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Патент USA US2119878

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June 7, 1938.
-
@_ EXEL
2,119,878
>Two-05mg@ ENGINE
Filed `Ju1y 29, 193e
,
2 sheets-sheet 1
Y
ì
M1 v
ATTORNEY'.
June 7, 1938.
G. ExEL.
'
2,119,878
TWO-CYCLE ENGINE
Filed July 29, 1936
*In
‘
2 Sl'zeets-Sheeíl 2
1N VENTOR)
Geo r9@ Exel
'ATTORNEY
Patented June 7, 1938
2,119,878.
UNITED STATES
PATENT OFFICE
2,119,878
TWO-CYCLE ENGINE
>George Exel, Clifton, N. J.
Application July 29, 1936, Serial No. 93,178
12 Claims. (C‘l. 1225-374)
This invention relates to two-cycle internal
relation to the íixed structure of the engine and
combustion engines and it consists in certain im
its ports at diñerent stages in the movement of
provements in such engines especially when of the power piston during intake of a fresh charge
the type of that of my Patent No. V2,063,666 in and compression of the previously intaken charge
which there is a ñxed piston and a cylindrical
moving or power piston containing ,the iixed
piston and contained in the cylinder of the en
gine, the construction being such in that case that
each charge admitted to the primary compression
in the combustion chamber; and
Fig. 10 is an underneath plan of plug I‘I and its
filaments.
„
'
The plate I forming the top of the crank-case
V(not shown); the cylinder 2 bolted to said plate
chamber or space between the ñxed and power
and closed at its upper end and having intake 3, 10
pistons is by-passed, upon compression therein
exhaust port or opening 4 and passage 5 forrn-V '
and at the end of each stroke of the power piston
toward the fixed piston, to the space between
ing a Icy-pass; the ñxed piston 6 supported on
the power piston and cylinder head forming the
explosion or secondary compression chamber.
It is found in practice that, due to the high vac
uum developed in said primarycompression cham
drical and reciprocatory power piston closed at its
upper end and having its skirt depending be- 15
tween the ñxed piston and cylinder, its upper
end being equipped with piston-rings 8a; the
ber when the power piston moves from the fixed
housing 9 whose reservoir c communicates with
piston, lubricating oil, ñnding its way from the
20 crank-case up between the cylinder and power
piston, is drawn into said chamber through the
port in the power piston affording communication
between such chamber and the intake of the cyl
inder, such oil not only tending to foul the engine
the plate by standards l; the body 8 of the cylin
the interior of the cylinder through passage 5,
such housing, with the cylinder, plate I», fixed 20
piston and standards, forming the fixed structure
of the engine; and the wrist-pin IIJ and piston
rod II oscillatory on the wrist-pin and in a suit
able opening in the plate and adapted to be
but being Wasted at the exhaust in the absence » connected to some rotary driven element, as a 25
of any expedient for recovering it. Accordingly,
crank-shaft (not shown) journaled in- the crank
I provide herein for the prompt and certain re
moval of the oil from said chamber and for its
recovery.
case, are or may be all substantially the same,
except as will appear, as in my said patent. à
The invention also contemplates providing the
power piston with means below the Iixed piston
for preventing a surfeit of oil working up between
them and accumulating above the ñxed piston.
The invention also contemplates a novel con
struction of that end of the power piston to which
the piston-rod is connected designed to give said
end the necessary strength and stability not
withstanding the power-piston skirt is inten
tionally formed as thin as possible.
The invention further contemplates so con
structing the upper end of the power piston as to
insure adequate lubrication thereof.
In the drawings,
Fig. 1 is a View, partly in elevation and partly
45 in vertical section in the plane of the wrist-pin,
of the improved engine;
Fig. 2 is a section on line 2-2, Fig. 1;
Fig. 3 is a fragmentary View of the cylinder,
power piston and sleeve partly in section and
50
partly in elevation;
Fig. 4 shows fragments of the cylinder, power
piston and collar 30 in section in the said plane
and a fragment of the wrist-pin in elevation;
Figs. 5 to 9 are diagrams showing the positions
55 of the power piston and its ports respectively in
and b are, respectively the primary and second
ary compression chambers.
