Патент USA US2120012код для вставки
June 7, 1938. J'. E. ÀNDREAU 2,120,012 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE. Filed April l0, 1935 - a/ O f \ @imN 2 sheets-sheet 2 . l2,120,012 Patented June 7, 1938 UNITED STATESv PATENT OFFICE . 2,120,012 INTERNAL _COMBUSTION ENGINE Jean Edouard Andreau, Paris, France,'assignor to “8. E..B. A., Societe Anonyme d’Exploita tion de Brevets d’Automobiles?, Glarus,V Swit zerland, a society of Switzerland Application April 10,1935, serial No..15,651 nl Belgium April 14, 1934 _ 11 Claims. (Cl. 123-48) .'I‘he present invention relates to internal com shown in section,` while _the intake manifold is bustion engines and also to vehicles, such as shown in elevation, for the sake' of clarity; automobile vehicles (on road or on'rail) or air crafts, provided with such engines. . ' Fig. 5a is a. fragmentary top view of the con- f / trol mechanism oi' the throttle valve 23 shown in q Up to the 'present time, enginesof this kind had, in a general Way, a cylinder capacity and Fig. 5. a clearance space which were geometrically ñxed. Fig. 5, this modiflcationfbeing more especially .intended for aircraft engines; It follows from this arrangement that the uti lization of the gases admitted into the engine 10 is' very bad for low loads. , 'compression stroke for restoring atmospheric pressure in the cylinder and that the true ratio ' of compression decreases more and more as the ~ _ Let us ñrst consider a normal engine, as shown in Fig. 1, in which the piston I moves between ' The reason is that, for such loads, it is nec essary to utilize a considerable portion of the load decreases. .. Fig. 6` shows a modiilcation of the system of an upper extreme position A and a lower ex- ' treme position Br while the plane O represents the lower face of the cylinder head. Let it be iìrst assumed that _this engine is running un der normal conditions (the throttle valve full opened). v During the compression stroke, at 'I'he consumption of fuel then increases, be mospheric pressure is established in the cylin coming as high as 700 or even 800 grammes per. horse-power hour for -the engines of motor-cars der when the piston is at level B’ not very far from point B. The true ratio of compression is running at speeds ranging between 20. and 30 then » ' OA . 20> . kms. -per ho'ur. _ The> object of the present invention is to -pro vide an _engine o_f the t'ype above referred tov in which the drawbacks above mentioned are ob 25 viated., ' . _. . - ' _ » This ratiofof compression may be, for instance, 8 to 1. ` The essential feature of 4the present-invention _ 0n the contrary, when the engine is running consists in providing an engine of the type above referred to` with means whereby theyolumetric ratio of compression 'is automatically varied 30 within certain limits in such manner as to keep the true ratio _of compression substantially con 'with' the _throttle valve closed or nearly closed, there is a‘considerable degree of vacuum in the intake pipe and, consequently, when the piston passes the position B’ during the compression stroke the pressure ol' the charge is even lower stant under >all conditions of working oi' the en- . than atmospheric pressure. A supplementary piston travel B'B" is therefore necessary before . gine corresponding with these limits. Other features _ of the present invention' will atmospheric pressure is restored in the cylinder. be apparent from the following detailed descrip- - In this caseI the true ratio of compression is equal to tion of somevspecitlc embodiments thereof. ‘ _. Pry >ferred embodiments of the present inven ‘ OBI! tion will be hereinafter described, with refer that is to say much lower than in the preceding 40 ly by way _of example,l and in which: _ case. It may even happen that the pressure in . Fig. 1 is a diagrammatical view of a cylinder the cylinder at the end of the compression stroke and its piston, serving to illustrate the principle ' islower than atmospheric pressure. ence to the. accompanying drawings, given mere '- If, under the last mentioned conditions of ' ’ of the present invention; ^ Fig. _2 is a diagrammatic Iaxial sectional view. of the head of a cylinder made -according to the present invention; Figs. 3 and 4 are views similar to Fig. 2, show? running,l the cylinder head had been in position O', that is to -say at a level lower than'- O, then _ the ratio of compression would have -been > OIBII ing two other embodiments of the device accord- ing to the present‘invention; . _ and therefore might have been made equal to the Ul Fig. 5 is- a dlagrammatical view of a system .desired value (for instance 6 to 1) by suitably _ including an engine and means for controlling. .choosing position O'. ‘ _ . ^ said engine, the wholebeing devised_\»accord-l In such an engine, the effective cylinder ca- g .ing to the present invention,-the _view being in general a plan _view but many of the parts being pacity, would correspond to _the stroke AIB", and,> furthermore, in the course of the ~expansion 0 2 9,190,012 stroke, the piston of such an engine, instead _of stopping