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Патент USA US2119971

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June 7, 1938.v
s. sNEAD
_
,
_
2,119,971
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origina; Filed oct. 5, 1954
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2,119,971
AUDIQ OSCILLATOR
Sam Snead, Milwaukee, Wis., assigner to The
Otoiiex Corporation, Milwaukee, Wis., a cor
poration ci Wiscen?n
Application October 5, 1934, Serial No. 746,988
Renewed November d, 1937
` 14 elaine.
This invention relates to audio oscillators for
the production of audio waves having a distinc
tive Wave form which greatly departs from the
sinusoidal wave which is desired in oscillators
used heretofore.
_
~
'
.I have found that audio sounds having certain
wave forms and controllable i'n frequency and
volume are particularly useful for the treatment
and alleviation of certain defects of the ear and
10 to provide an oscillator capable of producing such
soundwaves is an object of the present inven
tion.
(C1. 179-1)
varied back and forth between given limits, such
variations having superimposed thereon ripples
during part of each of which the frequency varies
oppositely to the ,first mentioned variation.
Another lobject is to provide an automatic Ul
method for treating the hearing mechanism by
sound waves of substantially rectangular wave
shape during half cycles of one polarity and tri
angular wave shapes during the other cycles and
varying their frequency between given limits.
10
Other objects and advantages will hereinafter
v
It has also been found that when stimulating
hearing by a continuous sound of constant inten
15 sity and pitch, the hearing mechanism becomes
gradually accustomed thereto and does not re
spond any longer. If, on the other hand, the
pitch of the sound is varied continuously Within
limits of audibility, the hearing is continuously
20 stimulated. It has further been found that hear-v
The accompanying drawing is'illustrative of
one embodiment of my invention.
ing.
„
In the draw
.
Figure 1 is a connection diagram of an oscil
lator built in accordance with my invention.
Fig. 2 is an oscillogram of the wave shape of
l5
the output of the oscillator.
Fig. 3 is a curve showing the relation between
ing mechanism, when impaired, frequently does ` the setting of the dial for controlling the fre
not respond to a single sound stimulation. How
ever, if such stimulation isv repeated for several
separated intervals in succession, the summation
d of such stimuli results in a response resulting in
perception of the sound. To provide a method of
and apparatus for automatically producing such
variation and repeated stimuli is another object
of my invention.
30
'other in steps whereby'the variation is tempo
rarily reversed but so that the net result is a
variation in the desired direction. Such varia
tion is known as “pilgrim” steps wherein “rip
ples” are superimposed upon the main oscillatory
variation, and to provide a method of and appa-‘
ratus for such automatic variation in “pilgrim"
'steps is another object of my invention.
Another object is to provide an electrical oscil
40
lator producing audio waves havingl harmonics of
relatively' high amplitude.
_
Another object is to provide an oscillator of
the aforementioned type which is easily adjust
able for varying frequencies Within the audible
_-
.
Another object is to provide an oscillator, the
volunie of which is adjustable over a Wide range
without affecting the frequency for which it is
adjusted.
_
Another object is to provide- an oscillator hav
ing constant- wave shape for varying frequency
and Volume.
between the setting of the frequency adjusting
dial and the volume of the output.
`
Fig. 5 is a diagram showing the variations of
the sound frequency with time for one cycle of
25
such variations, while .
Fig. 6 is a drawing illustrating the mechanism`
The aforedescribed stimulation is further im
proved by varying the pitch from one limit to the
range.
quency and the frequency of the output.
Fig. 4 is a similar diagram showing the relation
`
>
Another object is to provide an oscillator in
55 which the sound frequency is automatically
for automatically varying the sound frequency; 30
Referring to Fig. 1. the’oscillator consists of a
high vacuum tube i, having a heater la for heat
ing the cathode ib, an` anode i“, a control grid Id
and a screen grid le.
The heater i“ as well as
the heaters of the other tubes to be described
subsequently may be supplied with heating en
ergy in a Well known manner from any suitable
source.
