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Патент USA US2119963

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June 7, 1938.
2,1 19,963
Filed June 21, 1935
Robert A .Ramsclell
Patented June ,7, 1938
2,119,963 ‘
memos AND m-z'rnon or raonucmo
Robert A. Ramsdell, Syosset, N. Y., assignor, by
mesne assignments, to E. I. du Pont de Ne-v
monrs & Compan , Wilmington, Del., a cor
poration of Delaw e
Application June 21, 1935; Serial No.‘ 27,825
4 Claims. (Cl. 117-1)
This invention will be described with particu
> lar reference to crepe twisting. of silk and rayon;
however, it is to be understood that the scope
of the invention includes the production of all
types of high twist yarn having such weight or
denier and, such a high degree of twist that the
tension and the ballooning of the yarn. This
?yer ordinarily consists of a horizontally disposed
wire having an eye at one end thereof which ex
twist must necessarily be imparted thereto by
tends beyond the edge of the top head of the
throwing spool as it is important that the yarn 5
balloon around the periphery of the head of
the spool without contacting therewith to prevent
means of throwing machines commonly referred
degradation of the yarn.
to as uptwisters or silk spinners.
The throwing spools as known heretofore were
10' Heretofore the crepe twisting of silk and rayon
necessarily made with comparatively large bar- 10
has involved the following essential procedure: \ rels and were wound with relatively few layers
The silk or rayon, in the form of skeins, was \ of yarn. The spool was wound with relatively
treated, for example by immersion, with a suit
few layers of yarn so as to maintain a su?lciently
able‘ dope. This dope usually comprises an oil
15 ?nish, an adhesive and a fugitive dye or tint.
The adhesive, consisting ordinarily of gelatin,
functions to hold the high twist in the yarn and
prevents the same from becoming lively after
the twist has been set. The oil lubricates and
softens the yarn to protect the same in subse
or centrifugal forces from being transmitted to 15
the yarn at the high rotational speeds of the
spool. The barrels are made comparatively. large
The treated yarn was then wound onto small
to prevent the thread frompbeing drawn over the
head of the spool without ballooning, or from
ballooning at a sharp angle from the spool.
The production of arti?cial thread has been
improved to the point where it is no longer nec
essary to process the same in skein form. The
arti?cial thread is formed by extrusion of a liq
spools made of wood or ?ber composition with
relatively large barrels and small heads. Only a
uid through a spinneret and collected in a cen- 25
trifugal bucket or on a bobbin. The arti?cial
small amount of yarn could be contained on such
a spool, hereinafter to be referred to as “throw
ing spool”, from whichit was to be crepe twisted,
thread, so collected, is then processed by wash
ig, desulfuring, bleaching and drying in the form
of package in which it is originally collected, or,
for reasons which will appear hereinafter.
in the case of bobbins, a package formed from 30
quent winding and throwing operations. The dye
or tint serves to identify the yarn during subse
quent twisting, winding and weaving operations.
small diameter to prevent excessive peripheral
the handling of 100 denieryarn, not more than
the original by rewinding and twisting. The
1 to 3 ounces could be wound on a throwing spool.
These spools were then mounted on suitable ver
form of package in which the arti?cial thread
is processed, as above-described, will be herein
after referred to as the "original package”. .It
has been found that the arti?cial silk can also be 36
treated with a suitable creping dope in its origi
tical spindles capable of revolving at high speeds,
35 such, as for example, 9,000 to 11,000 R. P. M.
The spools of yarn were revolved either in a
clockwise or counter-clockwise direction, depend
ing upon the direction of twist desired in the
yarn. The yarn is drawn up and away from the
M - revolving spool at a constant speed and wound up
on another spool or take-up bobbin which is
sometimes referred to as a steaming spool.
The type of machine used to impart a high
twist to a ?ne denier thread in the manner above
nal package form, thus eliminating the opera
tion of first winding the same into the form of
skeins» Consequently, the transportation 01' ar
ti?cial yam, in the form of skeins, from'the pro- 40
ducer thereof to the throwster, would involve
an otherwise unnecessary step of ?rst skeining
the yarn. To transport'theyarn in the original
package form is undesirable and impractical.