at B", _as would be the case with the piston oi' an ordinary engine of the same com ing to the present invention, I provide means for controlling the position of the cylinder heads -in accordance with the loaii of the engine as pression ratio, movesifuther down as vfary as the vicinity of B' (normal *exhaust opening). It fol lows that the ratio of expansion, and therefore ' indicated by the manifold suction. ` Assuming,A for instance, that the engine in- 5 cludes four cylinders (Fig. 5) and that the cyl the eillciency, is the higher asvtheicharge is inder heads are controlled through a _device of smaller. the kind shown by Fig. 2, the free ends >of the ` ' I g . ` According to the present invention, an` in ternal combustion engine of any kind whatever, respective levers 6 may be all operatively .connected to a longitudinal control piece Il, springs 10 _ such as I5 and I6 being provided in connection for an automobile vehicle, is provided with means - with each arm. 6 as shown in the drawings. that for instance a multi-cylinder combustion engine ,_ whereby the volumetric ratio of compression of said engine varies automatically within certain 15 limits so as to maintain the true ratio of com 20 is‘ito say in a manner similar to the arrangement used in steering gears.- » Owing to the presence of these springs, the 15 organ thatMacts on control member I4 shall not be requiredî to displace the cylinder heads while 'pression constant forv all conditions of illling of the engine cylinders corresponding with these limits, which are preferably wider apart than the the latter are subjected to the maximum lpres limits of utilization.' sures of the cycles. ' ' This is due to the fact that the cylinder heads 2o I have found that the desired result can be v obtained in a particularly advantageous manner are subjected to the action of alternating forces Vby making the cylinder head of each `cylinder and can therefore be caused to undergo elemen movable with respect thereto. - v This arrangement is particularly well adapted for usewith sliding valve engines, and especially 2,5 engines of this kind including a single'sliding sleevel valve. - ‘ ” This is due to the fact that, in sliding valve engines, an arbitrary position of the >cylinder head is admissible, this position being quite close to the piston if4 necessary, provided that the inlet and outlet ports are suitably devised. tary displacements nearly without` resistance during the favorable periods of the cycles. In this manner, the displacement of the cylinder 25 heads, which necessitates several cycles, if it is of a certain amplitude, takes place very easily. I have found that it is advantageous, in order to move control member Il, to make use of a servo-motor I1, of any kind whatever. For in- 30 stance, according to the embodiment of Fig. 5, this servo-motor includes a piston I8 which is It should be noted that in the case of sliding subjected, on either of its faces according to the . valve engines having a single sliding sleeve valve, . position of a slide valve I9, to the action of oil thelatter is guided by the cylinder, the cylinder under -pressure-fed either by a usual compres- 35 head (or stationary piston) being entirely free to move. ‘ . - In the following description, it will be assumed - that the engine is of the sliding valve type with sliding sleeve valve 2. 40. a single Accordingto the embodiment shown yby Fig. 'sion pump, or, preferably, by an accumulator having an air cushion at the top, 20, in which aV pump 2i maintains, at anytime, a reserve of oil under4 pressure sufllcient for ensuring a certain number of complete strokes lof member 40 2, the cylinder head 3 of leach cylinder oi’ the . I4, for »instance ten of these strokes.' Thus, according as the slide valve I9 is dis engine is mounted in such manner, with re spectto said cylinder, that it can be given trans 'latory displacements parallel to the axis of said placed in one direction or in the opposite `direc tion, the volumetric ratio of compression of all' the cylinders of the engine will vary in one direc-~ 45, cylinder. . ' „ . Y Said cylinder head l is provided with a screw tion or- the opposite one. -. It sumces, now, to establish for the control of said slide valve I9. a device such that the condition Aabove stated is complied with. threaded outer wall I, the threads being prefer ably irreversible, and on this partJ there is Theoretically, -if the variations of load and 50 50 screweda nut 5 integral with a control lever 6.' - This nut can begiven only 'rotary displacements lspeed of the engine were sufficiently slow, it owing to the provision of an upper stop;;1_and` would ,suillce to control slide valve I9 through a lower stop i, both carried by the upper part of a manometric box subjectedto the suction ex the cylinder. v isting in th‘e intake pipe of the engine beyond It will be readily understood that, with such the throttle valve, for obtaining the desired work- 55 55 an arrangement, acting on lever l, nut i is ing, provided, of course, that the whole is deg-f" caused to turn andconsequently'the cylinder head I is caused to move either upwardly or downwardly.