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Патент USA US2119886

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June 7, 1938.
2,119,886
E. B. MYERS
IMPACT CRUSHER
Filed July 31, 1935
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
INVENTOR,
BY
Elma/f1 ?ling/emf,
Jude/W36 W
A ORNEY.
June 7, 1938.
2,119,886
E. B. MYERS
IMPACT GRUSHER
Filéd July 31; 1935
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
FFI'V I
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INVENTOR,
Ebnum 5.111301‘ , I
BY
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A%0RNEYQ .
Patented June 7, 1938
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‘UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,119,886
IMPACT CRUSHER
Elman B. Myers, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Application July 31, 1935, Serial No. 33,932
5 Claims.
My present invention relates generally to the
crushing or disintegration of solid materials, and
has particular reference to improvements in
crushers of the so-called “impact” type.
5
It is well known that solid materials of frangible character, such as siliceous ores, talc, lime,
pyrites, coal, and the like, if directed in the form
of a high velocity stream against an anvil, are
reduced in particle size. Various attempts have
10 heretofore been made to harness this phenome-
(Cl. 83-46)
‘
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length whereby the particles fall by gravity and.
form a stream of increasing velocity. Then, with
out decreasing the cross sectional area of the
stream, I introduce a gas traveling at a high
velocity, which smoothly ‘merges with the stream
of solid material. I have found that this can be
done, without developing back pressures or other
wise impeding or impairing the, smooth continur
ous ?ow of the solid, by introducing the gas in:
the form of a tapering conical stream, the apex in
non to the comminution or pulverization of ma-
angle of the cone being less than 10 degrees and \
terials, but, because of various di?iculties arising
from faulty design and a failure to understand
preferably about 6 degrees. In the illustrative
embodiment of the invention the gas is intro
fully the underlying capabilities and shortcom~ ' duced at a midportion of the barrel hereinbefore
15 ings of high velocity gas streams, no really prac- mentioned.
_
15
tical apparatus has ever, to my knowledge, been
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25
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'35
Another feature of my invention lies in ade
devised or employed.
quately providing the maximum opportunity for
In accordance with the present invention, I
have successfully devised, constructed and operated an apparatus which is practical, effective in
accomplishing its purposes, and e?icient, from the
standpoints of cost and operation, volume of pmduction and rapidity and quality of resultant pulverization, in avariety of arts Where cumbersome
and expensive ball-mills,~and the like, have been
regularly and tediously employed for effecting a
much less adequate degree of comminution.
Since apparatus according to my invention is
admirably suited for the disintegration of freemilling ores, I have herein illustrated and described an installation designed primarily for this
purpose. Nevertheless, it will be understood that
the features of my‘ invention adapt themselves
with equal, and sometimes greater, facility and
advantage to many other industries and purposes.
the solid material to acquire the higher veloci
ty of the gas. I have found that this may be
achieved by making the length of the barrel,
from gas inlet to muzzle, at least 14 times as great
as the internal diameter. If the length is less,
the particles of solid material do not havev an
adequate opportunity to accelerate to the ve-l
locity-of the gas stream; and if the length is too
great velocity decreases.
\
My invention, furthermore, provides for accurate variation of the cross-sectional, area of the
gas stream admitted into the barrel. This pro
videsameans for e?ective control of the quantity
of gas employed, and this in turn enables the
.merger of gas and solids to be effected with maxi
mum efficiency, depending upon the type, size
and speci?c weight of the material which is to be
crushed.
