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Патент USA US2119875

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June 7, 1938.
L. CARI.` ' l
2,119,875
PIPE BENDING METHOD AND APPARATUS
Filed Jan. 14, v19s? -
2/
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Il
,
INVENTOR
LOUIS Cdr!
Patented June 7, 1938»
` 2,119,815
UNITED STATES PATENT oFElcE
2,119,875
A
`HP11; BENDING METHOD AND APPARATUS
Louis Carl, Brooklyn, N. Y.
'
Application January 14, 193i?, Serial No. 120,554
15 Claims. (Cl. 153-36)
This invention relates to the art of bending
pipe and is directed more particularly to a meth
od and apparatus whereby pipe may be satisfac
torily bent without undesirable distortion. The
5 invention is especially directed, insofar as the
apparatus is concerned, to an articulated mandrel
adapted to occupy the interior of the pipe during
the bending thereof and to be simultaneously op
erated upon by apparatus hereinafter more fully
10 described to partake of longitudinal and rotary
motion which preclude the freezing of the man
drel in the pipe and will iron out and render uni
form the bore of the pipe when the bending op
eration is completed.
F111
20
»
.
- .
The mandrel of the present invention em
bodies a succession of non-yieldable units ar
The mandrel of this invention is made up of a
succession of units or sections I,'which, `aside
from the terminal section 2, are of the same con
struction. Each section I is of substantially bar
rel shape with ñat ends 3 provided therein with
recesses 4 which impart to the unit I-beam cross
section of great strength, well adapted to with
stand any radial pressures to which the mandrel
may be subjected.
' Between the recesses 4 is the web 5 and this web 10
is provided with pockets 6, so positioned that said
pockets will extend from the base of the recesses 4
partially into the flanges 1, as shown best in Fig
ure 2. The pockets 6 are adapted to receive the
ends of U-shaped keepers or links 8 which are
adapted to fit snugly into said pockets and are
ranged end to end and successively intercon
welded in place' therein. _ The links are welded
nected in a manner to permit their relative ar
ticulation in all directions, but to positively lock
them together against appreciable relative rota
'in place as the successive units are assembled
with links of the successive units interlocked with
respect to one another, as shown in Figure 2, and 20I
tion. The mandrel unitsof the present invention
are individually of very simple construction and
when'thus welded in place, these units are per
manently connected to one another in a strong
yet of great strength.
They interengage with
one another, after the manner of the links of a
2 Ul chain, so that, while the engagement is suf?cient
ly tight to lock them against unlimited rotation,
and rugged manner.
The recesses 4 are made
with quite a taper, so that the holes or seats 6
extend well into the Wall of this taper and, when 25
welded in place, the links will thus be reinforced
for substantially half their length by the ilanges '
‘I of the units, so that the twisting action which
results from rotation of the mandrel during ar
tween successive sections without the use of com
3o plicated connections. This arrangement permits » ticulationgof the parts, as hereinafter described, 30
there is suiiicient give, so that there is in effect a
substantially universal pivotal connection be
of rotation of the entire assembly by rotation of
will not disrupt the structure.
The terminal section 2 serves the function of '
one terminal section or unit thereof.
The method of this invention comprises the` a sizing unit. It is of slightly larger diameter
simultaneous bending of a pipe with mandrel
35 therein _and concurrent rotation and longitu
dinal movement of the mandrel during the entire
bending operation on the pipe.
Features of the invention, other than those
adverted to, will be apparent from the herein
40 after detailed description and claims, when read
in conjunction with the accompanying drawing.
The accompanying drawing illustrates appa
ratus for carrying out the method of this inven
tion and specific mandrel construction, but the
than the units I and is of a size to give a finished
internal diameter to the bent pipe through which
it is drawn. It may conveniently be made of bar
rel shape like the units I, vbutvwithout the re
cesses in the ends. Straight-through holes 9 ex
tend through the unit 2 and are adapted to re
ceive a shackle Ill which is engaged with the link
8 of the next adjacent unit I and locked in place
thereto by nuts II at the opposite _face of the
unit 2.