` » ’ ` ‘ visedA in such manner that, at least within cer tain limits, to each value of this lsuction there corresponds, for the engine, a volumetric ratio In order wicooi said cylinder head, I advan-j. of compression, itself corresponding to the de- .60 - so tageously provide a cooling jacket communlcaté sired true ratio of compression. ing with the water circulation of the engine, for . ' lBut every time 'the variations of load and speed instance through screwed tubes I andv Il. . of theengine must be quick, which is, for in In the embodiment illustrated by Fig. 3, the stance, the case with automobile vehicles, vit is cylinder head is controlled by means of ;a._systemf necessary, in orderto avoid accidents as might 65 result .iromexcessive ratios of compression (dus. *of wedges II which can l displacements. ' . In the embodiment illustrated by 168.4; the ' for instance to the fact that, in the case of- a sudden opening of the throttle valve, the cyl cylinder head is actuated by means of a cam y inder heads would not move upwardly suiiiciently . 70 " I2. p ` Springs II, lof suilcient lstrength,~ are 'pro-~ quickly), to submit. they-,cylinder heads to the 30 ` vided .for "keeping the cylinder-_head applied` `action. of -the organ that controls the admission against said cam, or any other equivalent organ.v when'the latter doœ not exert an operative action , in .both directions. _. order_to of fuel mixture to the 4engine (and which'will be; hereinafter called throttle pedal). This oper ative connection between the throttle pedal and V engine proper mrd- the; cylinder heads is so devised that, in the l5». 3 . 2,120,612 , case of a variation ofthe rate of feed of fuel 'resistance decreases, the suction increases, the diaphragm of box 25 'acts on point 31, so as to ation causes the cylinder heads to move ~up- produce a reduction of ther clearance spaces and wardly, the throttle valve opening gradually in - to reduce the torque. The vmovement of control member I4 produces, through the displacement the course of this upward movement of the cyl inder heads until it reaches the position of open ,of pivot 30, the return of slide valve I9 to its neu ing that corresponds to the position given to the tral position, at the same time as element 21 re mixture, the operation that produces this vari pedal throttle. ._ ' duces the opening of-the throttle valve to the i ' In the embodiment of Flg. 5, I have shown, -besides control member i4 and'servo-motor I1, the intake pipe 22, its throttle valve 23, and also proper degree. y ' An equilibrium is thus established which cor 10 responds to a lower rate of feed and the auto l matic regulation of the capacity of the cylinders On pipe 22, beyond throttle valve 23, I pro-v and of the turques is obtained. - the throttle pedal 24. In the preceding description I have been re ferring to the case of internal combustion en gines.> The invention is of course applicable to any type of such engines, provided that they in clude a simultaneous control of air and fuel. vide a manometric box 25 communicating with 15 said pipe and including a. diaphragm '28. I ñx to control member I4, on the one hand an ‘element 21 adapted to limit the displacements of a lever 28 keyed on the spindle _of the throttle valve in the direction that corresponds to the opening of said throttlev (so that the opening of . Thus these engines will no longer require the pumping o_f air which is necessary at the present said throttle can neverbe greater than that co'r- I time under low loads. This pumping reduced responding to the actual position of` the cylin the emciency and prevented the fuel from being der heads) and, on the other hand, an element utilized under the optimum conditions. When applied to aircraft engines, the present» 29 carrying, at its end a pivot 30 for a lever 3l invention makes it possible to obtain a `better a suitable point 32 of which is connected, for in stancethrough an articulated r'od 33, with slidev A'utilization of the fuel at all altitudes. valve I9. , It suillces, in this case, in order to obtain the Throttle valve 23 is thus controlled through desired eñect, to complete the mechanism shown> lever 28, which is itself engaged at its upper end by Fig. 5 by adding thereto a manometric box 28a in a slot 34 carried by a piece 34a operatively 39 (Fig. 6) the diaphragm of which is mechani 30 connected with throttle pedal 24. . Therefore said cally connected with point 31 and inside which the pressure _is equal to the atmospheric pressure throttle pedal can be moved in the direction cor- , ‘responding to the opening of the vthrottle even on the ground level._ ` when said throttle is prevented from opening at This box then dilates more and more as the this time by the fact that lever 23 is in vcontact -external pressure decreases and actsin. the same 35 manner as' an increase of the suction in the in take pipe of the engine, that is to Asayreduces the '- ' with nement 21. This throttle isv further subjected to the action of a spring 35 tending to open it. ` Finally