Besides said body 8 the power piston includes a
30
’
sleeve I2 which, intervening ybetween the skirt
of such body and the cylinder and being elastic
and having a normal inside diameter greater
than the outside diameter of the skirt, tends to 35
expand and so hugs the cylinder internally. Said
body, just below the piston rings, has a circum
ferential groove 8b and from its head end to a
shoulder 8c near its other end, which is expanded,
it is of less diameter than the inside diameter of A4:0
which
the cylinder
abuts said
so asshoulder
to accommodate.
on the onesaid
hand
sleeve,
and
on the other has an inturned portion I2a, here
a circumferential flange,~engaged in the groove.
To prevent the sleeve from turning relatively to ,45
the> piston body and so bring its split coincident
with the ports said body has a lug or lugs I3 en
gaged in holes in the sleeve.
The power piston has what I term a secondary
inhalationl port I4 which, when said piston ad- 50
joins the closed end of the cylinder, communi- I
cates with the cylinder intake 3; an exhalation
port I5. which at this time communicates with
the by-pass passage 5; and a primary inhalation
port I6 which communicates with said passage 5 55
2
2,119,878
when the piston head approximates the fixed
piston. The arrangement of the fixed piston and
port 3 is such that when the power piston is com
pleting its movement to the first position port
I4 places chamber a in communication with in
take port 3 before said chamber a communicates
through port I5 and passage 5 with said reser
voir, for a reason to appear; in other words, port
I4 has a lead on port I5.
A plug I'I is screwed into the housing, pref
erably at the top thereof, and depending there
from are numerous filaments I8, preferably of
metal, on which oil carried into the reservoir
from the primary compression chamber a. may
15 condense. The housing, its said reservoir being
otherwise normally closed, has in its depend
ing nipple I9 an outlet 20 affording a seat for
a valve 2I whose stem 22 depends from a float
23 within said reservoir and is cut away below
20 the valve so that when the latter is unseated
by rise thereof with the floatV oil accumulating
in said reservoir may escape. The extent of rise
of the iioat and hence of the valve is rendered
variable by the nuts 24 screwed on the stem.
25 Onto the nipple is screwed an element 25 which
couples with the nozzle a tubular conductor 2B
which may include a valve-casing 21 containing
a spring-pressed check-valve 28 and which may
lead to the crank-case of the engine or any
30 other receptacle in which to recover the oil ac
cumulating in the reservoir.
` In the position of the power piston shown a
fresh fuel charge is admitted via ports 3--I4
to primary compression chamber a, and, the
35 charge in secondary compression chamber b
being fired (as by a spark-plug 29), said piston
descends with compression of said fresh charge
in chamber a and then, port I6 coming into com
munication with the by-pass passage 5, transfer
of such charge to chamber b occurs as soon as
the head of the piston begins to uncover said
passage, followed by delivery of the fired charge
at exhaust 4. On the ascent of the power piston
(disregarding reservoir c for the meanwhile),
45 as the transferred charge is being compressed
in chamber b a vacuum is being formed in cham
ber a until port I4 coincides with intake 3, when
port. In short, the Vacuum maintained in cham
ber c serves to draw fluid from chamber a to
reservoir c when the pressure in the former is
restored by intake 3 and chamber a being brought
into communication with each other. Where
fore oil that has found its way up between the
movable piston and cylinder and becomes lodged
(through port I4) on the fixed piston, as well as
some oil which is in suspension in the fresh
fuel charge, is deposited in the reservoir. If the 10
latter were put in communication with chamber
a before intake of fresh fuel to chamber a,
there would obviously be fluid flow from reservoir
c to chamber a, to wit, to no purpose. If the
reservoir were put in communication with cham 15
ber a simultaneously with the intake of fresh
fuel to chamber a there might be some fluid flow
from a. to c with corresponding deposit of oil
in the latter, but to insure a one-direction flow,
or an intensified liow from chamber a to the 20
reservoir, and hence as complete as possible
scavenging of chamber a of oil, the opening of
exhalation port I5 is delayed until the intake and
inhalation port I4 communicate.