1
- One of the features of my present invention lies
One satisfactory structural mode of acco
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,
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35
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in the successful obviation of the di?iculty hereto- ~ plishing the foregoing objectives is to make the '
fore encountered in trying to effect an efficient material guiding and con?ning portions of the '
and adequate merger of a stream of solids with a barrel of two complementary sections of uniform
4O stream of high velocity gas. I have found that a internal diameter substantially throughout and 40
gas stream ?owing at high speed manifests char-
having adjacent parallel surfaces‘v which conform‘
acteristics of a solid in that it resists entry there-
to a downwardly-tapering Cone; the Sect-ions hav
into. Accordingly, to attempt to‘ feed solids lat—
erally into such a stream is of no avail. On the
ing micrometric threaded portions which engage
with another portion of the barrel to provide a
other hand, to direct a stream of gas laterally, or _ means for accurate“ relative axial adjustment of 45
even at most obliquities, into a mass'yof solid, resuits in building up undesirable back pressures
which prevent smooth, continuous, practical op-
the sections. Such adjustment effects desired
variations in the width of the annular space or
gap between the sections, and a, high pressure gas,
eration.
preferably but not necessarily, air, is introduced
50
In accordance with my invention, I ?rst impart into the barrel through said gap.
50
to the solids themselves a movement in‘ the ‘form
One ofthe structural features of my invention
of a stream, the particles being imbued with a lies in providing a replaceable lining or sleeve, of
kinetic energy which resists de?ection. This I special wear-resistant material at the muzzle of
’ accomplish by feeding the material into the upper the barrel so as to withstand,‘ for relatively long
55 end of a vertical tubular barrel of adequate periods of time, the destructive abrasion of the 55
2
2,119,886
particles which emanate from the barrel at a
high velocity.
Another feature of the invention lies in employ
ing a. gas at a pressure which will develop the
maximum theoretical velocity in the barrel. With
air, a pressure of approximately 500 pounds per
square inch has been employed, the theoretical
velocity of the air stream generated being ap
proximately 1150 feet per second. A pressure
10 higher than this will not produce any material
increase in velocity, whereas too little pressure
will be inadequate to overcome the inertia of the
solid particles.
I achieve the foregoing objectives, and such
other objectives as may'hereinafterappear or be
pointed out, in the manner illustratively exem
pli?ed in the accompanying drawings in which
ticles and causes them to travel downwardly
through spaces 33 provided for this purpose in the
anvil f3.
The gas and particles which pass downwardly
through the conduit I6 are again de?ected by the
plate l8 and additional ?ne particles are recov
ered' by passing outwardly through the conduit
22. The heavier particles are again de?ected
downwardly by the ring baf?e 34, passing through '
openings 35 in the plate [8, and entering the
chute 20. From here, these particles are led back
to the hopper ll.
_
w
The pulverized ore material entering the tank
23 through the conduits 2| and 22v is captured
in suspended form by the water or other liquid 15
in the tank and this suspension is continuously
drawn off through the outlet 28, from which
Figure 1 is a diagrammatic elevational view point
‘it may be led to other apparatus where
of an impact crusher embodying the features of
the values may be recovered. In the case of the
20 mypresent invention; and
recovery of gold or similar values from ore, the
Figure 2 is an enlarged longitudinal cross-sec
material from the pipe 28 may be led directly
tional view through the barrel itself.
to an amalgamation apparatus, or it may be pre
Referring to Figure 1, the barrel of the present liminarily
led to a colloid mill for further colloid
apparatus is designated generally by the refer
25 ence numeral I 0, a funnel or the like ll being
Referring now to Figure 2, I will point out the
mounted at the upper end, and the lower or
salient
characteristics of my present invention,
muzzle end l2'being arranged over an anvil l3.
which permit the foregoing illustrative operation
The anvil and the muzzle» end of the barrel are
ization.
'30
7
to be carried out in a practical, continuous, and
enclosed within a chamber l4 having an outlet . economical
manner.
opening I5 at its upper end and having an outlet
conduit [6 at the bottom. The conduit l6 leads
into a second chamber ll which serves as a class
i?er. -It contains a ‘bed-plate 18 arranged be
neath the lower end of the conduit l6, and is
35 provided with the outlet opening ill at its upper
end and with the outlet chute 20 at the bottom.
Extending from the opening I5 is a conduit 2|,
and extending from the outlet opening I9 is a
similar conduit 22, the latter conduits leading
40 into a tank 23, which may contain water. Anv
agitator 24 is preferably arranged within the
tank and may be operated by a motor 25, or the
like. At the upper end of the tank I provide an
inlet pipe 26, and an air vent 21; and at the bot
tom of ,the tank a pipe 28 serves as an outlet.