I interpose, between throttle pedal 24 40 and the free end of lever 3i, a connecting rod 3B 4-an intermediate point 31 of which, for instance clearance spaces and restores the normal pres sure .of explosion. e ` `This solution isbelieved to be superior tothe usual constantunder-feed or to the provisionl of ,its _middle point. is operatively connected with compressors. - ~ When devising an automobile vehicle according The systemy above described works inV the fol-h- to the present invention, it will be preferable to lowing manner:` interpose, lbetween the engine and the driving' supposing, mst, that the'tnrbtue' pedal 1s actedv wheels an automatic clutch 33, _for instance of -theuponv for opening the throttle valve, theÀ end" of hydraulic type, capable ofÀ transmitting „the maxi lever 23 being in contact with element 21, the mum torque of the engine when the vehicleis throttle valve 23 is not influenced.. Point 31 re stationary. _ I may, for this purpose, make.. use maining stationary, the end of lever 3l is moved of a clutch such as those called “fluid ñy-wheeis", .60 counter-clockwise in the direction that produces, which lensure a.- nearly complete release' at very through servo-motor I_1, the upward movement of the cylinder, heads. But, at the same time,~ '_ ' It is thus possible to wholly dispense with a pivot >3|) is moved through the ‘action of the servo-y . change speed device and to have awhollly auto motor I1 in such manner as_to bring .back_slide matic control of the vehicle, 'since the: driver is diaphragm 2B. e ‘ low speeds. ~ „ , - ì valve I9 into its neutral position and the' servo,A -concerned merely with the throttle pedal (or the motor stops. @uring this time, the- element V21 ’ equivalent) and the brake. ' , against which lever 23.-was, applied also moves, thus permitting the throttle to open 4the desired According to 'the present invention, an auto' mobilevehicle provided with an engine such as amount. 'I'he engine therefore gives a` greater that above described may be streamlined .fin such 60 .manneras to reduce the head resistance. torque than before. ' If now, on the contrary,'the throttle valve is'A acted upon _in such manner as to close the- throt- , G tle valve, the operationsy above described take place in the reverse order, but in this case the throttle valve' is closed directly by the. throttle pedal and the rate of feed is immediately re' duced. The displacement of the cylinder heads As a matter .of fact, one of the most character- ` istic drawbacks o_f streamlined bodies for auto mobile vehicles- is'tthat said vehicles are nearly always running (except for the maximum speed 65' ’ corresponding to the'maximum power of their engine) withv a power substantially lower than said maximum power.` _ . . is then facilitated by the action of diaphragm . "Thus, with an ordinary engine,- the specific 26 and'the clearance spaces in the cylinders-of consumption is _not so good, for a giv'en speed, v" the engine are reduced until they correspond with the newV position of the throttle. ï If, contrary to what has been assumed upto -now, the throttle 24 is stationary' and the speed of revolution of the engine increases because the than if the vehicle were. not streamlined. since the throttlevalve is less'opened and therefore the true ratio of compression. is lower. Therefore, due to the fact that the fuel is not so wellutilized. a portion of the benefit obtained by the reduction 7.5 4 i 2,120,012 of the power necessary iîorl propelling the vehicle is lost. ' « ~ ' On the contrary, with an engine according to the present invention, as the specific consumption is not inñuenced ina detrimental manner by thel reduction of the load, it is possibleto obtain the maximum bene?t of the advantages of stream lined bodies and the consumption of fuel will remain very low at all speeds. Y. Ina general manner, while I have, in the above ' description, disclosed what I deem to be practical ' . size of said compression chamber and adjusting said valve in accordance with variations of said pressure. 6. An internal combustion-engine according to claim 2, further comprising resilient means con necting said movable member to said regulating means for delayingv the movement of said member in said compression chamber when the pressure withinv said chamber exceeds a certain‘lim-it. 7. An internal combustion engine comprising V10 means forming 'a compression chamber, a piston movable with a vreciprocating motion in said and eillcient embodiments of the present inven tion, it should be well understood that I do not _ chamber, regulating means for adjusting the size wish to be. limited thereto as there might be of' said compression chamber and including a member movable in said chamber, a 'valve for 15 changes made in the arrangement, disposition and form of the parts without departing from the feeding fuel mixture to said engine, and actuating 15 principle of the present invention as compre- ^ means connected to said regulating means and hended within thescopeof the accompanying movable in one direction for >enlarging said com claims. pressionl