- described is that above referred to as an up-twist
It has been suggested to wind the processed 45
er or silk spinner. It has been found necessary > and doped yarn directlytfrom the original pack
to use this type of machine for ?ne denier yarn
when a high degree of twist is to be imparted
thereto. By operating in this manner less ten
sion and frictional resistance are placed on the
age to a throwing spool and transport the mm
from the producer to the throwster in this form,
thus eliminating the skeining operation. This has
yarn than in other types of twisting apparatus.
been found to be entirely impractical by reason 50
of the comparatively'large percentage of space
A ?yer or yarn guide is rotatably positioned on
the top of the spindle of an up-twister for the
purpose of guiding the yarn from the throwing
and weight taken up by the throwing spools.
F1u~thermore, the empty throwing spools would
55 spool to the take-up bobbin and controlling the
again have to be returned to the yarn producer.
‘In an attempt to overcome this last-mentioned 65
di?iculty it has been suggested to ?rst wind the
yarn from the dope-treated original package onto
like, and yarn I! tightly wound thereabout. This
core is preferably of uniform cross-section
a substantially rigid paper or ?ber core in the
throughout the length thereof so as to produce a
package of yarn having substantially cylindrical
conventional “cone" form of package, the yarn
transported in the form of cone packages to the
contour, thus preventing bunches or layers of
yarn from shifting on the package or “sloughing
throwster, and then rewound onto a throwing
spool. This procedure'is obviously little better
oil" due to centrifugal force, however, a slightly
than ?rst skeining the same and transporting the
conical core may be use without objectionable
yarn in skein form. In this connection it was
shifting oi’ the thread.
10 well recognized bythe art that a cone may be
used directly in the so-called down-twister type
_ The yarn package may contain up to 3/4 pound
of yarn and may be as much as 21/2 inches in
of machine in which the cone remains stationary
and the take-up bobbin is rotated. In an up
diameter. I prefer however a package contain
ing 4 to 5 ounces of yarn and having an outside
twister type of machine, on the other hand, the
diameter of about2t/4 inches. The package may
vary in length but should be short enough to be
accommodated on the throwing machines with
15 cone would be rotated at such a high rate of speed
that the layers of thread would telescope and be
out alteration. The inside diameter of the core
ii is preferably about one inch although consid
erable variation in this dimension is permissible.
The core’ should comprise no more than about
20% of‘ the total weight of the package, and nor
mally will comprise about 10 to 18% of the total -
\ thrown in large bunches from the cone by the
centrifugal force.
The applicant has now found that, contrary
20 to accepted practice, a yarn package which may
be economically transported and which may be
used directly on the throwing spindle without
?rst rewinding the yarn onto a throwing spool,
can-be wound from the original package.
weight thereof.
from the original package. The winding oper
It is therefore an object of this invention to
ation is preferably carried out on a precision
provide an improved process for the production
of crepe twisted yarn from arti?cial thread.
It is another object of this invention to provide
winding machine of the Universal type. In the
winding of the package the stroke of the traverse
is progressively shortened so as to form the pack.
age with tapered ends, the taper being about 30 .80
to '75". The yarn is preferably tightly wound
without about 4 turns around the package per
traverse stroke whereby to obtain a compact
package of yarnrequiring no head to support
a suitable package of arti?cial thread which has
30 been dope-treated for high twist, such as crepe
twist, and which can be economically produced
and transported to a distant plant for direct use
on the spindle of an up-twister.
Other objects of the invention will appear here
The core H is wound with the yarn l2 directly
the same despite‘the high rotational speed to
which it is to be submitted.
The objects of my invention are achieved, in
general, by processing an original package of ar
ti?cial silk including the treatment thereof with
a ‘suitable creping dope, then winding the treated '
yarn on a substantially rigid, light-weight core ,
by means of a precision winding machine, such
as, for example, a machine of the type manu
factured by the Universal Winding Machine Cor
poration and commonly referred to in the art
The package of Fig. -1 has the additional ad
vantage that it may be used to produce either
right- or left-hand ‘twisted crepe thread by
merely reversing the end of the package which is 40
?rst placed on the spindle. In the use of throw
ing spools as known heretofore it was necessary
to wind the yarn thereon in a speci?ed direction
to make it suitable for production of left-hand
twist crepe and in the other direction to make 45
as a Universal Winder. The yarn is precision
it suitable for production of right-hand twist
wound to form a relatively large package, the to
tal weight of which is at least ?ve times the crepe by reason of the fact that throwing spools
must always be positioned on _a spindle with
weight of the core. The package is then trans
ported to a throwing plant where it is directly the same end down.v Therefore, in accordance
positioned on a throwing spindle of an up-twister with the present invention, the same package.
can be used for either right- or left-hand twist
and a high twist imparted to the yarn.
