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Патент USA US2120012

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June 7, 1938.
J'. E. ÀNDREAU
2,120,012
INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE.
Filed April l0, 1935 -
a/
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@imN
2 sheets-sheet 2 .
l2,120,012
Patented June 7, 1938
UNITED STATESv PATENT OFFICE
.
2,120,012
INTERNAL _COMBUSTION ENGINE
Jean Edouard Andreau, Paris, France,'assignor
to “8. E..B. A., Societe Anonyme d’Exploita
tion de Brevets d’Automobiles?, Glarus,V Swit
zerland, a society of Switzerland
Application April 10,1935, serial No..15,651
nl Belgium April 14, 1934 _
11 Claims.
(Cl. 123-48)
.'I‘he present invention relates to internal com shown in section,` while _the intake manifold is
bustion engines and also to vehicles, such as shown in elevation, for the sake' of clarity;
automobile vehicles (on road or on'rail) or air
crafts, provided with such engines. .
' Fig. 5a is a. fragmentary top view of the con- f
/
trol mechanism oi' the throttle valve 23 shown in
q Up to the 'present time, enginesof this kind
had, in a general Way, a cylinder capacity and
Fig. 5.
a clearance space which were geometrically ñxed.
Fig. 5, this modiflcationfbeing more especially
.intended for aircraft engines;
It follows from this arrangement that the uti
lization of the gases admitted into the engine
10 is' very bad for low loads.
,
'compression stroke for restoring atmospheric
pressure in the cylinder and that the true ratio
' of compression decreases more and more as the
~
_
Let us ñrst consider a normal engine, as shown
in Fig. 1, in which the piston I moves between
'
The reason is that, for such loads, it is nec
essary to utilize a considerable portion of the
load decreases.
..
Fig. 6` shows a modiilcation of the system of
an upper extreme position A and a lower ex- '
treme position Br while the plane O represents
the lower face of the cylinder head. Let it be
iìrst assumed that _this engine is running un
der normal conditions (the throttle valve full
opened).
v
During the compression stroke, at
'I'he consumption of fuel then increases, be
mospheric pressure is established in the cylin
coming as high as 700 or even 800 grammes per.
horse-power hour for -the engines of motor-cars
der when the piston is at level B’ not very far
from point B. The true ratio of compression is
running at speeds ranging between 20. and 30
then
»
'
OA
.
20>
.
kms. -per ho'ur. _
The> object of the present invention is to -pro
vide an _engine o_f the t'ype above referred tov in
which the drawbacks above mentioned are ob
25
viated.,
'
.
_.
.
-
'
_
»
This ratiofof compression may be, for instance,
8 to 1.
`
The essential feature of 4the present-invention
_ 0n the contrary, when the engine is running
consists in providing an engine of the type above
referred to` with means whereby theyolumetric
ratio of compression 'is automatically varied
30 within certain limits in such manner as to keep
the true ratio _of compression substantially con
'with' the _throttle valve closed or nearly closed,
there is a‘considerable degree of vacuum in the
intake pipe and, consequently, when the piston
passes the position B’ during the compression
stroke the pressure ol' the charge is even lower
stant under >all conditions of working oi' the en- . than atmospheric pressure. A supplementary
piston travel B'B" is therefore necessary before .
gine corresponding with these limits.
Other features _ of the present invention' will
atmospheric pressure is restored in the cylinder.
be apparent from the following detailed descrip- - In this caseI the true ratio of compression is
equal to
tion of somevspecitlc embodiments thereof.
‘ _. Pry >ferred embodiments of the present inven
‘
OBI!
tion will be hereinafter described, with refer
that is to say much lower than in the preceding
40 ly by way _of example,l and in which: _
case. It may even happen that the pressure in
.
Fig. 1 is a diagrammatical view of a cylinder the cylinder at the end of the compression stroke
and its piston, serving to illustrate the principle ' islower than atmospheric pressure.
ence to the. accompanying drawings, given mere
'- If, under the last mentioned conditions of ' ’
of the present invention; ^
Fig. _2 is a diagrammatic Iaxial sectional view.
of the head of a cylinder made -according to the
present invention;
Figs. 3 and 4 are views similar to Fig. 2, show?
running,l the cylinder head had been in position O', that is to -say at a level lower than'- O, then
_ the ratio of compression would have -been >
OIBII
ing two other embodiments of the device accord- ing to the present‘invention;
.
_
and therefore might have been made equal to the Ul
Fig. 5 is- a dlagrammatical view of a system .desired value (for instance 6 to 1) by suitably _
including an engine and means for controlling. .choosing position O'.
‘
_
.
^
said engine, the wholebeing devised_\»accord-l
In such an engine, the effective cylinder ca- g
.ing to the present invention,-the _view being in
general a plan _view but many of the parts being
pacity, would correspond to _the stroke AIB", and,>
furthermore, in the course of the ~expansion
0
2
9,190,012
stroke, the piston of such an engine, instead _of
stopping at B", _as would be the case with the
piston oi' an ordinary engine of the same com
ing to the present invention, I provide means
for controlling the position of the cylinder heads
-in accordance with the loaii of the engine as
pression ratio, movesifuther down as vfary as the
vicinity of B' (normal *exhaust opening). It fol
lows that the ratio of expansion, and therefore
'
indicated by the manifold suction.