'
-
'
-
A second tube 2 similar in all respects to the
tube i has a heater 2a, a cathode 2b, an ariode 2c,
a control grid 2d and a screen grid 2e. Connected
O
in cascade with the tubes i and 2 in a manner
to be described hereafter is a modulator tube 3
having-a heater 3W, a cathode 3b,-an anode 3c, a
control grid "3d, a screen `grid 3e and a second 45
screen grid 31. The output of the tube 3 is am
pliñed in the tube fi having-a. cathode-heater 4“,
a cathode db, an anode 4° and a control grid 4i,
and the outputof the tube lil is further ampliñed
by a tube 5 having a heater 5a, a cathode 5b, an 50
anode 5°, a control grid 5d and a screen grid 5e.
An output transformer 6 having a primary wind
ing 6ß and a secondary winding 6b connects the
tube 5 to aseries of telephone jacks by which the
energy controlled by said tube 5 is to be received. 55
2
2,119,971
The apparatus also includes an inductance 1
one end terminal of which is connected- to the
negative grounded terminal of a source of power
supply, while the other end terminal is connected
through a condenser 8 and a parallel resistor 9
to the grid Id. An intermediate terminal of the
inductance 1 is connected to the cathode Ib.
A second inductance I0 similar to the induct
ance 1 has its one end terminal' connected to the
type telephone receiver which may be employed
in connection with the oscillator so that the
total load on the transformer 6 is not varied if a
receiver is plugged into the jack and'thus sub
stituted in the circuit for the impedance 39'or 4 I.
' `Referring to Fig. 6, the movable plates of con
denser IG are mounted on a rotatable shaft 53'
carrying a pulley 5I. Astring or wire 52 is
wrapped around the pulley so that it rotates ther
latter when it is pulled forth and back. One end 10
of the string is fastened to one end of-a connect
ing rod 53 and the other end of the string is at
tached near the other end of rsaid rod by means
of a spring 54, the purpose of which is to keep
terminal of the power supplyaforemen-~
10 negative
tioned, while its other end terminal is connected
to the grid 2d in series with a condenser II which
is in-parallel with a resistor I2. Connected in
parallel with the inductance` 1, between the grid
the string taut.
15 Id and the negative terminal are a ñxed con
denser I3 of suitable capacity and a smaller ad
justable condenser I4, the purpose of which will
be explained hereinafter. A fixed condenser I5
‘ and a smaller adjustable condenser I3 are .con
20 nected in parallel with the inductance I0. An
- 'impedance I1 has one terminal connected to the
-
15
The secon'd end of the connecting rod is -piv
oted on a pin 55 which is mounted eccentrically
on~a pinion 56. The latter is rotatably mounted
' eccentrically on a wheel 51 which in turn is ro~
tatably mounted on a sleeve -54 and the latter 20
rotates about a pivot 58. A suitable motor or
other driving means 60- carries on its shaft a gear
6I which meshes with the gear "51.* A gear 52 is «
one terminal of a> resistor I8, the other end of , keyed to the aforesaid sleeve and engages gear
anode I° while its other terminal is connected to
-thelatter being connected to the anode 2°. A 56. A second gear identical to gear 82 isl keyed
25 condenser I9 is connected between the anode I° , to the aforesaid sleeve and meshes with a gear
and the control grid 3d and a similar condenser 20 63 fastened to the motor shaft.
~
'
ls connected in series with the resistor 2l be
As the motor is rotated the connecting rod 53
tween the anode 2° and the .control grid 3d. The is recíprocated forth and back and thus oscil
common terminal of the condenser 20 and the lates the shaft 50 of the condenser I5 with each 30
30 resistor 2| is connected through a resistor 22 to revolution of the gear 51. [Simultaneously -the
the negative line. A condenser 22° connects the . motion imparted to the rod I53 by the rotation
cathode 3b with the negative line and is paralleled ` of gear 51 is modified by "‘pilgrim” steps by
by a resistor 22°. An impedance 231 has one virtue of the rotation of pin 55 around the center
terminal connected to the anode 3°-and isparal
of pinion* 55.
