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Патент USA US2119830

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June 7, 1938.
" 2,119,830
Filed Oct. 2, 1954
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
?ll/ran A. Powers
dab/r A. VVi/aon
June 7, 1938.
Filed Oct. 2, 1934
H_w\ \
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
/////f2? 66
41/71'0/2 A. Pan/era
Jo/m A. M/i/san'
Patented June "7, 1938
Milton A. Powers and John A. Wilson, Detroit,
Mich., assignors, by mesne assignments, to The
Timken-Detroit Axle Company, a corporation
of Ohio
Application October 2, 1934, vSerial No. 746,582
14 Claims.
The present invention relates to methods of
and apparatus for burning‘liquid fuels. More
particularly the present invention relates to
methods of, and apparatus for igniting and com
busting liquid fuels in burners of ‘the wall ?ame
type, whereby such burners are enabledv to func
tion reliably and economically ‘while using fuel
oil of poorer quality and higher viscosity than
has heretofore been thought possible of use.
In co-pending Powers application for a “Metal
hearth ring", application No. 620,373, dated July
_(Cl. 158—4)-
into suf?ciently small droplets to wet the hearth
periphery evenly. To attempt to atomize the oil I
or to break it into particles smaller than sum
cient to meet this requirement is distinctly un
desirable as ?nely atomized oil will burn rapidly
in the presence of air and di?iculty will be en
countered in holding the ?ame at the periphery.
Under conditions of excessive atomization the
rate of ?ame propagation towardthe distributor 1
will exceed the outward velocity of the oil and
the ?ame will accordingly burn or “?ash" back to
1, 1932, and Wilson application No. 682,374, dated ‘ the distributor causing trouble;
July 27, 1933 for a Grill, will be found a full de
scription of the operation and characteristics of
an oil burner having a metal hearth ring con-
struction in comparison with the conventional
refractory clay segments heretofore universally
used. Further investigation has disclosed ‘that
the use of such metal constructions in special
20 ized forms, and in accordance with the methods
of combustion of our invention which are about
to be formulated, opens heretofore unsuspected
possibilities in the effective burning of lower
quality oils with the wall ?ame burner. During
the ?rst few years of use of the wall ?ame burner,
and in fact until only comparatively recently, it
was considered impractical to recommend oils in
ferior in quality to the No. 1 grade (United States
Commercial Standards) for reliable domestic use
in automatic burners of this types Later develop
ments in ignition devices and segment form en
abled the same burners to operate with the better
commercial grades pf No. 2 oil. The recent rapid
introduction of the metal segment construction
35 disclosed in our previously mentioned applica
tions has warranted the recommendation of even
the poorest grades of No. 2 611 without quali?ca
The ?rst re
quirement, therefore, is to wet the ?ame rim with
liquid oil. There will be su?icient splatter result-i
ing/from the oil striking the face of the segment
to propagate the ignition ?ame around the pe
riphery. Thereafter the wet oil is vaporized by
the heat in the ?ame ring segments received
from the burning oil, the vapors are mixed with
the out?owing air stream and combustion oc 20
curs. At normal operating temperature the rate
of vapor production is so high that the flame is
unable to maintain itself in the immediate vicin
ity of the vaporizing oil and "rises” to the top
of the segment where it burns in suspension over
the metal segments, around the grills, (if grills 25
are used in the installation) and in close proxim
ity to the boiler wall.
It is therefore evident that the vaporizing zone
or region is ?lled with rich vapors and no ?ame 30
can exist, because very little if any air or oxygen
is present. Hence a "reducing” atmosphere, as
contrasted with an “oxidizing” atmosphere is
present in-this zone. ' Consequently (except for a
short time in starting andafter stopping) no con 35
ditions exist in the oil impinging zone for remov
ing the oil and its residue from-the ?ame ring
tion. In fact good grades of No. 3 oil are burned except the heat of vaporization.
with complete satisfaction in numerous installa
The specification for a No. 1 oil calls fora dis
tions. Continued development‘ in the laboratory > tillation/range, with all of the oil evaporated, at
with poor grades of both No. 3 and No. 4 011 gives a temperature not to exceed 600° F. A ?ame rim
indications of fair success with the No. 3 but segment temperature" of this degree or higher is
almost hopeless results with the low quality No.__ accordingly all that is necessary to completely
4 oil. An analysis of the difficulties proved that change all of the liquid oil to a vapor. The rigid
45 an entirely different angle of attack was neces
sary for a successful outcome and the following
line of reasoning was responsible for the success
attained by the’fuel burning‘ methods and con
structions of our invention to be described later.