I
'
,
`
-
1n utilizing the mandrel described to carry
showing of the drawing is to be understood as
illustrative, only, and not as deñning the limits
out the method of this invention, I may satis- 45
factorily proceed as shown in Figure l. Here
of the invention.
the pipe, in the process of being bent, is indicated
.
i
» '
Figure 1 is a plan view, more or less diagram
. matic in character, illustrating the manner of
50 carrying out the method of this invention with
the mandrel shown in Figures 2 and 3.
Figure 2 shows a portion of the length of the
mandrel of this invention.
.
Figure 3 is an end View of one of the mandrel
units with one link thereof in section.
at P; A mandrel of the character shown in Fig
ure 2 is shown in the pipe and the pipe is oper
ated upon by any appropriate conventional pipe 50
bending mechanism mounted on the base or table
I2. Bending dies and other pipe bending ma
chinery are well known and, inasmuch as the
present invention is adapted to be carried out
with any appropriate form of mechanism for
2
2,119,875
this purpose, I have not considered it necessary
to specifically disclose any particular mechanism.
According to the method of this invention, as
hereinbefore stated, the mandrel is rotated and
simultaneously withdrawn as the bending opera
tion on the pipe proceeds. Consequently suitable
mechanism is provided to accomplish this result
and while this mechanism may vary, a Very sat
isfactory form is shown in Figure 1. Here the
10 foremost unit I of the mandrel is connected by a
rigid link I5 to a threaded arbor I6 which passes
through a threaded boss I1 of a yoke I8. This
yoke is rigidly spaced from a plate I3, rigid with
necessary to accommodate themselves to the bend
in the pipe.
'I'he marked simplicity of this invention com
mends itself to modern pipe bending problems.
There is no complicated mechanism to get out of
order. The individual elements are rugged and
may be manufactured economically and as
sembled economically. Furthermore the as-y
sembly is such that if a flaw occurred in the
welding, the structure is nevertheless sufliciently
reinforced, by virtue of the interfitting relation
1.o
described, to hold together even though a weld of
the character under consideration might vwell
the base I2, by means of spacing rods I9 to which . break ‘if it were alone depended upon to hold the
the yoke is pinned or otherwise rigidly locked in structure together.
_
15
position. The rods I9 extend beyond the yoke I8
The foregoing detailed description sets forth
to form guide rods or slides 20 for a power oper
the invention in its preferred practical forms, but
_ ated prime mover 2l, shown in the form of an
electric motor, having guides 22 embracing the
20 rods 20 and free to slide thereon.
The motor
spindle is adapted to have driving connection
with the outboard end of the threaded arbor I6
and, in practice, suitable speed reducing gears
are preferably incorporated inl this connection
25 and may be built into the motor casing, so that,
as the motor operates, the arbor I6 will be ro
tated.
`
'
Inasmuch as the connections between the
threaded arbor I6 and the mandrel within the
30 pipe are such as to preclude relative rotation be
tween them, it necessarily follows that the ro
tation of the arbor will cause rotation of the
mandrel. Furthermore, inasmuch as the yoke I8
cannot move, it necessarily follows that the ro
arbor I6 must longitudinally travel
through the threaded boss I'l and bring about
longitudinal movement of the mandrel in the pipe
for the forward end of the pipe is seated against
35 tating
an abutment or stop I3 and the pipe is thus held
40 in place against the pull of the mandrel therein.
The threaded arbor I6 is caused to rotate dur
ing the entire bending operation on the pipe and
this will result in the simultaneous rotationof
the mandrel and its longitudinal movement
45 through the pipe in such manner as> to preclude
undesirable crimping of the pipe. This opera
tion may be lubricated, if desired, by soap, water
or otherwise, but is not ordinarily essential. 'I'he
movement of the mandrel may be relatively slow
50
or may be at high speed depending on conditions
and on the speed at which the bending operation
is taking place. In any event, the mandrel
should be entirely withdrawn from the pipe be
55 fore the bending dies, with which the pipe is
associated, are released, so that, when the dies
are opened, the pipe `will come therefrom with
a uniform internal diameter and without unde
60
sirable crimping at any point.