Assuming that upon the passage 5 being closed 25
by the power piston the pressure in reservoir c
ls (however effected) lower than in chamber a,
essentially then the invention involves ports as
I4 and I5 which respectively being the intake
and chamber a, and said chamber and the res 30
ervoir c in communication withv each other, with
fluid flow to the reservoir. This I claim broadly
as well as the fact that in the example the power
piston is active in producing a pressure in the
reservoir which is ultimately lower than that in 35
chamber a.
The oil conveyed to the reservoir in part flows
by gravity- to the bottom thereof and in part
condenses and accumulates on the filaments I8,
then to fall to the bottom of the reservoir. Col 40
lecting here it from time to time raises the float
valve' 2I--23 and escapes to the conductor 26
and thence to the crank-case or other recovery
receptacle.
The check-valve prevents its re
turn as an incident of the vacuum formed when 45
thepower piston ascends.
A collar 30 is screwed into the lower end of
a fresh charge is admitted to chamber a pre
the skirt of the power-piston body and receives
paratory to the next cycle.
the ends of the wrist-pin and it may have a
piston-ring 3I. The collar has an upstanding 50
Such is the usual
50 operation of engines of this type. In View of
the presence of reservoir c and associated parts
and also of chamber a-communicating with in
take 3 before said chamber communicates with
reservoir c when the power piston ascends the
55 operation is' as follows:
As the power piston rises from the position of
Fig. 5 to that of Fig. 6 an increasing vacuum is
flange 30a receiving and preventing the expan
sion of the lower end of the skirt, preferably
formed as thin as possible since it is known
that the more the displacement of the fixed
piston the greater is the efliciency of the engine. 55
In the preferred form the collar is made to have
a wedging action on the skirt end as by cham
forming in chamber a and also in reservoir c
fering the latter, or bevelling the liange, or both,
via inhalation port I6.
as shown.
When said piston as
60 sumes the position of Fig. 7, where such in
halation port has passed by-pass passage 5 and
is hence closed, the vacuum continues to be
increased in chamber a whereas the degree
thereof so far attained in reservoir c from now
65 on remains constant until as will appear. When
the piston assumes the position of Fig. 8 (where
inhalation port I4 is beginning to permit a fuel
charge to enter chamber a. from intake 3, but
exhalation port I5 is not yet positioned to per
70 mit flow from chamber a to reservoir c) the
fuel begins to'enter chamber a.. Whenthe pis
ton assumes the position of Fig. 9 exhalation
port I5 opens and, the pressure in chamber a
now being higher than in reservoir c, there is a
75 iiow from the former to the latter through said
_
To prevent a surfeit of oil attaining the inner 60
surface of the power piston when down and so
working up between the power piston and’ fixed
Apiston I provide the former withA a baffle plate
3| closing off communication up through said
power piston and arranged below the fixed pis 65
ton, being penetrated by the standards 1. In
the present example this is clamped between
-the collar 30 and the inside shoulder 8d of the
skirt of the body of the power piston.
In engines of this class, as the piston descends 70
andwhen its head passes the by-pass passage 5
to permit the fresh charge to flow from chamber
ato chamber ll) there-is likely to be a displacement
of oil by the pressure around and in a groove, as
32, ' existing between the lower piston-ring 8a 75
-3
2,119,878
and sleeve I2 and so out of the> exhaust 4,-in
other words a loss of lubricant in this way.
Hence (Fig. 3) I form the groove with a seriesA of
recesses 33 in which some of the oil will be pock
eted and hence not responsive to the pressure act
ing as stated.
In engines of this class there is of course usually
some space by which the by-passing is permitted,
and lubricating oil may be carried into this space
il) by the fuell charge.