In the ?rst place let us brie?y analyze the
modus operandi of the present ‘day wall ?ame
burner. Oil is thrown by centrifugal forces from"
the distributor head to the ?ame or combustion
rim at the periphery of the boiler. The most im
55 portant requirement is that this oil be divided
speci?cationsms to free carbon, ash, sulphur, and
so‘ on practically assures their absence from fuels
of No. 1- speci?cation nowon the market. Hence
operation may continue inde?nitely without ac
cumulation of carbon or foreign matter while
'using No. 1 oil-and continued good combustion 50
a burner of the character shown by the previ
ously mentioned applications will operate with
will result. These are the conditions under which
high quality, sediment free oils. ’
The next poorer grade oil, a No. 2 presents
a somewhat di?erent story. The distillation re
quirements specify that 90 percent of the 011 must
vaporize below 620° F.
In other words a some‘
what higher temperature is needed to vaporize
even the lighter nine tenths of the oil, but there
is no speci?c limitation as to the vaporizing
range of the last 10 percent of the oil. It is as
sumed, of course, that said remainder would con
tlnue in conformity with the quality of the ?rst
90 percent although there is no limitation to re
quire this.
And moreover a further di?icul-ty
attending use of No. 2 oil resides in the fact that
much oil has been sold as No. 2 oil in which this
last 10 percent necessitated much higher vapor
izing temperatures than would be expected It is
not unknown for No. 2 oil to be delivered from
trucks which have not been cleaned after carry
ing very heavy grades of oil. As a result oils mar
keted as corresponding to the No. 2 speci?ca
20 tions may contain an appreciable percentage of
tarry products almost entirely unvaporizable un
der normal operating temperatures. Accordingly,
when using some No. 2 oils, under short periods
of operation, segment temperatures do not reach
a maximum, residue collects and burner ignition
and operation soon becomes erratic.
Under these circumstances (short periods of
operation), when attempts were made to-burn a
poor grade of No. 4 oil with its considerable pro
portion of heavy tarry ends, free carbon, and
ash, there was a most rapid accumulation of
such matter. At times a few minutes operation
was su?‘icient to build up an inwardly projecting
wall of solid matter sufficient to prevent further
combustion of acceptable quality.
Such were conditions at the beginning of the
present development of the invention, and it was
realized that a radical departure from the usual
methods of combustion with the wall ?ame burner
40 would be necessary for progress to be made.
The vaporizing zone on the wall ?ame burner,
as mentioned earlier, is entirely surrounded by
rich vapors with very little if any air.present,
and it was found when using No. 4 oils, that any
collection of unvaporized material remained un
It is another object of the invention to provide
a fuel burning apparatus of the character having
a carbureting surface against which liquid fuel
impinges, with means for directing a supply 01'
air at theface of fuel impingement, to establish
a combustion zone of oxidizing character for con
suming fuel that fails to vaporize.
A further. object of the invention is to devise
novel methods for combusting fuels, which result
in employing only slightly more combustion sup
porting air than that calculated as required for
oxidation of the fuel.
It is ‘another object of the present invention to
devise novel methods for burning heavy liquid
fuels which comprises utilizing a part of the. 15
heat of the fuel to vaporize the same, the heat
for this purpose being obtained from the com
ponentsof the fuel that are difficult if not im
possible to vaporize.
The present invention also aims to devise novel 20
means for initiating combustion in liquid fuel
burning apparatus, which is so designed as to
make feasible the combustion of heavier fuels
than) heretofore believed capable of use.
Further objects of the present invention will 25
become apparent as vthe detailed description
thereof proceeds in connection with the annexed
drawings, and from the appended claims.
In the drawings:
Figure l is a vertical sectional view of a boiler 30
equipped with a fuel burning device constructed
in accordance with the present invention.
Figure 2 is a front view of one of the carburet
ing ring segments as it appears when removed
from the device shown in Figure 1.
Figure 3 is a sectional view taken on the line
3-3 of Figure 2; and also diagrammatically il
lustrates the combustion conditions that exist in
the device.
Figure 4 is a view similar to Figure 3, but il
lustrates a slightly modi?ed form of air directing
Figure 5 is a front view of a modi?ed form of
segment assembly also forming part of the pres
affected and accumulated until it caused com
ent invention.
Figure 6 is a sectional view taken on the line
bustion failure. It was discovered however, that
6-6 of Figure 5.
by directing relatively large quantities of com
bustion air directly at the base of the vaporizing
50 zone a surprising change in combustion condi
tions took place. It was found that su?lcient
air to initiate combustion was now present below
the oil impingement line, and a very active roll- .
ing ?ame continued to burn in the trough por
55 tion of the combustion ring segments, with result
ing greatly increased operating temperatures.
The metal parts in proximity to the ?ame at
tained a bright cherry temperature (about 1700‘
F.) and remained so during operation. This high
temperature eliminated all chance for incom
plete vaporization of high boiling point portions
and thereby rendered it entirely feasible to burn
oils of No. 3 and No. 4 speci?cations.
It is accordingly a primary object 'of the pres
65 ent invention to devise" methods and apparatus
for e?iciently burning heavier liquid fuels than
have heretofore been used.
