Патент USA US2119992код для вставки
June 7, 1938. R. w. JoHNsoN 2,119,992 REFLECTOR DEVICE Filed April 17, 1935' 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 1N VEN TOR £4 / A TTORNE Y2 June 7, 1938. R. w. JOHNSON 2,119,992 REFLECTOR DEVICE Filed April 17, 1935 1 \llilliilllih 1 ,. mlllailhllhllr lllil‘ll 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 a j INVENTOR l0 " BY ?ay Méd'ier $527507? 2,119,992 Patented June 7, 1938' ' UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE v " 2,119,992 BEFIECTOR DEVICE ' Roy Walter Johnson, wyomilll, Ohio,‘ assignor, by mesne assignments, to Chrysler Corpora tion, Highland Park, Mich” a corporation of Delaware Application April 17, 1935, Serial No. 16,881 6 Claims. (01. 88-82) of the projected light and the re?ecting device, My invention relates to re?ector devices pro be of a certain minimum candle power, thereby vided primarily for use on the rear ends and sides of cars and also along highways to re?ect back to an approaching automobile light rays 5 projected therefrom as by their head-iights'thus serving as a danger signal to the operator of the approaching vehicle; the invention relating more particularly, though not exclusively,'to re?ector devices of the type comprising a plate, or the 10 like, of glass, or other suitable material, pro vided on a face thereof, and more especially its rear face, with groups of re?ecting portions of such form as to re?ect light rays projected against the plate, as by an approaching auto 15 mobile, back to the approaching vehicle along lines substantially parallel with the rays strik ing the re?ector, and thus to the eyes of the driver of the car. ' To a?ord the necessary protection to ap 20 proaching vehicles and to render highway signals satisfactorily operative,v it is necessary that the re?ector device not only re?ect back the desired amount of light to the operator of the approach ing car when light projected against‘it by the 35 approaching car strikes the re?ector at a sub stantially right angle to its face as when the car is traveling in a path at a right angle to the face of the re?ector device and in direct aline- I , ment therewith on a substantially level road; or, 30 in other words, in accurately alined relation to the re?ector device, but also when the light strikes the re?ector at an angle thereto from either above or below or from either side of v the re?ector, as for example, when the approach :5 ing car is traveling in a path oifset laterally in either direction from the path of the car ahead and equipped with the re?ector device. It is therefore a purpose of my'invention that the re?ecting portions of the device be so formed 40 and relatively positioned as to cause the area of the re?ector device rendered luminous to the driver of the approaching car by the light rays cast upon it, to be divided into relatively large area zones of, intense luminosity, preferablyv of 45 the maximum intensity, observable by the driver of the car in approaching the device either .di providing a construction which will function to obtain results heretofore possible only with a much more expensive construction. , 5 As a preface to the following description it may be stated that the invention may be em bodied in a structure provided solely for the re ?ective purpose or if desired, in a structure such ‘ as a tail light comprising the re?ective feature 10 referred to with a source of light to the rear of the re?ecting element preferably with provision for the transmitting of the light from such source 1 throughthe re?ecting element, whereby the de vice serves to display an illuminated signal to 1'5 ' the driver of an approaching car, either through the medium of the light source referred to or,‘ if extinguished, the medium of the re?ecting projections. ‘_ Referring to the accompanying drawings 20 which show my invention embodied in a struc ture designed particularly for use wheregillumi nation is to be effected by light projected against it by an approaching car; Figure 1 is a face view of ‘a re?ector structure "25' ‘ embodying my invention. - , _ Figure 2 is a section‘ taken‘ at the line 2 on Fig. 1 and viewed in the direction of the arrow. Figure 3, an enlarged view like Fig._ 2 of a frag ment of the structure shown in Fig. 2. 30 Fig. 4 is a face view of a modi?ed form of my re?ector drawn to a smaller scale than the Fig’, 1 re?ector. Fig. 5 is a section taken at the line 5 on Fig. 4 and viewed'in the direction of the arrow. A 35 Fig. 6 is a face view of a further modi?ed form of my re?ector also drawn to a smaller scale than the Fig. 1 re?ector. Fig. '1 is a section taken at the line ‘I onFig. 