But so far as I am aware I
am the ñrst to form this space well-shaped, as
reservoir c, so that the oil received therein can
collect and be retained against re-ñow to the cyl
inder. Further, according to this invention oil
does not enter this space only through a port, as
I6, coactive with port 5 in effecting the by-pass
ing, but also through a port, as I5, which permits
the oil to enter said space actually when the
power piston approaches the end of its intake
stroke. Still further the well-shaped space, which
may take any form whatever, has discharge means
(here the passage of conductor 26) and means to
prevent reverse ñow through the discharge means
(here the check-valve 28). Again, said well
shaped space has means, as the ñoat valve, to
control the flow for discharge through the dis
charge means.
Having thus fully described my invention what
der-laterally thereof andat one side of the piston
and said means being otherwise normally closed,
said cylinder having at said side of the pistonan
intake, a reciprocatory power piston> having a
head at said side of the fixed piston and a cylin
drical' skirt fitting between the latter and cylin
der, said power piston when moving head-end
foremost being adapted iirst to maintain said pas
sage closed and vhaving inhalation and exhalation
ports respectively adapted then to coincide with 10
said intake and passage, and means in the first
means to condense liquid admitted to the latter.
4. The hereindescribed engine including, with
fixed structure itself including a cylinder, a fixed
piston therein and a liquid reservoir having a dis 15
charge outlet andv also a passage leading from
the interior of the cylinder laterally thereof and
at one side of the piston and said means being
otherwise closed, said cylinder having at said
side of the piston an intake, a reciprocatory power 20
piston having a head at said side of the Iixed pis
ton and-a cylindrical skirt ñtting between the
latter and cylinder, said power piston when mov
ing head-end foremost being adapted ñrst to
maintain closed said passage and having inhala 25
tion and exhalation ports respectively adapted
then to coincide with said intake and passage, and
a float valve in the reservoir controlling said out
I claim is:
l. In combination, fixed structure including a
let.
cylinder, a fixed piston therein and liquid-receiv
fixed structure itself including a cylinder, a iixed
piston therein and liquid discharge means having
ing means having a passage leading from the
interior of the cylinder laterally thereof and at
one side of the piston and said means being other
wise normally closed, said cylinder having at said
side of the piston an intake, and a reciprocatory
power piston having a head at said side of the
ñxed piston and a cylindrical skirt fitting be
tween the latter and cylinder, said power piston
40 when moving head-end foremost being adapted
ñrst to maintain said passage closed and having
'inhalation and exhalation ports respectively
adapted then to coincide with said intake and
passage, whereby, upon the pressure in the re
45 ceiving means when said passage is so closed by
the power piston being below that in the space
in the power piston at said side of the fixed pis
ton, there will be fluid flow from such space to
said means when said ports so coincide with the
50 intake and passage.
2. In combination, fixed structure including a
cylinder, a fixed piston therein and liquid-receiv
ing means having a passage leading from the in
terior of the cylinder laterally thereof and at one
side of the piston and said means being otherwise
normally closed, said cylinder having at said side
of the piston an intake, and a reciprocatory power
piston having a head at said side of the ñxed
piston and a cylindrical skirt ñtting between the
60 latter and cylinder, said power piston when mov
ing head-end foremost being adapted ñrst to
maintain said passage closed and having inhala
tion and exhalation ports respectively adapted
then to coincide with said intake and passage, the
former previously to the latter, whereby, upon the
,
' 5.. The hereindescribed engine including, with 30
a passage leading from the interior of the cylinder
laterally thereof and at, one side of the piston,
said cylinder having at said side of the piston an 35
intake, a reciprocatory power piston having a
head at said side of the fixed piston and a cylin
drical skirt ñtting between the latter and cyl
inder, said power piston when moving head-end
foremost being adapted ñrst to maintain closed 40
said passage and having inhalation and exhala
tio-n ports respectively adapted then to coincide
with said intake and passage, and a check-valve
in said discharge means yieldingly held seated to
ward the cylinder.