Figure 7 is a view similar to Figure 6, but il
lustrates a modi?ed form of carbureting ring
assembly segment.
Figure 8 is a front view of a still further modi
?ed form of carbureting ring segment.
Figure 9 is a sectional view-taken on the line
9—8 of Figure 8.
Figure 10 is a sectional view illustrating a fur
ther form of carbureting ring assembly.
Figures 11 and 12 illustrate a variation in the
construction shown in Figure 10.
Figure 13 is a fragmental sectional view
through the device shown in Figure l butillus
trates a modi?ed form of electrode assembly as
sociated therewith, also forming part of the pres
‘ .ent invention.
_ Figure 14 is a fragmental sectional view taken
on the line I.4-ll of Figure 13.
Figure 15 is a fragmental sectional view taken
on the line l5--l5 of Figure 14, and
Figure 16 is a diagrammatic illustration of the
A further major object of the inventionis to ‘transformer and circuit utilized with the igniting
devise a fuel burning apparatus having a reduc
70 ing combustion zone and an oxidizing combustion
zone, the zones being so located that fuel that
fails to vaporize in the reducing zone will auto
device shown in Figures 13, 14 and 15.
with continued. reference to the drawings,
wherein like reference characters have been em
ployed to designate like parts throughout the
,, ._ matically ?nd its way to the‘ oxidizing zone} several views thereof, we have illustrated our fuel
where it is efficiently combusted.
vburning apparatus shown as being incorporated 15
in a boiler having a base portion II and a water
de?ecting members II cooperate with the ‘air
streams projected from distributor It in a man
Mounted on -. an inwardly extending ?ange l2
ner to be hereinafter described. '
of base I0, is a hearth member it which con
.sists of a refractory clay mass which may be
Combustion of the liquid fuel may be ini
tiated in any suitable; manner, the ignition
mechanism of the device-shown in Figure 1 tak
molded in place in the boiler. Extending through
a centrally disposed aperture in hearth I3 is a . ing the form of a pair of electric rcs. Prefer
. ably disposed at diametrically op
to points
prising a stand I4, a motor l5, and a distributor of the carbureting ring assembly .areelectrodes
head IS, the latter being provided with a plu-. 31, each of which preferably consists of an in
rality of nozzles I1 and a plurality of fan blades timately mixed mass of carborundum and re
l8. The distributor assembly forms no part of fractory material disposed in a metallic container
the present invention, and its operation will secured to the segments.‘ The carbureting ring
therefore be only brie?y described. The dis
is provided with apertures opposite electrodes
15 tributor head rotates at motor speed and throws 31 in order to allow an arc to pass from the sur
unatomized droplets of oil upwardly and out- _ face of the carborundum to an electrode II '
wardly, and it discharges an outwardly and which is molded in the hearth opposite each
liquid fuel and air distributor assembly,' com
downwardly extending blast of air, the streams
electrode 31. Electrodes 10 are ‘connected by
of oil and. air being combusted in a manner to
20 be hereinafter described. The distributor as
means of leads 3! across the high side of a trans
former 40. The voltage across the high side of 20
the transformer 40 preferably lies in the neigh
borhood' of from 12,000 ‘to 15,000 volts and the
sembly is adapted to be automatically controlled
in accordance with temperature changes by
mechanism disposed in a control stand‘Zi.
current produced thereby goes through ‘one '
‘Disposed- on the upper surface of hearth i3 is electrode I8 and jumps across the gap in the
25 a carbuzeting ring assembly,\and in the present form of a ?aming arc, enters, one electrode 31.
instance it consists of a plurality of metal seg
travels through the connected segments of the
ments which are welded or otherwise suitably carbureted ring and into the other electrode,”
secured together to‘ form a unitary whole. With
particular reference to Figures 2 and 3, each
30 segment consists of a body 22' preferably of
pressed- metal. Although any suitable material
may be employed for the segments, the high tem '
peratures to which the metal portions of the
burner are subjected necessitates the use of a
special heat resisting steel unaffected by oxidiz
ing conditions in the burner, and it has been
then through another ?aming are into the other
electrode 30. It is therefore seen that the arcs
or spark gaps are disposed in series vwith the "30
result that. the voltage across each gap will be
one;half‘ of the voltage across the high tension
Before proceeding to a detaileddiscussion of
the modi?ed forms of the invention, a. descrip
tion of the operation of the construction just
found that a chromium steel having a chromium
described will now be set forth. The controlling
content of from 20 to 28% is suitable for' the
mechanism for the burner is preferably arranged
so that the motor is started simultaneously with
energization of transformer 40 with the result
that the oil, or other liquid fuel; is thrown out
Each segment 22 is provided with a vertical wardly from the head, (illustrated as droplets-in
impact _wall 23, which ‘provides a vaporizing Figure 3) and strikes portions 23 of the segment
surface; a gutter portion 24, into which unva
and breaks up into smaller particles which drop
‘present device, while somewhat lower percent
ages of chromium may also be used with reason
45 porized. components of the .fuel may rest while
" they are consumed by the oxidizing atmosphere
therein; and an upwardly inclined air directing
surface 25.