6 and viewed inithe direction of the arrow. The construction shown comprises a plate-like ~ member 4 commonly termed a lens, preferably transparent and made of glass or other suitable material, preferably colored as desired, red glass being commonly used in structures‘ of this same 45 general character. ' The member 4 is provided with rearwardly ex tending re?ector portions or units shown as in offset therefrom in either direction within'certain the form of projections 5 on the rear face of limits, respectively, regardless of the position of _ the member 4 the projections being shown as 50 50 the source of projected light above or below the closely spaced (though this is notessential to my re?ector device within the required range, and thus comply with such highway regulations as invention) and covering a large part of the rear area of the member 4._ require that the areas of the device rendered face The member 4 with its projections 5 is pref luminous to the driver of the approaching car 55 in the different relative positions of the source erably made, as a matter of commercial expe- 55 rectly in front of the re?ector device or laterally 2 .- 2.11am diency. by molding the member and projections, as for example of glass. as an integral one-piece As has been found desirable in re?ector devices a 'of this general type, the front face I of the member 4 is of spherical contour and the pro jections I likewise lie within a spherical surface _ substantially concentric with the spherical face I. The re?ecting projections I as shown and pref 10 erably provided, are in the form of right cones with their bases of hexagonal shape whereby the v bases of the cones inter?t with each other as shown in Fig. 1, though such close spacing and the provision of the bases of the‘cones of hex 16 “Dual shape, is not necessary.‘ - The providing of the projections I in the form 1 from about 10' to about 20° and new les hibitsits greatestluminodty whentheamrceof of projected there?ectortotherightinl'iglfromabmt light is laterally offset from 10° toabout zo'. ' , v1. Aswiilvbeinthemanufactlne'of’ the devices for general use, it is not comma-I cially feasible that the projections I bemadeop tically perfect nor is such perfection‘ ncces-ry in a-practicalconstruction of re?ector-glow- u ever, in the manufacture of the device it is ‘the of cones is preferred as a practical matter, more particularly, as such form of projections may be aim to provide the cone-projections as neariyd made very economically. However, as will be‘ 20 readily understood the re?ecting projections may It will be understood that the principle ell-'8 be provided of any other suitable form. In, accordancev with my invention the projec tions I are so relatively disposed as to provide different zones of maximum luminosity observ rightconeshapeaspracticallymssible.asthere byltisbelievedthebestresultsareobtainahh. 25 able, respectively, from di?erent positions rela tive to the. axis of the re?ecting device. In the particular construction shown three oi-such zones are provided, viz.: a central zone ‘I, shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 1 as of ‘hexagonal contour; so, and two lateral zones I and I which together surround the zone 1, the zone I comprising the half of the re?ecting device at the left-hand side of Pig. 1 partially surrounding the zone ‘I, and the zone I comprising the remaining half of such '35‘ part of the re?ecting device. The zone 1 is pro vided to re?ect back light rays to the driver of an approaching car when the car is directly in line with the re?ector device; and the zones I and I are provided to re?ect the light rays back 40 tothe driver when the source of projected light on the approaching car is laterally o?set from the axis of the re?ector to the left and to the right, respectively, in ‘Fig. 1, as for example as has been found in practice, up to about 20 de 45 grees, thereby providing relatively large zones of luminosity which serve as a warning signal to the driver of an approaching car whether he is approaching the. signal device head on or in' laterally o?'set position to either side. In Fig. 50 lthezonesland Iareshownaslightlysurface shaded to indicate that these zones- are less lu minous than the zone 1 when light rays are pro , jected to the device in a path at a substantially‘ right angle tow-the face of the device. _ 55. The several zones '1, I, and 9 are provided for in the construction shown by forming all of the re?ecting projections I within the zone "i with bodiedinthedeviceshownandutiliaedby'thepro visionofthesidezi'mesl'andI,mayahlobelsu-Yv bodiedinadeviceinwhichsimilarzonaarenec» cssaryforthedesiredofthe I projected to the device at an angle to the-axisjof a the latter either from above or below such axis. Insuchcasebywayofexampletheaon'eofre ?eeting portions fortherays proiectedto thede- , vice from above saidaxismaybeprovidedabove the central'zone of lt?ec?m portions, andgthe a tothedevicefrombelowsaidaxismaybepmvid zone of re?ecting portions for therays edbelowsaidcentrallonmtheseupperandlower zones being preferably providedinaddi?on tothe zones fortherayspmjcctcdtothedevice'at-an ' vice,asexempli?edbythezoneslandl,which angletoitsaxis romdther lateralsideof latter-,inthecmofthiapatticular preferablypanl'lelandhicliningin arearwarddirec?onfromabovewward?ieaxis