chamber and in opposite direction for , reducing the size of said4 chamber, means inte 20 ' what I‘claim is: 1. An internal combustion engine comprising ' grally connected with said regulating means for controlling the degree of opening of said valve, of: which is capable -of`being changed, a power means connected to said valve for normally hold ing the same in opened position and in contact Apiston movable in sai@ chamber. a valve for feed means forming a compression chamber the size „ with said control means, said valve being inde pendent of the movement of said actuating means change in the size of said chamber and for op erating said valve when the size of the chamber -tor enlarging the compression chamber, and means independent of the movement of said regu has been changed, means for delaying the mo lating and control means, for operatively con tion of said changing means and a one-way con 30 nection between said changing means _and said necting said valve to said actuating means during valve, whereby said changing means will operate said reducing movement. 8. In an internal combustion engine according said valve directly only when'said changing tovclaim 7, said independent means comprising means move in one d ection. ' 2. An internall com ustion engine comprising. an element slidably arranged with respect to said means forming a compression chamber, a piston valve and being secured to said actuating means, movable in said> chamber, regulating means for whereby, at the movement of said actuating varying the size of said- chamber and including means for enlarging the compression chamber, va member movable in said chamber, a valve for said _element slides with respect to said valve leaving the same unactuated thereby. feeding a fuel mixture to- said engine, and actuat 9. In an internal combustion engine according 4o ing means connected to said regulating means and to claim '7, said independent means comprising - ' movablein one direction for enlarging the com pression chamber and in the opposite direction an element slidably arranged with respect to said for reducing.thesame, means connecting said valve andbeing secured to said actuating means, actuating means to -said valve and comprising a whereby, at the movement of said actuating 45. one-way connection-for moving said valve toward means for enlarging the compression, chamber, openv position when the compression chamber is said element slides with respect l‘to said valve 25. Aing -fuel to said chamber, means for eifecting a enlarged and for engaging the valve with said connecting means for moving the same toward A ' closed position when the compressicn'fchamber is 30 35 - 45 leaving the same unactuatedthereby, said ele ment having a stop at one end thereof whereby, at the movement of said actuating means for reducing the size of the compression chamber, 50 reduced. ‘ 3, In an internal combustion engine according . said stop immediately moves said valve toward . to claim 2, having an intake manifold, means a closing position.,l 10. An internal combustion engine according connected to said manifold and said'res’ulating to claim 2', said regulating >means including la sys means li'or automatically controlling said regulat 55 ing means and said valve, said control means be-,. tem of levers and a servo-motor including a slide ' ing under the influence of and operated by varia-A _ valve connected to said levers, whereby upon tions'in the degree of vacuum in said manifold. movement of said _actuating means, said slide 50. 25 sa ~4. A_n internal combustion engine according to -valve is returned to a neutral position'~ as soon claim '_2, means for automatically adjusting said as the compression chamber has been adjusted to regulating means and said valve, said means being 'the desired extent. 11. An internal combustion- engine having under control -oi' the- pressure of the outer atmos ' phare Afor adjusting thesize of said compression 'means forming a compression chamber, means chamber andadjusting said valve in accordance for adjusting the size of said’ chamber, said means comprising a servo-motor, a member actu with variations of said pressure. ' 5. An'internal combustion engine according to, ated by said servo-motor, a mechanism ,opera 65 claim 2 having an intake manifold, said actuating tively connected with said chamber for varyingv means comprising an element i'or automatically the size thereof, and lresilient means interposed "controlling said regulating means and said valve. lbetween said mechanismL and said member con necting the same vfor delaying the varying move 70 operated by >variations in the degree .of vacuum ` ment of said mechanism when the pressure within 70 in said manifold-means for. automatically adjust-‘ "said combustion chamber exceeds a certain limit, said resilient means being Aoperative in both direc ' ing lsaid regulatingmeans and*y _ . d valve. said tions of movement of said adjusting means. adjusting means being under control of the pres A said element being under the innuence of and sure oi' the outer atmosphere for the JEAN EDOUARD ANDREAU.