'
.
The wire 52` and pulley 5I may obviously be
.35 leled by two similar condensers 24 and 25 which
are connected in series' and their common ter
replaced by a rack and pinion drive, or a lever,
minal is connected to the negative line. The fastened to the shaft 50‘and hinged to the rod-53, l
other terminal of the impedance is connected to- may be substituted. Other modifications of such
the high voltage positive supply terminal through connection are obvious; The number of pilgrim
resistance 23. The common terminal of imped
steps .per cycle may be varied by varying thev gear
ance23 and resistance 26 is connected through a ratios of the transmission, while the length of
, condenser 21 to one fixedv terminalfof a poten
the pilgrim steps may be varied by varying the
tiometer resistor 28, the other fixed terminal of eccentricity of the pin 55.
y
which is connected to the negative terminal ofA »
45 the power supply, while the sliding contact of said
potentiometer is -connected to the control grid
4°. The “cathode 4b is connected to the negative .
terminal of the power supply through a resistor
29 paralleled- by a condenser 33.
In the operation of thedevlce, the oscillating
-circuit which includes tube I and condensers I3
and I4 is adjusted for a frequency of, forex»
ample, 200 kc. To accurately adjust for this fre
quency the condenser I4 is manipulated. The
grid resistance 9 is of such value as to‘cause the
grid to be highly positive during part of the os
cillating cycle and the cyclic voltage variation im
pressed upon the grid, or, the grid swing, is rela
The anode 4° is connected to the high voltage
positive terminal through resistor 3I and is also
connected through a condenser 32 to the grid 5d.
The latter is connected to the negative terminal tively high. The grid swing` is adjusted so thatof the power supplythrough resistances 33 and during the respective half cycles of the grid volt
age the tube operates on parts of the grid voltage
55 34 which are in series with each other, the re
sistance 34 being paralleled bya by pass con
plate current characteristic which have greatly
denser 35. A resistor 33 connects the cathode 5b differing average slopes relative-to each other.
to the negative line and is paralleled by a by pass " In other words, during that half of the cycle when
condenser 31. The screen grid 5° ls‘connected to vthe ‘grid has a relatively low voltage the tube
60 the high voltage positive terminal of the power operates on the lower bend of said characteristic,
supply- while the screen grids I°, 2° and 3° are while during the other half cycle the tube operates
connected to an' intermediate voltage positive ter
on the steep; substantially straight portion. As -a
Vminal of the power supply.
result- the plate current' is practically zero during
The primaryA winding 5° is connected between the greater portion of'the half cycle when the
the
anode
5°
and
the
high
voltage
positive
ter
65
tube operates on the lower bend. Furthermore,
minal. The secondarywinding 5b of transformer the impedance I1 which receives the output cur
6 has a center'tap‘ which divides it into two equal rent of the tube I is made of relatively low value
sections. Connected between each. end terminal with respect to the tube impedance lin order to
and the center tap of the secondary winding are increase in a well known manner the ratio of the 70
70 normally closed double pole telephone jacks 38 effective currents passed by the tube during said
and 40, respectively which in their normal posi
respective half cycles, that is, to increase the am- j
tion close the circuit from said outer terminal to plitude distortions. 'I'he present arrangement,
the center tap through impedances 39 and 4I, due to the non-resonant operation also produces
respectively. These lmpedances are proportioned distortions between the input and output of the 75
so as to equal the impedance of the .usual ear
.
tube I so that the difference frequency is within
10 the audible range and this audio frequency may
15
3
3,119,971
tube, which results in a different ampliflcationf
of the various frequency components or fre
quency distortion of the output voltages and cur
rents relative to the input voltages and currents.