Before describing the details of the present
barrel I will point out that the solid material, in
the'form of particles of free milling are for ex
ample approximately %"-%" in size, is fed con
50
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tinuously into the hopper II, this feed being ac
complished in any desirable or suitable manner.
I have diagrammatically illustrated a traveling
belt conveyer 29, adapted to deliver the material
down a chute 30 into the funnel ll. However,
any‘ other suitable type of feeding mechanism
may be employed and it is often preferable that
the mechanism be of a character which gently
The barrel I0 is composed of two sections, the 30
upper section 36 having a flange 31 secured to
the funnel II, and having also a portion 38 pro
vided with the micrometric screw threads 39.
The internal diameter is uniform' throughout, ex
cept near the top where it enlarges somewhat to
facilitate the admission of the solid particles.
At the lower end of the section 36 the outer sur
face is downwardly-tapered, as shown at 40,
thereby conforming this surface to a downwardly
tapering cone having an apex angle no greater
than 10 degrees and preferably 6. degrees.
The lower section 4| of the barrel is aligned
with the upper section and has an internal diam
eter not less than that of the upper section. The
upper portion of the section 4| has its inner 45
surface 42 downwardly-tapered so that it forms
a complementary parallel surface, relative to the
tapered surface 40 of the upper section. This
permits the two sections to define an annular
conical passage-way 43 which serves for the ad 50
mission of the high pressure gas in a downward
ly-tapering conical stream.
> At its lower end the section 4| is provided with
a replaceable sleeve or lining 44 which is prefer
ably of nickel-chromium-iron or boron carbide 55
or similar wear-resistant material. This lining is
held
in place, in a replaceable manner, by means
agitates the particles as they are fed into the
crushing apparatus. The stream of solid par I of the ferrule 45. ‘The opening 46 of the ferrule is
purposely larger than the internal diameter of
60 ticles is discharged out of the muzzle l2 ’at a
the
barrel so that passage of the solid material,
high velocity. The particles strike forcibly
against the anvil I 3 and the anvil is preferably
provided with the replaceable plate 3| which is
of special wear-resistant material such as chro
mium-manganese-iron.
This impingement of the particles against‘ the
anvil causes disintegration of a portion thereof,
to a powder of a ?neness less than BOO-mesh.
Approximately 60% of the powder mass has a
‘size smaller than‘ 5 microns, and some of the
particles are even as small as one millimicron.
These particles are‘obviously of air-float dimen
sions and most of them are withdrawn through
the conduit 2|. A bailie ring 32 arranged within
75 the chamber I4 serves to de?ect the larger Par
at high velocity, will exercise abrasive action if
any against the lower corners 41 of the lining.
Carried by the lower‘ section 4| is a gas-inlet
manifold 48 which communicates with the upper
end of the passageway 43. Gas at high pressure 65
is admitted through the opening 49. The mani
fold 46 may, if desired, be formed integrally with
the section 4|, but it is preferable to employ a
threaded engagement, as indicated at 50, so 70
that the lower section 4| of the barrel may be
completely replaceable, if desired. In effect, the
manifold 48 forms a part of the lower section 4|,
and is provided with micrometric screw threads
which engage with the threads 39 hereinbefore I ,
3
2,119,886
mentioned.
The reference numerals 5| and 52
designate lock nuts.
In accordance with my invention, the width of
the gap 43 may be accurately controlled, and may
be adjusted from a zero width to any selected size
suitable for the gas employed, the pressure used,
and the general purpose of the apparatus. This
adjustment is effected by rotating the upper sec
10
tion 36, and by virtue of the micrometric threads
39, each complete rotation corresponds accurately
to a de?nite alteration in the width of the gap 43.
In this way varying amounts of gas may be intro
duced to meet different operating conditions.