oi’thedeviceandtheaxesofthe par-V tions fortherayspmjectedfrmnbelowtheaxh' ofthedevicebeingpreferablyllre allelandin rearwardiyfrombelowioward theaxisofthedevice. ~ ' ~ Theembodyingofmyinventioninataillight-il‘ lensut?izingthelig‘htbehindthelena'to?'d " example, the ~ beformedwithaportion?lereofnon-obltruetivei ' ‘_' their-axes parallel and parallel with the axis of 1 totheoflishtrmfromth'e ' rearsourceoflighttothefronhashy 00 II (on Fig. 3) associated with such of the pro-. jections I of zone ‘I as are shown in fragmentary view Fig. 3. The zone I is provided for by form ing all of the projections-I within this zone with their, axes parallel and horizontal and disposed ' as ‘in rearwardly converging relationship to the axes ofthe projections I of zone 1. at an-angle of pref erahly'about 10', as indicated by the lines II in fragmentary vie ‘Fig.3. The zone I is provid ed for by forming all of the projections I with 70 in this aonewith their axes parallel and hori aontal and disposed in rearwardly converging re lationship to the axes of the projections I of zone ‘I at’an angle ofpreferably 10". Thus the Projections I of- both zones 8 and I incline rear ‘15' ‘wardlytowardtheverticalpianeoftheaxisof ' . 3 ' 2,119,092 sion of an intensity greater than that ordinarily afforded by my Fig. 1 arrangement of parts, I therefore preferably makeprovision for the re quired direct light transmission by the omission ‘ re?ecting portion of the rear face'of. said body. the axes of the. units'of each of said groups‘ being substantially parallel to each other, the units of ' each of .saidgroups having their axes lying at acute angles with the axes of the/units of the of certain projections or by spacing the projec- , remainder of said groups whereby the re?ecting tions as aforesaid. ~ units of each of said groups re?ect light generally In Figs. 4 and 5 I have illustrated a tall-light toward light sources lying in directions spaced lens 49' which is primarily adapted for use as a from light sources‘which cause other of said unit tail light lens. This lens 4* is identical in struc - groups to re?ect light-therefrom, only one of said 10 groups of re?ecting units being adaptedv at any . 10 ture and operation with lens 4 - (as indicated by the use of similar reference characters for corre- ' ' time to re?ect light received from a light source ‘sponding parts) with the exceptionthat an area with the maximum inherent intensity of light 12 is provided, preferably at the lens center, which ' re?ection for‘gsuch unit group, said front face has no projections 5. This area i2 permits pas ‘presenting smooth surface portions thereof re 15 sage of ‘considerable light forwardly from the tail light source of illumination directly through the lens as aforesaid. ' spectively’in front-‘of each of'said-groups of re ?ecting’ units. - ,. ’ 2;‘A cover'for a motor vehicle tail lamp, .com ' In Figs. 6 and'i I'have illustratedla tail light‘ prising, a unitary transparent body having a ‘front lens I“ which is also primarily adapted for use face adapted to be presented generally toward a as a tail light lens. This lens this also identical source of~lig_ht' to be re?ected and a rear face in. structure and operation with lens 4 (as indi- .1’ adapted to be presented generally toward a lamp cated by the use of similar reference characters illuminator, said body transmitting light from for corresponding‘parts) with the exception that said lamp illuminator directly forwardlytthere the projections 5 are spaced from each‘ other through, said body having a plurality of. groups l3 which permit pas- ' of substantially contiguous internally re?ecting 25 su?iciently to provide areas sage of considerable light forwardly from the tail units formed integrally with said body and pro light source of illumination directly throughthe jecting rearwardly to form at least a portion ofv _ ' lens as aforesaid. said rear face for re?ecting light back ‘in the The luminosity of the entire lens when observedv so approximate direction of said light source, each of said units having a re?ecting surface of revolu by the approaching motorist is, of course, the result of. light striking the lens zones each of which zones has re?ector units whose optical axes, tion tapering in a direction rearwardly from said ‘body, the axes of the units of each of said groups while parallel to each other, are inclined as a being substantially‘ parallel to each other, the ‘group with respect to the optical axes of the re 35 ?ector The units opticalofaxis the remaining of each re?ector lens zones. unit, as ap ‘ plied to the subject matter of the present inven axis of light approach tion is, of course, thatre?ecting ranges laterally which results inequal units of each of said groups having their axes lying at acute angles with the axes of the units of the remainder of said groups whereby the re?ecting units of each of said groups re?ect light generally toward light sources lying in directions spaced from light sources which cause