The oscillator tube 2 is caused to oscillate in a
manner similar to the tube I by adjustment of
the condenser I6 but the frequenc'y of oscillation
of tube 2 is soadjusted that it heterodynes with
ratus within the range in which the relation be
tween dial setting and frequency is linear remains
substantially constant for all dial settings, that
is, the output remains constant irrespective of
the frequency, a characteristic which is highly
desirable and important for the use of the appa- 'l
ratus.
5 .
V
What I claim as new and desire to secure by
Letters Patent is:
Y
v
l 1. An electronic generator of sound Waves com
10
be varied by adjusting the condenser I 6.
The constants of the impedance I8 and the bias
prising means for producing continuous trains of
of the grid 2d are chosen in a manner similar to
rectangular during half cycles of one polarity
and substantially triangular during the alternate
half cycles, said means including two adjustable 15
radio frequency oscillating -circuits,.each includ
ing an electronic tube having a control grid _and
that aforedescribed in connection with tube I-.
The combined output of the two oscillators I
and 2 is impressed upon the tube 3 which is resist
ance coupled with the generating tubes I and 2.
The output energy of the tube 3 is impressed' upon
the tube 4, the radio frequency ripples being
20 filtered out in a well known manner by the im
pedance 23 and the condensers 2li and 25,_ while
the audio frequency wave is not distorted from
waves having a wave shape which is substantially
an anode, means to bias said grid so as to reduce
discharge through saidy tube to substantially zero
value during a substantial portion of a cycle and 20
a relatively low impedance in series with said
anode, and further means to superimpose the
its original shape. The tube ß is again resistance
coupled to the tube 3. The ratio between the in
put of the tube 6 and the output of the tube 3
circuit.
can'be controlled by adjustment of the poten
prising means for producing continuous trains
tiometer 28 in a well known manner.
of waves having a wave shape which is substan
output of one circuit upon the output of the other >
.
2. An electronic generator of sound waves com
25
The output of the tube 4 is further amplified . tially rectangular during half cycles of one polar
by the tube 5 which is coupled with the former ity and substantially triangular during the alter
30 by a resistance coupling in a well known manner, v‘nate half cycles, said means .. including two
30
while the connection of the transformer S to the yadjustable radio frequency oscillating circuitsA
tube 5 also presents nothing novel. By arranging each including an electronic tube having a con
the jacks and resistors controlled thereby in the trol grid and an anode, means to bias said gridA so
manner aforedescribed, the load on the tube 5 as to reduce discharge through said tube to sub
35 is always kept constant irrespective of the num
stantially zero value during a substantial portion 35
ber ofA receivers plugged in so that no variable of each cycle, a relatively low impedance in series
load reacts upon the- device and thereby causes with said anode, and means to vary the frequency
reactions von the frequency of the oscillators.
of oscillation of at least one of said circuits, and
In the automatic operation of the device the further means~ to superimpose the output `of one
condenser I4 is set to the desired radio frequency circuit upon the output of the other circuit.
40
and the volume control potentiometer 28 is set to
3. An .electronic generator of sound waves
the desired value. Thereafter motor 60 is started comprising means for? producing continuous
so as to vary the condenser I6 through the desired trains of waves having a wave shape which is sub
range and the sound waves are caused to affect
the auditory nerve of the patient by.I connecting
him to one of the telephone receivers and plug
Y ging the latter into one vof the jacks 38 or 40.
stantially rectangular during half cycles of'one
p'olarity and substantially triangular during the
alternate half cycles, said means including two
adjustable radio frequency oscillating circuits
Thereafter the device continues to vary the each including an electronic tube having a con
sound waves as aforedescribed and illustrated in _ trol grid and ‘an anode, means to bias said grid so
Fig. 5, until terminated.
as to reduce discharge through said tube to sub
By employing resistance couplings in all stages ` stantially zero value during a substantial portion
between the oscillators and the final output tube of each cycle, a'. relatively low impedance in series the heterodyne wave form which is produced
originally by the oscillators is preserved, such
55 wave _form being substantially as shown in Fig. 2..