Segments 22 are supported upon the \
hearth by means of a plurality of metal plates
'50 26 which generally conform to the con?guration
of segments 22 and are secured thereto by a
welding or like‘ operation. '
down into the electric arc and are volatilized and
ignited. The arcs, are intensely hot, and accord
ingly heat the volatilized fuel- to a high tempera
_ ture and ionize the air and oil vapor in the region
‘of the electrodes, with the result that the. vapor
ignites._ It should be observed that while the
above operation takes place the current ?owing '
~ through electrode 31 heats it to a high‘ temper
Although the mechanism perform satisfac
ature. with the result that further atomized fuel.
torily without them, each segment is preferably fdropping thereupon is readily volatilized. .
provided with a grill 28, which comprises a
When ignition has been initiated in the manner 55'
- ?anged plate having a ‘plurality of openings 20 -
formed therein. Each grill 28 is secured to its
segment by means of a pair of brackets 3|. The
just described, the ?ame propagates around the
ring in both directions‘ thereby establishing’ a
continuous ring. With combustion taking place
forward arms 32 of brackets 3| are bifurcated ' around the entire periphery of the carbureting
and straddle the vertical portions of the segment.
the rear legs 33 of bracket 3| are disposed
ring, segments 22 are heated, and as they are
_ againstthe rear face of the segment. (“Brackets
3| may be welded or ‘otherwise suitably fastened
~ to the segments in order to make the construc
tion more ‘rigid if desired.
v Thecarbureting, ring assembly just described
is equipped with an air de?ecting, or an air re
directing assembly, and although it may take any
desired form and be supported on the hearth or
"70, any other part of the burner, it is preferably
mounted on the carbureting ring assembly itself
and in the present instance it takes the form
of a plurality of metallic members 35 which are
horizontally disposed and have their ends 38 bent
downwardly and welded to segments 22. 'fAir
formed of relatively thin pressed metal they heat
up rapidly and in a short time they attain a
temperature sufficient to almost instantly vola
tilize the droplets of oil striking their vertical
portions 23. When the carbureting ring- attains 65
a temperature su?icient to'instantly volatilize
the liquid fuel impinging thereagainst just de
scribed, stea'dy combustion‘ conditions may be said
to exist in the device and at this time an auto
matic device .of any suitable character may 'be 70
employed to open the igniter circuit.
Under steady combustion conditions, the uné I
atomized fuel emanating from head l6v takes the
paths illustrated by the upper row of .arrows in
Figureyl, (illustrated as droplets in Figure 3),»
and strike portions 23 of the segments in a line
which will hereafter be termed the impingement
line. The air ?owing from head it curves down
Wardly asit emanates .from head IS with the re
sult that the fuel in its passage from head IE
to the carbureting ring is isolated from the air
and is accordingly incapable of burning for the
reason that it is not supplied with sui?cient air
to form a combustible mixture. With particular
tion of the solid matter. As the ?ame in the
gutter. is continuously oxidizing in character dur
ing normal operation of the burner,‘ the solid or
unvaporizable part of the fuel is consumed as
rapidly as it forms and breaks away from the
impingement wall. There is therefore no pos
sibility of the burner becoming so incrusted with
solid matter asto cause combustion to fail.
It was discovered during the course of experi
of theair supplied to them for proper combustion,
mentation that the high carbureting ring tem 10
peratures requisite for complete volatilization of
liquid fuels of number 3 or number 4 speci?ca-7
tion causes the oil to crack into its component
parts and the free carbon so released will precipi
tate with amazing rapidity on any convenient 15
surface. The temperature of the collecting sur
the ?ame in this region is of a reducing charac
ter. A large part of the air issuing from the dis
tributor strikes air de?ectors 35 and takes the
face the faster the carbon collects thereon. .
reference to Figure 3, part of the air issuing from
the distributor, diagrammatically illustrated by
arrows A, is thrown outwardly and upwardly and
mixes with the vapors generated on surfaces 23
of segments 22 and starts to burn in this region.