Another feature of my invention, as herein
15. before mentioned, lies in the proportioning of
parts so that the distance from the gas-inlet 43
to the muzzle end of the ,barrel is at least I4
times as great as the internal diameter. This af
fords opportunity for the high velocity gas to ac
celerate the solid particles up to effective velocities
for disintegrating the particles on impact.
Because of the unconstricted' barrel and the
acute angle of the conical passage 43, in combina
tionwith the adequate relative length of the barrel
25 from gas-inlet to muzzle, the apparatus may be
pressing machinery, is markedly less than that of
conventional equipment of equivalent output
capacity.
.
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The initial .cost of the present apparatus is
much less than that of conventional mills; and
the upkeep and maintenance costs are negligible
compared to conventional costs.
.
Reduction in particle size of various materials
may be effected in the dry state.
The space required by the illustrated apparatus 10
is relatively small. -The chamber l4 and the
chamber I‘! of Figure 1 occupy little over 10 feet
in height and about 4 feet in width. The tank
may be as little as 7 feet in diameter and 6
feet high.
I
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15
‘There are no moving parts, and the elements
subject to wear may be easily replaced.
In general, it will be understood that changes .
in the details, herein described and illustrated for
the purpose of explaining the nature of my in 20
vention, may be made by'those skilled in the art
without departing from the spirit and scope of the
invention as expressed in the appended claims.
It is, therefore, intended that these details be in
terpreted as illustrative, and not in a limiting 25
sense.
continuously employed in a highly e?icient man
Having thus described my invention, and illus
ner. A continuous crushing of certain kinds of
material at the rate of 10 tons per hour may, trated its use, what I claim as new and desire
for example, be carried on by employing air at ‘to secure by Letters Patent’ is-—
1. In an impact crusher, a barrel comprising
30 not over 500 pounds’ pressure and in a quantity
of not over 600 cubic feet per minute. For such separate coaxially arranged upper and lower sec
an output the length of the barrel, from gas-inlet tions, said upper section having an outer conical
to muzzle, was approximately 28 inches, and the surface tapering at an angle of less than ?ve
internal diameter approximately 2 inches. The
35 gas-inlet passageway 43 is of appropriate cross
degrees to its longitudinal axis and said lower
section having an inner conical surface and a 35.
sectional area to provide the proper volume of air cylindrical bore, said inner surface being ar
and the anvil I3 is arranged about 6 inches away ranged opposite said outer conical surface and
from the muzzle. In using a barrel of the above , parallel thereto to form an annular conical pas
dimensions and with the gas inlet angle as above
40 set forth, the optimum position will be substan
sage opening into said lower section, and said
cylindrical bore extending continuously from 40
tially that shown in Figure 2 of the drawings and
the width of the inlet opening will be approxi
mately .036 inch.
saidconical passage to the discharge end of said
lower section, means for feeding material to be
_ The foregoing relative dimensions are given
lower section, means for delivering gas under
pressure into said cylindrical bore through said 45
conical passage, and an anvil opposite said dis
charge end of the lower section.
45 merely for the purpose of explaining the general
nature of the invention and it will be obvious that
variations may be made to suit differing require
ments. For example, another successful installa
tion employs an internal diameter of about 1
50 inch, a. length of barrel, from gas-inlet to muzzle,
of approximately 18 inches, and an optimum gas
inlet gap of approximately .026 inch. Such an
arrangement of parts employs about 264 cubic
feet of air per minute, at 500 pounds’ pressure, and
55 crushes three tons of certain kinds of material
per hour.
*
crushedthrough said upper section into said
2. In an impact crusher, a barrel comprising
separate coaxially arranged upper and lower sec
tions, said upper section having an outer ‘conical
surface tapering at an angle of less than ?ve de
grees to its longitudinal axis and said lower sec
tion having an inner conical surface and a cylin
drical bore, said inner surface, being arranged 0p-_
posite said outer conical surface and parallel
thereto to form an annular vconical passage open
Various uses to which the present apparatus ing into said lower section, and said cylindrical
may be put will be obvious to those skilled in the ‘bore extending continuously from said conical
art, but I wish to point out that, in addition to passage to the discharge end of said lower sec
60 the crushing of ores, and the release of metallic tion, the length of said continuous cylindrical
bore being at least fourteen times its diameter,
‘values, such as copper, gold, silver, platinum, pal
ladium, and the like, from quartz or similar ma-’ means for feeding material to be crushed through
terials, the apparatus is admirably suited for
widelydiiferent purposes, notably the pulveriza
65 tion of coal.