It will be noted that during the one half cycle
the wave shape is almost rectangular while dur
ing the intervening half Acycle the wave form is
sharply peaked, such a form having proved to be
60 most particularly suited for the purpose in ques
tion. My present theory is that the effect is due
to the relatively sudden impact of the sound fol
lowed by a relatively long sustained maximum
pressure during substantially one half of each
cycle of the sound wave as clearly illustrated in .
Fig. 2.
,
_ -
Fig. 3 shows Ath/elrelation between the dial set
ting for the condenser I6 and the frequency of
the output energy. It will be noticed that there
with said anode, and motor> operated means
adapted to cyclically vary the oscillating fre
quency ofA one of said oscillating circuits relative
'to that of the other of said oscillating circuits,
and vfurther means to superimpose the output of
one circuit upon the output of the other circuit, ,
so as to produce a beat frequency equal to the
desired sound frequency. '
'ì
'
4. An electronic generator of sound waves,
comprising means for producing continuous
trains of waves having a wave shape which is sub
stantially rectangular during half cycles of one
polarity and substantially triangular during the
alternate half cycles, said means including two
radio .frequency oscillating circuits, each includ
ing an electronic tube- having a. control grid and
an anode, means to bias said grid so ?as_to reduce
exists a substantially straight line relation be- ’ discharge through said tube to substantially zero
tween the dial setting and frequencies fromv1000 value during a substantial portion of a cycle and
»to '10,000 cycles, this being the fundamental fre
an external impedance in series with said anode
quencies which are most desired in the applica
which is low in relation to the internal impedance
tion of the apparatus. Inspection of Fig. 4 fur- of saidtube, mampliiierandsonndoutputmeans
76 thermore indicates that thenutput of the appa
includingathirdtuheandmemstoimpressthe
15
4
f
2,119,971
positive bias on said grids and to cause
output of the fascinating .circuits upon sam- third high
reduction of the output of said tube to substan
`
tube.
5. An electronic generator of sound waves
tially zero value during a substantial part of a
cycleand further including an external plate im
lcomprising means for producing continuous trains 4
pedance load which is low relative to the internal
of waves having a, wave shape which is substan
tially rectangular during _half cycles of one po
impedance of said tube, an amplifying tube re
radio frequency oscillating circuits, the frequency-
trical output of said third tube into sound waves.
larity and substantially triangular during the al- y ceiving the'output of said first mentioned tubes.
ternate half cycles, said means including two and electromagnetic means to convert the elec
10. An Aaudio frequency oscillator comprising 10
two
oscillating circuits, each of said circuits in-including an electronic tube having a control grid ‘
cluding a tube having a grid and an anode, means
and an anode, means to bias said grid so as to
adapted to control said circuits to oscillate at
reduce discharge through said tube to substan ' radio
frequencyv including means to impress a
of at least one of which is adjustable and each
tially zero value during a substantial portion of
15 a cycle and an external impedance in series with
i said anode which is low in relation to the internal
impedanceof said tube, an amplifier and sound
output means including a third'tube and means
to impress the output of the oscillating circuits
20
high positive bias on said grids and to cause re
15
duction of the output of said tube to substantial- '
ly zero value during a substantial part of a cycle
and further including an external plate imped
ance load which is low relative to the internal
impedance of 'said tube, means to vary the oscil 20
lating
frequency of at least one of said circuits,
6; An electronic generator of sound waves com
and an amplifying ‘tube receiving the output of
prising means for producing >continuous trains of .
Waves having a wave shape which _is substantially said first mentioned tubes.
l1. An audio frequency oscillator comprising'
rectangular during half cycles of one polarity
25
-and substantially triangular during the alternate two oscillating circuits, each of said circuits in
half cycles, said means including two -radio fre-A cluding a tube having a grid and an anode, means
quency oscillating circuits, each 'including an ,adapted to control said circuits to oscillate at
upon said third tube.