15 However; as the vapors generated are in excess
20 path indicated by the arrows B and mixes with
the vapors in the region below the impingement
face itself does not seem to in?uence the rate
of precipitation. If anything, the hotter the sur
. -
Two methods of correcting this dii?culty oc
curred atv the time of developing the present ap
paratus; (1) provide no collecting surface until
line. As the amount of air in this region is in
excess of 'that required to ei?clently burn the
vapors present in this region, the ?ame in this
combustion of the fuel is complete or (2) main
tain an oxidizing atmosphere over the surfaces‘
erably carefully adjusted so that when the gases
pingement surfaces.
of the reducing and oxidizing zones are mixed,
there will be just su?icient, or only a slight excess,
introduced be not in material excess over that
25 locality is of a highly oxidizing character. The ' in the region of the released. carbon. In view
vapor streams are illustrated diagrammatically
in Figure 3 by lines C. The ?rst described region ond solution of the problem was followed, and the
or zone of combustion will be hereinafter termed present practical apparatus resulted. Therefore
the reducing zone and the last described region it is seen that maintaining an oxidizing atmos 30
phere adjacent the line of fuel impingement not
30 will be described as the oxidizing zone.
The gases in the reducing and oxidizing zone only produces efficient and complete combustion
pass upwardly and strike grills 28 which serve of the solid matter in the fuel, but it also rapidly .
to mix them, with the result that they burn above and completely oxidizes the free carbon that may
the grill with a blue ?ame, and the quantity of be released as a result of the fuel cracking under
the high temperatures encountered on the im
35 air supplied to the carbureting assembly is pref
of oxygen present above the grill to thoroughly
It is important that the total volume of air
required to completely burn all of the fuel. The
method, of the present invention therefore in 40
40 combust all of the fuel.
Fuels of number 3 and number 4 speci?cation, _ cludes directing the air in a manner to maintain
as previously pointed out, not only contain sub
stances that cannot be vaporized, but they also
contain a certain percentage of solid matter.
45 Moreover a. certain percentage of solid matter is
precipitated incident to cracking of portions of
the oil that is vaporized in the device.
When the burnergis operating under steady
combustion conditions, the solid matter in the
50 oil, plus any solid matter precipitated incident to
portions of the oil cracking under the high
‘ vaporizing temperatures existing in the segments,
collect upon the surface of the segments at the
line of oil impingement. This solid matter ac
55 .cumulates at a relatively rapid rate, depending
an oxidizing condition in certain zones and upon
certain'surfaces; thereafter mixing the vremain
ing air with its unused oxygen, the unburned
vapors, free hydrogen and oxygen, and the prod 45
ucts of combustion, in a manner to give e?icient
combustion of the total mass.
With reference now to Figure 4 of the drawings,
there is illustrated a modi?ed form of construc
tion, and the only difference therein over the con
struction just, described, resides in the shape of
the air de?ecting member 35a which in this in
stance is of curved con?guration. This form of
air de?ecting member may be used to advantage
in some installations, depending upon the volume 55
of auxiliary air required. In fact the air de
?ecting member 35 of' the ?rst described con
struction may be adjusted or progressively bent
into the curved con?guration shown in Figure 4
to give the requisite balance between the air that .60
upon the quality of the oil being burned. Never
theless, and for some reason‘not clearly under
stood, such accumulated matter, after reaching a
certain thickness, breaks into segments along its
length. These segments upon being formed may
drop at once to the bottom of the trough in the ‘ ?ows directly toward the impingement line and
carbureting ring, or as is usually the case, they the air that is de?ected into the gutter. In view
curl inward at their ends away from the surface of the fact that this form of the invention func
of the metal until their weight acting against tions in precisely the same manner as that just
described it will not be set forth.
65 their weakening hold upon the impingement wall
With reference to the carbureting ring con
?nally results in their dropping away into the
trough. As previously described, the air ?owing struction shown in Figures 5 and 6, the carburet
into the trough, by virtue of the air de?ectors, ing ring assembly is'provided with a series of im
maintains a ?ame therein and the relatively pingement plates ll which are provided with
preferably integrally formed ears 42. Ears 42 ex 70
70 large amount ofwair causes this portion of the
tend rearwardly as seen in Figure 6 andrare then
?ame to be of a highly oxidizing character. Con
' sequently when the solid matter breaks off and bent downwardly to provide a vertical portion
. drops into this zone as just described, the com‘
bination of excass oxygen and, high ?ame tem
peratures causes the rapid and complete combus
43. Portions \43 of cars 42 are slitted vertically
and are ?tted over vertical portions 23' of seg
ments 22.
This apparatus functions in a slightly different
manner than those previously described in that
no air de?ecting member is required. Assuming
that plate 4| has been heated sufliciently to sub
stantially instantaneously vaporize the fuel strik
ing it, vaporization takes place as previously de
scribed, and aircurrents A establish a reducing
combustion zone adjacent the impingement line.
The vapors below the line of impingement mix
10 with air current B and establishacombustionzone
in the gutter, and the products of combustion
pass upwardly behind plate 4| toward the grill 28.