The objects and purposes of the invention will yarn. .
Fig. 2 shows a modi?ed form of a thread pack
be more clearly apparent by reference to the fol
lowing detailed description taken in connection age having a rigid, light-weight core I3 com
56 with the accompanying illustrations of certain prising a cylindrical hollow barrel l3 and a head .
speci?c embodiments thereof, it being understood or ?ange 33. The ?ange 38 will prevent slough
ing of! of the thread II from one ‘end of the’
that the invention is not limited thereto.
package and the thread may be wound against
In the drawing:
Fig. 1 is a vertical cross-sectional view of a
00 yarn package which may be directly mounted‘on'
the spindle of an up-twister.
the ?ange so that a larger amount of thread
may be contained thereon. This form, of pack
age, however, has the disadvantage that only
left- or right-hand twist crepe thread'may be
Fig. 2 is a vertical cross-sectional view of a
modi?ed form of yarn package.
Fig. 3 is a vertical cross-sectional view showing
05 an adapter which may be interposed between a
suitable yarn package and a spindle of an up
'produced therefrom, depending upon the direc
tion in which the thread is wound on the core.
Referring to Figs. 3 and 4 vof the drawing, l5
designates a throwing spindle of an up-twister,
i8 designates an adapter which may be mounted
Fig. 4 is a vertical cross-sectional view showing on the spindle ii to receive the yarn package
a yarn package and adapter mounted on the spin ‘of Figs. 1 or 2. The adapter It consists of a
solid barrel 36, a head 22 and a plurality of leaf 70
70 dle of- an up-twister; and
Fig. 5 is a vertical cross-sectional view showing springs IT. The adapter has a su?lciently small
a conventional throwing spool.
diameter to permit the core II (or ii) to easily
The yarn package illustrated in Fig. 1 of the slide thereover. When the package is positioned
drawing consists of a rigid, light-weight core ll on the adapter the springs II are compressed to
of paper, paste-board, card-board, ?ber, or the’ hold the package ?rmly in place thereon. The 75
adapter Is; is provided with any desired driving
engagement with the spindle such as, for ex
' ample, the tapered ?t shown in Figs. 3 and 4. ‘
The form of adapter described is particularly
desirable since it can be easily and quickly
formed from conventional throwing spools as
shown in Fig. 5 of the drawing. The throwins
spool barrel 24 is merely cut down to the de
sired diameter, for example, by turning on a
10 lathe, and the top head 23 removed therefrom.
The barrel is then provided with suitable hold
has been found that the thread tension does not
vary greatly and that a substantially uniformly
twisted crepe thread is produced. This is par
tially due to the fact that the end of the pack
age does not require a head around which the
yarn must be drawn as is the case with throw
ing spools. The radius of the ?yer need not be
so large as to over-hang the edge of the outer
diameter of the yarn. Therefore, the centrifugal
_ force of the yarn as it is forced against the ?yer
or the radius of the balloon of the yarn is not of
such magnitude as to injure the yarn.
Obviously, the adapter may be omitted, if de 1
The light-weight paper or ?ber core used in
sired, by forming the core of such diameter that . accordance with the present invention is of cheap
15 it may be directly mounted on the spindle of an construction and therefore is suitable for one
ing means such as the leaf springs H.
way shipment.
After the yarn package is positioned on the
spindle i5, as shown in Fig. 4, the projecting end
of the spindle is provided with a ?yer 20 by
rotatably positioning the ?yer bearing II on the
spindle in a known manner.
The yarn. which
has only su?lcient twist to prevent it from open
ing, is passed through one eye ll of the ?yer and
then to a take-up bobbin (not shown). The
spindle is now rotated at a high speed, for ex
ample, 10,000 R. P. M., and the yarn wound up
The direct winding of the‘ yarn onto the core
from the original package eliminates at least one
winding operation I from previously known
In accordance with the present invention a
larger quantity of arti?cial thread ‘can be mount
ed on a spindle for twisting without increased
power consumption.
A relatively large package of yarn can be pre
pared and wound with more perfect wind than is
possible with the use of headed spools such as
previously used in the crepe twisting of arti?cial
on a take-up bobbin or steaming spool at the
rate of 250 inches per minute whereby a twist
of 40 turns per inch is imparted to the thread, silk, thus greatly reducing dimculties in throwing
30 assuming no contraction in length.