_
6. The hereindescribed engine including, with
45
fixed structure itself including a cylinder, a fixed
piston therein and liquid discharge means having
a passage leading from the interior of the cylin
der laterally thereof and at one side of the pis 50
ton, said cylinder having at said side of the
piston an intake, a reciprocatory power piston
having a head at said side of the fixed piston and
a cylindrical skirt ñtting between the latter and
cylinder, said power piston when moving head 55
end foremost being adapted first to maintain
closed said passage and having inhalation and
exhalation ports respectively adapted then to
coincide With said intake and passage, check
valve means in the discharge means closable by 60
atmospheric pressure, valve means in the dis
charge means between the first valve means and
the cylinder, and a float in the discharge means
having the second-named valve means movable
therewith.
65
pressure in the receiving means when said passage
is so closed by the power piston being below that
in the space in the power piston at said side of
'7. The engine set forth in claim 8 characterized
by the cylindrical portion of the power piston
projecting, in any position of the latter to which
the fixed piston, there will be iiuid iiow from
it is reciprocated, beyond the fixed piston rela
tively to the cylinder head and having in the 70
part thereof so projecting beyond the ñxed pis
such space to said means when said ports so <co
incide with the intake and passage.
3. The hereindescribed engine including, with
fixed structure itself including a cylinder, a fixed
piston therein and liquid-receiving means having
a passage leading’ from the interior of the cylin
ton means forming a circumferential seal with
the cylinder.
8. A two-cycle internal-combustion engine in
cluding, with fixed structure itself including a 75
4
2,119,878
cylinder closed at one end and a piston therein, a
cylindrical power piston reciprocatory lengthwise
of and in the cylinder and having a head between
said end and the ñrst piston and a skirt depend
ing between the latter and cylinder, the cylinder
having an exhaust opening arranged to be be
tween said end and head when the latter adjoins
the first piston and an intake between said open,
ing and first piston and said structure also in
cluding a normally closed liquid-receiving space
and having a passage connecting such space with
and open to the cylinder interior from ap
proximately the first piston to beyond said head
when the latter adjoins said first piston and op
posed by the power piston skirt when said head
adjoins said cylinder end, and said power piston
having in its skirt primary and secondary in
halation ports so arranged that the former port
will connect said passage and interior of the
cylinder when said head adjoins the first piston
and the latter port will connect said intake and
cylinder interior when said head adjoins said
cylinder end and an exhalation port arranged
to connect said passage and cylinder interior
when said head adjoins said cylinder end.
9. The combination set forth in claim 8 when
piston in the cylinder and standards on the base
supporting the fixed piston, a power piston hav
ing a head above the fixed piston and a cylindri
cal skirt depending between the fixed piston and ’
cylinder and below the former, power-transmit
ting means depending from the power piston, and
a baffle plate extending across the skirt between
the ñxed piston and said means and penetrated
by said standards.
11. An engine of the class described compris
ing, with fixed structure including a base, a cylin
der on the base having its lower end open, a ñxed
position in the cylinder and standards on the base
supporting the fixed piston, a power piston having
a head above the ñxed piston and a cylindrical
skirt depending between the ñxed piston and
cylinder and below the former and having an
inside downwardly facing shoulder near its lower
end, power-transmitting means depending from
the power piston and including a collar screwed 20
into the lower end of said power piston below
said shoulder, and a baffle plate clamped between
said collar and shoulder and penetrated by the
standards.
12. A power-piston for an engine of the class 25
described comprising a hollow cylindrical body
characterized by the secondary inhalation port
having a head and a circumferential groove in its
having a lead on the exhalation port when the
head formed with pockets closed off from the in
piston head approaches said cylinder end.
terior of the piston and arranged in a series ex
10. An engine of the class described comprising,
With ñxed structure including a base, a cylinder
on the base having its lower end open, a fixed
tending lengthwise of the groove.
GEORGE EXEL.
30
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