The upward movement of the gases in this com
bustion zone establishes a_ partial vacuum in the
lower part of the ‘ gutter, which ‘results in air
currents 3- taking the path shown and which es
tablish an ‘oxidizing zone.. However, if desired,
air de?ecting members of the character shown
' in Figures‘3 and 4 may also be used to increase
20 the how of air into the oxidizing zone. It should
be observed that the combustion of the gases
taking place behind plate 4| serves to further ele
of a continuous ring, as distinguished from the
segments employed in the previously described
forms of the invention. with continued refer
ence to Figure 10, a' plurality of bracket mem
bers 85 are disposed upon hearth l8 and~have ex
tending tabs 66 molded therein. Secured to the
upper face of each bracket 85, by means of a
plurality of tabs 81 which are preferably struck
therefrom,._is a clamp member 68 having up
standingarms 88 and 10. A ring member -'||, 10
against which the fuel is adapted to impinge, is
mounted on brackets 88 and is‘ secured thereto by
bending the upper ends of arms 89 thereover.‘ A
narrower ring 12 is secured to arms 18 of brackets
68. Grills 28 are secured to spaced portions of 15
ring ‘II by means of bracket members 14. An
air de?ecting member 18, which may be continu- ,
ous or segmental in form, is secured to the upper
edge of ring H by means of brackets 15.
In this'form'of the invention, air currents A
pass upwardly and mingle with the vapors in the
region of the oil impingement line on ring mem
ber ‘H and establish a reducing zone in a man
ner similar to ‘that effected in the previously de
scribed constructions. Air currents B pass up
vate the temperature of the vaporizing surface,
with-the result that vaporization of the imping~
25 ing fuel is greatly enhanced. The gases passing
upwardly fi‘omthe reducing and oxidizing zones ' wardly and are de?ected downwardly by member‘
' enter the grill wherethey are mixed and com
18 into the gutter formed between ring mem
busted as previously described.
‘ bers ‘H and ‘I2 and establish an oxidizing zone
With reference to Figure "l, a construction is wherein the solid or unvaporizable components
30 shown that. is very similar to, and, functions in of the fuel are consumed. The gases emanating
the same manner as that Just described, but the
parts are assembled in a different manner. Plate
4la at its lower end is welded to a bracket 45
which rests in a gutter 24 of the segment and is
from the reducing and oxidizing zones pass uP—
wardly and are mixed and consumed above the
grills as in the previously described forms of the
35 provided with a bifurcated upper end 48 which.
The construction shown in Figures 11 and 12 is
embraces theupper lip of segment 22. Segment
22 has been cut down as the impingement wall 28
is not necessary in this form of the invention. A
pair of brackets 41 support grill 28, and is pro
vided with a bifurcated end 49 which embraces
the upper edge of plate Ila. =Rear legs 48 of
brackets 41 engage behind'segments 22.
The modi?ed , carbureting ring construction
shown in Figures 8 and 9 functions in the same
45 manner as those shown in Figures 5, 6 and 7. In
this form of the invention the segments are re
placed by a plurality of segments 52, which are
secured together in end to end relationship as
those employed in the previously described forms
of the invention. Segments 52 are each pro
vided with a vertical wall 58, a horizontal base 54
and an upwardly inclined frontwall 55. Plates
4|b are disposed within segments 52 and are pro-,
vided at their lower ends with outwardly turned
identically the same as that Just described except
for the air de?ecting member, which in this in
stance is integrally formed with the smaller of
the carbureting ring members. ‘Inthis form of
the invention ring 12a is‘slit horizontally along 40
edges 11 and TI’ to form air de?ecting mem
bers 18,‘ which are connected to the ring at in
tervals by integral supporting portions 18 of the
In Figures l3, 14, 15 and 16 there is shown a 45
modi?ed form‘ of igniting device also forming part
of the present invention, and it is particularly
useful in the present apparatus as it is capable
of initiating combustion of the heavier fuels. The
igniting device has been illustrated in connection
with the’ carbureting rlng assembly shown in
Figures 1, 2 and 3, and although two igniter as
semblies are used only one will be described.
With particular reference to Figures 13 and 14,
55 tabs 58, which cooperate with the front walls 55 an aperture-88 is formed in__ segment 22 and a
of the segments and inwardly turned tabs 51, box-likemember 8| is welded to segment 22 in
which cooperate with the rear wallof the seg-' alignment with aperture 80. Secured to a down
ment to maintain plates ‘ 4|b» properly spaced wardly projecting ?nger 82' of‘ member 8| is
from the segment walls. A pair of U-shaped a clamp 88. Detachably carried by clamp 83 is an
clamps 59, each having downwardly extending insulator 84 having an electrode 85 therein. Elec
legs GI and 62, is mounted upon plate 4 lb and the trode'85 is insulated from member 8| and is pro
rear wall 58 of segment 52 and supports grills 28 vided with an enlarged upper end 88 for a pur
which are welded thereto.
pose that will presently appear.