'I‘he mandrel made according to the invention,
as hereinbefore described, is particularly adapted
for use in carrying out the method of this inven
tion because the lmandrel units are so con--
structed and are of such strong and rugged char
65 acter, that they are well able to withstand tre
mendous strains that may take place when pipes
of large sizes are bent with concurrent rotation
Vand withdrawal of the mandrel.
It is notable '
that the individual units have no moving parts
70 for the links of each unit are welded to form a
homogeneous joint or inherent part of the units.
Furthermore the units may be said to be one
piece units, interfìtting progressively with one
another throughout the length of the mandrel
75 in a manner to properly articulate as -may be
the invention is to be understood as commensu
rate with the appended claims.
Having thus fully described the invention, 20
what I claim as new and desire to secure by Let
ters Patent is:
1. A pipe bending mandrel comprising a suc
cession of barrel shaped units positioned end to
end and recessed at their opposite ends to form 25
the units into I-beam cross section, th‘ere being
provided in the opposite faces of said section
spaced apart link seats formed conjointly in the
Web and ñanges of said section, and two U
shaped links interfitted with one another between - 30
each two adjacent units and with their free ends
welded into the link seats of the respective units.
2. A pipe bending mandrel comprising a suc
cession of barrel shaped units positioned end to
end and recessed at their opposite ends to form 35
the units into I-beam cross section, there being
provided in the opposite faces of said section
spaced apart link seats formed conjointly in the
web and flanges of said section, and two U
shaped links interñtted with one another between
each two adjacent units and with their free ends
welded into the link seats of the respective units,
and a sizing unit forming lone terminal unit of
the mandrel and of a diameter slightly greater
than the diameter of the other units of the man
drel.
3. In an apparatus of the character described,
a mandrel comprising articulated sections, means
for simultaneously imparting rotation to said
mandrel and concurrently longitudinally moving;
the same, and an abutment past which said man
drel is Withdrawable from a pipe resting against
said abutment.
`
4. In an assembly of the character described,
a mandrel having articulated sections locked 5 5
against rotation with respect yto one another and
adapted to be positioned within a pipe, a thread
ed arbor secured against rotation to the-man
drel, a threaded member mounted rigidly in po
sition and through which the arbor is adapted to '
turn, and means for rotating said arbor to ro
tate the mandrel and simultaneously move the
same longitudinally through the pipe in which it
is positioned.
- 5. The herein described method which com
5 .
prises positioning a non-collapsible mandrel
within a pipe, then bending the pipe and simul
taneously rotating and longitudinally shifting the
mandrel in thé pipe as the bending operation
proceeds and while the pipe is held against lon 7 0
gitudinal movement.
6, The herein described method which com
prises positioning a non-collapsible mandrel with
in a pipe, then bending the pipe and simulta
neously rotating and withdrawing the mandrel' tu
2,119,875
from the pipe as the bending operation proceeds
and while the pipe is vheld against longitudinal
movement.
7. The herein described method which com-v
prises bending a pipe and concurrently passing
longitudinally therethrough a rotating sizing
mandrel while the pipe is held stationary against
longitudinal movement.