,
,
electronic tube having a control grid and an _radio frequency including means to impress a
high positive bias on said- grid and to cause re- '
anode, means to bias said grid so as to reduce
duction of the output of said tube to substantial 30
discharge
through
said
tube
to
substantially
zero
30
ly
zero value during a substantial part of a cycle
value during a substantial portionfof a cycle and
an> external impedance in series with said anode
which is low in relation to the internal imped
ance of said tube, an amplifier and sound output
means including a third tube, means Vto impress
the output of said oscillating circuits upon said
third tube and means to vary the oscillating fre-`
quency of one of said oscillating circuits relative à
to that of the' other of said oscillating-circuits
so as to produce a beat frequency equal to the
I vdesired sound frequency.
'1. An electronic generator of sound waves com
prising means for producing continuous trains of
waves having a wave shape which is substantially
45 rectangular during half cycles ,of one polarity
and substantially triangular during the alternate
half cycles, said means including two adjustable
raidio frequency oscillating circuits, each including an electronic tube having a- control grid and
and further including an external plate imped
ance load which is low relative to the internal
impedance of said tube, means to vary the os
cillating frequency of at least one of said cir
cuits, an amplifying tube receiving the output of
said first mentioned tubes, and electrochemical
means to convert the electrical output of said
third tube into sound waves.
12. An audio frequency oscillator comprising
two oscillating circuits. each of said circuits in
cluding a tube having a grid and an anode, means ‘
adapted to control said circuit to oscillate at
radio frequency including means to» impress a
high positive bias on said grid and to cause
reduction of the output of said tube tosubstan
tially zero value during a substantial part of. a
cycle further including an external> plate iin
pedance load which is- low relative to the internal
impedance of said tube, motor operated means
50 an anode, means to bias said grid so as to re- , adapted to cyclically vary the oscillating frequency
duce discharge through said tube to substantially
' z'ero value during a substantial portion of a cy
cle and an‘external impedance in series with said
anode which is low in relation to the internal im
55 pedance _of said tube, an amplifier and sound
output means including a third tube and means
to impress the output of the oscillating circuits
upon said third tube.
to
'
8. An audio frequency oscillator comprising two
oscillating circuits, each of said circuits including
>a tube having a grid and- an anode, means adapt
ed to 4control said circuits to oscillate at radio
frequency including means _to impress a high
positive blason said grid and to cause reduction
-of the output of said tube to substantially zero
value during-.a substantial part of a cycle and
of at` least one of said circuits to produce a
heterodyne frequency within the audible range of
sound, an amplifying tube receiving the output
of said ñrst mentioned tubes, and electrome-chanical -means to convert the electrical output
vof said third tube into sound waves.
13. In the production of sound waves whose
pitch‘varies periodically between a given mini
mum and maximum, the steps of generating two
superposed alternating voltages -of frequencies
above that of audible sound, periodically` varying
-the frequency of one of said voltages to produce '
with the other of said voltages a- beat v,frequency
which varies between said -minimum and maxi
mum, and the further step .of converting the elec
further including an external plate impedance v trical energy represented by said beat frequency
load which is low relative to the internal imped
ance of _said tube, and an amplifying'tube re
. 14. In the production of \sound waves whose
70 ceiving the output of said first mentioned tubes.> pitch varies periodically between a given mini
_ 9. An audio frequency oscillator comprising two
75
mum and maximum. -the periodic variations
oscillating circuits, each of said circuits includ - having superposed thereon a ‘second series of
ing a tube having a grld'and an anode, means periodic, variations of a different frequency, the
adapted `to control said circuits. to oscillate at steps of generating two superposed alternating
radio frequency including means to impress a
3,119,971
voltages of frequencies above that of audible>
sound, periodically varying the frequency of one
of said voltages to produce with the other of said
voltages a beat frequency which varies between
said minimum and maximum, superpose upon
said beat frequency another periodic variation
/
5
of a different frequency‘within the audible range, .
and converting the electrical energy represented
by said modiñe‘d beat frequency into _audible
sound.
SAM SNEAD.
5
Y
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