This form of the invention performs in precise
Insulating material 8'|,_ _ preferably having
ly the same way as the apparatus shown in Fig
ures 5, 6 and '7, a part of the air stream A passing
upwardly and establishing a reducing zone in the
region of the impingement line and another part
thermal as ‘well as electrical insulating proper
75 vention the carbureting assembly takes the form
trodes .85 are provided with terminals 88. __Co
ties, is disposed within member 8| and against 65
the rear face of segment 22. Molded in place
within member 8| and projecting through the
of the air stream B passing downwardly within opening 80 in segment 22 is a mass'vof conducting
the segment and under plate 4|b to establish the _ material 88,lwhich preferably-consists of a mix
'oxidizing zone, where they solid matter is-con
ture of carborundurn and a refractory binder of
- sumed as previously described.
preferably electrical insulating properties, so that‘
In Figure 10 there is illustrated a runner mod
when current passes therethrough it, will heat up
i?ed construction, andin this form of the in
and volatilize the fuel. 'I'he‘lower ends of elec-~v
operating with one of the electrodes 85 is a metal
lic hearth electrode that will now be described.
Secured to a recessed portion 9| of Segment
22, as by means of a welding operation, is a clamp
member 93 which is molded in‘ the hearth and
which clamps an insulator member 94 in place.
Disposed within insulator member 94, and se
cured thereto at its lower end, is an inner in
sulator 95 carrying an electrode 96 which curves
upwardly and outwardly and terminates in a‘
somewhat blunt tip 91, which is disposed sufli--v
ciently close to the carborundum electrode to
spects as illustrative and not restrictive, the scope ‘
of the invention being indicated by the appended
claims rather than by the foregoing description,
and all changes which come .within the meaning
and range of equivalency of the claims are there
fore intended to be embraced therein.
What is claimed and desired to be secured by
United States Letters Patent is:
1. In a liquid fuel burning apparatus compris- ‘i
ing a combustion chamber having a hearth and 10
means for discharging liquid fuel in a path over
said hearth, _a carbureting device mounted on
form an are when a high voltage is impressed
said hearth in the path of the discharged fuel.
across the electrodes;
said device comprising an upper, fuel impact wall "
portion, a lower wall portion and a grooved or 15
The transformer and electric circuit preferably
_ employed with the igniting device is illustrated
in Figure 16. The transformer has a primary
winding 99 ‘which, if the fuel burning apparatus
is'mounted in a residence, is connected across
20 the regular 110 volt, '60 cycle line. The trans
depressed imperforate portion. forming a sheltered
gutter between said wall portions, means for pro
jecting. a major draft of air against said lower
wall portion and across said gutter, and means
for projecting a minor air draft into said gutter. 20
2. In the combination defined in claim 1, the
former is provided with two secondary windings
IOI and I02. Winding l‘nl is connected across
last mentioned means comprising a member car
electrodes 85, and one end of winding I02 is con
nected to electrode 96. Although the transformer
ried by said device and constructed to form said
minor air draft from a portion of the air of said
25 has been conventionally illustrated, winding llll
is designed to cause a comparatively heavy cur
rent, say, I80 \milliamperes to ?ow between the
electrodes 86 with a drop in potential of approx
imately two thousand volts, while winding I02 is
30 designed to have a greater number of ampere
turns, so as to cause a current of say 18 milli
amperes to ?ow between electrode 91 and elec
trode 96.
It is‘ accordingly seen that when the burner is
35 put into operation a heavy current flows between
terminals 86 and-rapidly heats member 89, with
the ‘result that when fuel particles gravitate
downwardly on the hot surface of this member
they are rapidly volatilized. Simultaneously an
40 arc is established between electrode 91 and mem
ber 89, which serves to further volatilize the fuel
and ignite it. It should‘be observed that while
current is passing between electrodes 86, the heat
generated in member 89 is conserved by reason
the insulating action of members 81,"which
also electrically insulates member 89 from the
ring .segments. The heat generated in mem
ber 99 is accordingly prevented from dissipating
into segments 22 and accordingly promptly
reaches a vaporizing temperature.
As previously mentioned, the carbureting ring
assembly in this form of the invention is Provided
with two. diametrically opposite igniter assem
blies and although we have illustrated each
igniter assembly as being provided with a sep
55 . arate transformer, it is to be understood that if
major draft.
3. In the combination de?ned in claim 1, the
last mentioned means comprising a de?ector
overlying said lower wall portion and said gutter.