8. -A pipe bending mandrel comprising a suc
10 cession of substantially barrel-shaped units po
sitioned end to end in closely spaced relation to
one another with both of the 'opposite ends of
each unit recessed, whereby the recesses at con
3
one another with both of the opposite ends of
each unit recessed, whereby the recesses at con- `
tiguous ends of each two adjacent units collec
tively constitute a chamber, and a universal joint
positioned within each chamber and connected
to both contiguous> units, said universal joint se
curing adjacent units against relative rotation,
but permitting articulation between said units in
all lateral directions, and a rigid non-yielding
sizing unit secured to one terminal unit of -said 10
units of the mandrel and of a diameter slightly
greater than the diameter of the other units oi
the mandrel, said sizing unit being locked against
tiguous ends of eachtwo adjacent units collec- ' rotation, but for universal cross axial articula
15 tively constitute a chamber, and a universal joint
positioned within each chamber and connected to
both contiguous units, said universal joint se
curing adjacent 'units against relative rotation,
but permitting articulation between said units in
.
20 all lateral directions.
9. A pipe bending mandrel comprising a suc
cession of substantially barrel-shaped'units po
sitioned end to end in closely spaced relation with
the opposite ends of each unit recessed, whereby
25 the recesses of each two contiguous units collec-
tion to the adjacent terminal unit of the man
drel.
13. A pipe bending mandrel comprising a suc
cession of substantially barrel-shaped units po
sitioned end to end in closely spaced relation to
one another with both of the ‘opposite ends of 20
each unit`recessed, whereby the recesses at con
tîguous ends of each two adjacent units collec
tively constitute a chamber, a universal joint po-'
sitioned -within each chamber and connected to '
both contiguous units, said universal joint secur 25
ing adjacent units against relative rotation, but
tively constitute a chamber, a pair of interlock
ing rigid links positioned in each chamber with . permitting articulation between said units in all
the respective links of each pair rigidly secured lateral directions, and a rigid non-yielding sub
stantially barrel-shaped sizing unit secured to
'to the respective adjacent units.
one terminal unit of said units of the mandrel 30
10. A pipe bending mandrel comprising a suc
and of a diameter ~slightly greater than the di
cession offsubstantially barrel-shaped units p0
sitioned end to end in closely spaced relation with ~ ameter of the other units of the mandrel.
the opposite ends of each unit recessed, whereby
the-recesses of each two contiguous units collec
35 tively constitute a chamber, a pair of interlock
ing rigid U-shaped links positioned in each
chamber with the free ends of the respective links
of each pair rigidly secured to the respective ad
' jacent units.
40
11. A pipe bending mandrel comprising a suc
cession of substantially barrel-shaped units po
sitioned end to end in closely spaced relation to
~one another with both of the opposite ends of
each unit recessed, whereby the recesses at con
14. In an apparatus of the character described,
a mandrel comprising articulated.y sections and
adapted to be positioned within a pipe to per 35
mit the longitudinal bending thereof by exter
nally applied force Without crushing the pipe,
means for simultaneously imparting rotation to
said mandrel and concurrently longitudinally
moving the same within the'pipe. and’means for 40
holding the pipe stationary against longitudinal
movement while the mandrel is so moved and
while the pipe is bent by the application of force
applied externally thereto.
15. In an assembly of the character described, 45
a mandrel having articulated sections locked
positioned within each chamber and connected to " against rotation with respect to one another and
adapted to be positioned within a pipe, a thread
both contiguous units, said universal joint secur
` ing adjacent units against relative rotation, but ed arbor secured against rotation' to- the man
permitting articulation between said units in all drel, a threaded member mounted rigidly in po 50
50 lateral directions, and a rigid non-yielding siz
sition and through which the arbor is adapted
ing unit secured to one terminal unit of said units to turn, means for rotating said arbor to rotate
of the mandrel and of a diameter slightly greater the mandrel and simultaneously move the same
longitudinally through the pipe in which it is
than the diameter of the other units of the man
, positioned, and means for withholding the pipe 55
drel.
55
against longitudinal movement while the mandrel
12. A pipe bending mandrel comprising a suc
is being withdrawn from said pipe.
cession of substantially barrel-shaped units. posi
LOUIS CARL.
tioned end to end in closely spaced relation to
45 tiguous ends of each two adjacent units collec
tively constitute a chamber, and a universal joint
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