' and the time given by the attendant per pound
‘The following example will serve to illustrate of crepe produced.
more clearly the steps of‘ producing crepe twist
By eliminating the skein processing of arti
thread in accordance with the present invention, ?cial thread the yarn is much less degraded, and
it being understood that the invention is not to
' contains fewer knots, broken ?laments, ?uii' balls,
be limited to the speci?c details set forth:
and the like.
Bucket cakes of 100 denier-40 ?lament yarn
spun with a left twist of 4 turns per inch, and
which have been washed, desulfured, bleached
and dried in the original package form, for ex
ample, in accordance with the process described
in the copending application, Serial No. 683,896,
to J. S. Fonda et al., are subjected to a soaking
operation which comprises immersing the proc
essed package for about one-half hour in a bath
composed of 27 pounds sulfonated olive oil, 4
pounds gelatin, 50 gallons of water, and V2 to 2
grams of fugitive dye per liter of solution, de
pending upon the depth of color desired, which
is maintained at a temperature of 120°-130° F.
process, cellulose ester or ether thread such as ‘
cellulose acetate, benzyl cellulose, glycol cellulose
threads, and the like.
Many changes and modi?cations may be made
in the present invention without departing from
the nature and spirit thereof. It is therefore to
be understood that the invention is not to be
limited to speci?c steps and modi?cations above
described except as set forth in the appended
Thereafter, the packages are centrifugally wrung
I claim:
by rotating the same about their own axes for '
1. In a process for the production of crepe twist
about 3 minutes at a speed of about 7,000
R. P. M., and dried. The dried packages of yarn,
after humidi?cation or conditioning, in a known
manner, are directly wound on the cylindrical
core above described by means of a Universal
precision winding machine to form a package
containing about £4 pound of yarn, and of the
general shape illustrated by Fig. 1 of the draw
ing. The package is then transported to a
throwing mill where it is mounted on the throw
ing spindle of an up-twister and ,a high twist
imparted thereto as‘above set forth.
Any desired doping or tinting solution may
be used to impart the desired characteristics to
the yarn. Furthermore, the doping or tinting
solution may be applied to the yarn in any de
sired manner and at any suitable point in the
The invention is applicable to silk or any type
of arti?cial thread, such as regenerated cellulose
thread produced by the viscose or cuprammonium
ed arti?cial thread from original packages of
thread produced in the ?lament forming opera
tion and which have been puri?ed, dried, doped
and have a preliminary twist imparted thereto,_
the steps comprising precision-winding said
thread from the original package onto a light
weight, headless core, to form a package which
may be mounted on and from which the thread
may be directly twisted by means of an up
twister, said package being economically trans 00
portable for long distances, and crepe twisting
said thread directly therefrom.
2. In a process for the production of crepe
twisted arti?cial thread from original packages
of thread produced in the ?lament forming op 65
eration and which have been puri?ed, dried. doped
and have a preliminary twist imparted thereto,
the steps comprising precision-winding said
thread from the original package onto a light
The comparatively large size of the packag
produced in accordance with this invention will weight, headless core, to form a package which
may be mounted on and from' which the thread
permit a long period of twisting per spindle with
out changing packages. In spite of the large ' may be directly twisted by means of an up
change in diameter of the package from the be- , twlster, said package being economically trans
75. ginning to the end of the twisting thereof, it
portable for long distances, positioning said re 75
wound package on a spindle of an tip-twister
and crepe twisting said thread directly therefrom.
3. In a process for the production or crepe
twisted arti?cial thread from original packages
of thread produced in the ‘?lament forming op
‘oration and which have been puri?ed, dried,
doped and have a pmeliminary twist imparted
4. lnzxa process for the production oi crepe
twisted arti?cial thread from original packages
of thread produced in the ?lament forming op
eration and which have been puri?ed. dried.‘
doped and have a preliminary twist imparted
thereto, thefsteps comprising precision-winding
said thread from the original package onto a
thereto, the steps comprising precision-winding
light-weight, headless core. to form a package
said thread from the original package onto a’
light-weight, headless core, to iorm a package‘
containing approximately 4-to 12 ounces of thread.
and which maybe mounted on and from which
the thread may be directly twisted by means of
an up-twister, said package being economically
up-twister. said package being ‘economically
transportable for long distances, said core weigh
transportable for long distances. and crepe twist
15 ing said thread directly therefrom.
which may be mounted on and irom which the
thread may be directly twisted by means of an 10
ing not in excess of 20% of said package, and
crepe twisting directly from said rewound pack
nomm'r 5., RAMBDELL.
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