ap
Typical physical properties secured' from made "8” steel after various heat
a
>
treatments
,_
Yield
-30
.
'
.
All tests made on %” rounds
,
.
Natural or as rolled condition
.36
(?nish rolling above 1900’ F) .-_.
ormalized
1650" F ........................
and air cooled irom_.
‘
quenched
1650° F.
in
Tensile
lbs./sq.in.
cold
water
.
21???" Red. - Bmmu
w,
oi
round
area
pered at 1400° F’. ______________ .-
43
42
_
'
Endurance
pact it.
limit in air
lbs.
lbs/sq. in.
-
30
75
134
79
133
_
...... _-
__
I
-
'
63,250
‘ 72, 250
35%
163
93
52, 000.
153
85 .............. .
I
'
,
56,000
08,000
40
A test piece of the alloy was subjected as a ro
‘tating beam to reversed stresses or 30,000 lbs. per
square inch computed outer fibre stress at the rate
45 of 361/2 R. P. M. while surrounded by well water
and hydrogen sulphide, air being excluded. It ran
to 1,260,000 R. P. M. before failure. A .50 carbon
steel normalized, quenched and drawn to 250
Brinell hardness and having a tensilestrength
50 of 115,000 lbs. per
;
Puma-cent
65, 150
06.1!)0
irom
Quencbed in cold water from
1650° F. Drawn-back or tem-
Izod im-
‘hardness
Per
(
44, 800
48,
‘ 500
Drawn-back or tem-
pered to 1200° F _______ .-_ ...... --
>
point
(beam)
(drop of) strength
lbs.,sq.|‘n.
square'inch, tested under the.
80
proximating 1650° F., quenching the heated rod
in water, reheating the quenched rod to tempera
tures-within the range 1000° F. to 1200° F. to
temper the rod and ‘during the tempering heat I.
treatment subjecting the rod to tensile stresses
adapted to stretch the rod beyond its elastic limit,’
and thereafter cooling the stretched and tem
pered rod to atmospheric temperatures.
FRANK B. BAYLESS. '
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