Similarly, in the cement industry, the cement
clinkers developed during the roasting process
may be e?ciently and inexpensively reduced to
said upper section into said lower section, means
for delivering gas- under pressure into said cylin
drical bore through said conical passage, and an
anvil opposite said discharge end of the lower
section.
.
3. In an impact crusher, a barrel comprising
separate coaxially arranged upper and lower sec
tions, said upper section having a outer conical 70
surface tapering at an angle of less than ?ve de
grees to its longitudinal axis and said lower sec
ble-mills or the like.
‘
'
Generally speaking, various advantages of the, tion having an inner conical surface and a cylin
powder by the present apparatus, thereby ob
70 viating the necessity for the regular expensive
and cumbersome employment of ball-mills, peb
75
present apparatus may be summarized'as follows:
The gross weight, including the air-com
drical bore, said inner surface being arranged
opposite said outer‘ conical surface and parallel
4
2,119,886
thereto to form an annular conical passage open
ing into said lower section, and said cylindrical
bore extending continuously from said conical
passage to the discharge end of said lower sec
tion, one of said sections being adjustable in re
lation to the other to vary the effective width
of said passage, means for feeding material to
be crushed through said upper section into said
lower section, means for delivering gas under
10 pressure into said cylindrical bore through said
conical passage, and an anvil opposite said dis
charge end of the lower section.
4. In an impact crusher, a barrel comprising
separate coaxially arranged upper and lower sec
tions, said upper section having an outer conical
surface tapering at an angle of less than ?ve de
grees to its longitudinal axis and said lower sec
tion having an inner conical surface and a cylin
drical bore, said inner surface being arranged
opposite said outer conical surface and parallel
thereto to form an annular conical passage open
ing into said lower section, and said cylindrical
bore extending continuously from said conical
passage to the discharge end of said lower sec
7 tion, the length of said continuous cylindrical
bore being'at least fourteen times its diameter,
wherein said material is supplied to an'accelera
tion tube through a feed tube having its delivery
end extending centrally into the inlet end of said
acceleration tube and is accelerated therein by
gas under pressure and discharged therefrom in
an unimpeded stream against an anvil arranged
opposite the discharge end of said acceleration‘
tube at su?icient velocity to be crushed by impact
with said anvil, characterized in that said de
livery end of the feed tube has an outer surface 10
disposed at an angle of less than ?ve degrees to
its longitudinal axis and said inlet end of the
acceleration tube has an inner surface arranged
in opposed spaced parallel relation to said outer
surface and forms therewith in effect an injector
nozzle passageway for supplying gas under pres
sure to said acceleration tube in an annular
stream laterally enclosing the path of material
delivered centrally into said acceleration tube
through‘s‘aid feed tube, and said acceleration tube
has an acceleration and discharge end portion
provided with a bore of a length at least fourteen
times its diameter and of substantially undimin
ished cross-sectional area in the direction of
movement of material therethrough, which cross 25
sectional area is substantially the same as that
one of said sections being adjustable in relation of the bore of said delivery end of the feed tube,
to the other to vary the e?ective width of said and with its discharge opening arranged opposite
passage, means for feeding material to be crushed the anvil to discharge material freely from the
through said upper section into said lower sec . delivery end of said feed tube into crushing im
tion, means for delivering gas under pressure into pact with the anvil in an unimpeded stream of
said cylindrical bore through said conical pas
undiminished cross-sectional area from said de
sage, and an anvil opposite said discharge end livery end of said feed tube to the impact surface
C3 Cal
of thelower section.
5. Apparatus for crushing material by impact
of said anvil.
-
ELMAN B. MYERS.
35
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