4. In a liquid fuel burning apparatus, in com
bination with a combustion chamber having a 30
hearth and an upright wall, fuel distributing
means positioned to project. a liquid fuel stream
toward said wall and means for directing a blast
of air toward said wall, a refractory carbureting
structure disposed between said wall and said
distributing means, said structure comprising an
imperforate gutter arranged transversely of and
below the projected fuel stream, a member pro
viding an air de?ecting surface in front of said
gutter in the path of the air blast and positioned 40
to direct said blast upwardly, means providing
‘a fuel impingement surface above'said gutter in
the path of the upwardly directed blast, and
means for causing a part of the air blast to flow
into said gutter during operation of the appara
5. In the combination/de?ned in claim 4, said
means providing said. fuel impingement surface
being thin and of good heat conductivity and
disposed forwardly of the rear side of said gutter. 50
6. In a liquid fuel burning apparatus; a heat
exchange unit having a combustion chamber;
a liquid fuel carburetin'g member providing a
substantially vertical surface disposed in said
chamber, means for projecting unatomized liquid ' 65
fuel toward‘ said surface for atomizing said fuel
desired, the transformer may be made of greater by impact with said surface; means for project
capacity and be connected in series or parallel to ing a draft of air toward said surface for ad
.mixture with the atomized fuel for establishing
both of the igniter assemblies.
and maintaining a combustion zone adjacent said
With reference to all of ‘the forms of the in
vention, it is to be understood that although ' vertical surface between said ?rst-named means
and said vertical surface, and means for‘ causing
various devices have been illustrated for de?ect
‘ing or re-directing a portion of the air emanating a part of the projected air draft to form an
from the distributor head for establishing an oxidizing zone below and adjacent to 'said com
65 oxidizing zone in the carbureting assembly, air
bustion zone.
arate fan directing air directly to the carbureting
ring gutter, and the appended claims are intend
70 ed to embrace the present invention when it as
prises a de?ecting means for diverting a part of
the air supplied said combustion zone to a region
for this purpose may be independently supplied
if desired, as for instance, by means of a sep
sumes this form.
The invention may be embodied in other speci?c
‘ forms without departing from the spirit or essen
tial characteristics thereof. The present embodi
ments are therefore to be considered in all re
7. The liquid fuel burning apparatus set forth
in claim 6, wherein said last named means com
8. In a liquid fuel burning apparatus, a mem
ber having a substantially vertically disposed
atomizing surface, means for projecting an air
current and liquid fuel toward said atomizing
surface, for causing said fuel to be atomized by ‘
below said combustion zone.
impact with said surface and to be mixed with a
part of said air current and means for causing
a portion of said air current to be de?ected to
a region below said atomizing surface.
9. The fuel burning apparatus set forth in
claim 8, wherein said last-named means com
prises at least one air de?ecting member dis
posed in the path of said air current.
10. In a device for burning liquid fuel, a heat
10 exchange unit having a combustion chamber; a
fuel carbureting member disposed in said cham
ber and providing a substantially vertically ex
tending fuel atomizing surface and a gutter lo
cated below said surface; means for causing liquid
v15 fuel to impinge against said atomizing surface,
means for causing an air current to ?ow past said
gutter for admixture with the fuel atomized on
said surface, and means for causing a current
of air to ?ow into said gutter for combusting any
fuel accumulating therein.
11. The liquid fuel burning apparatus set forth
in claim 10, wherein said last named means com
prises an air de?ecting element mounted on said
carbureting member and disposed between said
atomizing surface and the source of the air sup
plied to the fuel atomized on said atomizing sur
12. In a liquid fuel, burning device, a liquid fuel
projector, a carbureting member providing a sub
stantially vertically disposed atomizing surface
in the path of the liquid fuel discharged by ~said
projector, means for mixing air with said liquid
fuel atomizing by impact with said atomizing
surface for effecting combustion of said liquid
fuel, in the region of said surface impacted by
said liquid fuel, and means for causing hot gases
of combustion to pass downwardly under ‘and
thence upwardly with respect to said atomizing
surface for simultaneously consuming any fuel
that fails to vaporize on said atomizing surface
and for heating said atomizing surface.
13. In a liquid fuel burning apparatus com
prising aqcombustion chamber having a hearth
and means for discharging liquid fuel in a sub 5
stantially horizontal path over said hearth, a
carbureting device mounted on said hearth in
the path of the discharged fuel, said device com
prising an upper fuel impact wall portion, a lower
wall portion and a grooved or depressed imper 10
forate portion forming a sheltered gutter between
said wall portions, means for projecting a major
draft of air against said lower wall’ portion and
across said gutter, and means for projecting a
minor draft into said gutter comprising a down 15
ward extension provided on said fuel impact wall
and projecting downwardly into said gutter.
14. In a liquid fuel burning apparatus, a com
busti'on chamber having a hearth, an upright-fuel
impact wall disposed adjacent the periphery of
said hearth, said hearth being provided with an
.aperture centrally thereof, a distributor mecha
nism projecting upwardly through saidaperture
and embodying means for projecting a sheet-like
blast of air outwardly over said hearth toward
said fuel impact wall and means for'projecting
solid droplets of liquid fuel‘ against said impact
wall for atomizing and vaporizing the, same,
means located inwardly of said impact wall for
de?ecting said blast of air upwardly and out
wardly adjacent said impact wall, and means for
deflecting at least a part of said air from its
upward course comprising a plurality of thin
members constructed of a metalv which is resist
ant to destruction by heat and has good heat
conductivity. -
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