other of to each side of such optical axis. The mechani-. said unit groups to re?ect lightjtherefrom, only cal axis of each re?ector unit, as applied to the one of said groups of re?ecting units being adapt subject matter of the present invention is, of ed at any time to’ re?ect light received from a course, that axis about which the re?ecting sur light source with the maximum inherent intensity face portions of each unit are symmetrically of light re?ection for such unit group, said front face presenting a smooth substantially spherical 45 formed. ) In the illustrated embodiments of my invention surface in front of said plurality of groups of re I each re?ector unit axis at H is a mechanical . axis as well as an optical axis of such unit so that. in the present instance, inclining the y mechanical ' 50 axes of the re?ector units 5 of zones or groups 8 ?ecting units. _ 3. A cover for a motor vehicle tail lamp, com prising, a unitary transparent body having a front face adapted to be presented generally toward a source of light to be re?ected and a rear face and 9 will‘ give the desired effect of inclining the optical axes of the respective re?ector unit groups. - adapted to be presented generally toward a lamp While I have illustrated and described a certain illuminator, said body transmitting light from particular construction embodying my invention said lamp illuminator directly forwardly there 55 and have described another embodiment thereof through, said body having a plurality of groups I do not wish to be understood as intending to ‘of internally re?ecting units formed integrally limit it thereto as the same may be variously , with said body and projecting rearwardly to form modi?ed and altered and the invention embodied at least a portion of said rear face for re?ecting in other forms of structure without departing 60 from the spirit of my invention. What I claim as new, and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is: 1. A' cover for a motor vehicle tail lamp, com prising, a unitary transparent body having a front 65 face adapted to be presented generally toward a source of light to be re?ected and a rear face adapted to be presented generally toward a lamp illuminator, said body transmitting light from said lamp illuminator directly forwardly there 70 through, said body having a plurality of groups of internally re?ecting units formed integrally with said body and projecting rearwardly to form at ' light back in the approximate direction of said light source, each of said units having a re?ecting surface of revolution tapering in a direction rear wardly from said body, the axes of the units of each of said groups being substantially parallel to each other, the units of each of said groups having their axes lying at acute angles with the axes of the units of the remainder of said groups whereby the re?ecting units of each of said groups re?ect light generally toward light sources lying in directions spaced from light sources which 70 cause other of said unit groups to re?ect light therefrom, only one of said groups of re?ecting units being adapted at any time to re?ect light least a portion of said rear face for re?ecting light . received from a light source with the maximum back in the approximate direction of said lightv 75 source, each of said units providing an internally inherent intensity of light re?ection for such unit 75 ;-. v~ 7..“ 1M there therefrom, onlyone ofgsaid' groups of units being adapted. at any timeto ‘i light. internally re?ecting I_' pin-tiara! the in: face of antibody, the axes 'joftheunitsofeachdsaid'grombeingsuhstan towardasourceoflightto ._‘?ally_plrnlleltoeachother,theunihofeachof andarearface,saidbodyhavingaplurality-ot. groups of substantially contiguous internally re ?ecting units formed integrally with said body and projecting rearwardly to form at least a- por tion of saidrear face for re?ecting light back in‘ the approximate direction of said light source. . each of said units providing an internally re?ect v ing-portion of the rear face of said body, the axes of the units of each of said groups being Sllbstane tially parallel to each-other, the units of-each'of said groups having their axes lying at acuteanglsi with the axes of the units of the remainder of said iardeetoreunprislngaunitarytranspar Y ventbodyhavlngfafrontfaeeadaptedtobepre towardasourceoflighttobe " groups whereby there?ectlng units oi'each of said groups re?ect light generally toward‘light sources lying in directions spaced from light sources which cause other of said unit ,gmups to re?ect light therefrom. only one oi’ said groups of v‘re?ecting units being adapted at any time to re ?ect light received from'a light source with‘ the maximum inherent intensity of light re?ection for such unit group, said front face presenting a smooth substantially spherical surface in front a “mailman internally portion of the of said plurality of groups of re?ecting units. mmeumnmbooynneammmeumwor ' ROY WALTER Johnson.