`
Assuming,A for instance, that the engine in- 5
cludes four cylinders (Fig. 5) and that the cyl
the eillciency, is the higher asvtheicharge is
inder heads are controlled through a _device of
smaller.
the kind shown by Fig. 2, the free ends >of the
`
'
I
g
.
`
According to the present invention, an` in
ternal combustion engine of any kind whatever,
respective levers 6 may be all operatively .connected to a longitudinal control piece Il, springs 10 _
such as I5 and I6 being provided in connection
for an automobile vehicle, is provided with means - with each arm. 6 as shown in the drawings. that
for instance a multi-cylinder combustion engine ,_
whereby the volumetric ratio of compression of
said engine varies automatically within certain
15 limits so as to maintain the true ratio of com
20
is‘ito say in a manner similar to the arrangement
used in steering gears.- »
Owing to the presence of these springs, the 15
organ thatMacts on control member I4 shall not
be requiredî to displace the cylinder heads while
'pression constant forv all conditions of illling of
the engine cylinders corresponding with these
limits, which are preferably wider apart than the
the latter are subjected to the maximum lpres
limits of utilization.'
sures of the cycles. '
'
This is due to the fact that the cylinder heads 2o
I have found that the desired result can be v
obtained in a particularly advantageous manner are subjected to the action of alternating forces
Vby making the cylinder head of each `cylinder and can therefore be caused to undergo elemen
movable with respect thereto.
-
v
This arrangement is particularly well adapted
for usewith sliding valve engines, and especially
2,5
engines of this kind including a single'sliding
sleevel valve.
-
‘
”
This is due to the fact that, in sliding valve
engines, an arbitrary position of the >cylinder head
is admissible, this position being quite close to
the piston if4 necessary, provided that the inlet
and outlet ports are suitably devised.
tary displacements nearly without` resistance
during the favorable periods of the cycles. In
this manner, the displacement of the cylinder 25
heads, which necessitates several cycles, if it is
of a certain amplitude, takes place very easily.
I have found that it is advantageous, in order
to move control member Il, to make use of a
servo-motor I1, of any kind whatever. For in- 30
stance, according to the embodiment of Fig. 5,
this servo-motor includes a piston I8 which is
It should be noted that in the case of sliding subjected, on either of its faces according to the
. valve engines having a single sliding sleeve valve, . position of a slide valve I9, to the action of oil
thelatter is guided by the cylinder, the cylinder under -pressure-fed either by a usual compres- 35
head (or stationary piston) being entirely free
to
move.
‘
.
-
In the following description, it will be assumed
- that the engine is of the sliding valve type with
sliding sleeve valve 2.
40. a single
Accordingto the embodiment shown yby Fig.
'sion pump, or, preferably, by an accumulator
having an air cushion at the top, 20, in which
aV pump 2i maintains, at anytime, a reserve
of oil under4 pressure sufllcient for ensuring a
certain number of complete strokes lof member 40
2, the cylinder head 3 of leach cylinder oi’ the .
I4, for »instance ten of these strokes.'
Thus, according as the slide valve I9 is dis
engine is mounted in such manner, with re
spectto said cylinder, that it can be given trans
'latory displacements parallel to the axis of said
placed in one direction or in the opposite `direc
tion, the volumetric ratio of compression of all'
the cylinders of the engine will vary in one direc-~ 45,
cylinder.
.
'
„
.
Y
Said cylinder head l is provided with a screw
tion or- the opposite one.
-.
It sumces, now, to establish for the control
of said slide valve I9. a device such that the
condition Aabove stated is complied with.
threaded outer wall I, the threads being prefer
ably irreversible, and on this partJ there is
Theoretically, -if the variations of load and 50
50 screweda nut 5 integral with a control lever 6.'
- This nut can begiven only 'rotary displacements lspeed of the engine were sufficiently slow, it
owing to the provision of an upper stop;;1_and` would ,suillce to control slide valve I9 through
a lower stop i, both carried by the upper part of a manometric box subjectedto the suction ex
the cylinder.
v
isting in th‘e intake pipe of the engine beyond
It will be readily understood that, with such the throttle valve, for obtaining the desired work- 55
55
an arrangement,
acting on lever l, nut i is ing, provided, of course, that the whole is deg-f"
caused to turn andconsequently'the cylinder
head I is caused to move either upwardly or
downwardly.`
»
’
`
‘
visedA in such manner that, at least within cer
tain limits, to each value of this lsuction there
corresponds, for the engine, a volumetric ratio
In order wicooi said cylinder head, I advan-j. of compression, itself corresponding to the de- .60 -
so
tageously provide a cooling jacket communlcaté
sired true ratio of compression.
ing with the water circulation of the engine, for . ' lBut every time 'the variations of load and speed
instance through screwed tubes I andv Il. .
of theengine must be quick, which is, for in
In the embodiment illustrated by Fig. 3, the stance, the case with automobile vehicles, vit is
cylinder head is controlled by means of ;a._systemf necessary, in orderto avoid accidents as might 65
result .iromexcessive ratios of compression (dus.
*of wedges II which can
l displacements.
'
.
In the embodiment illustrated by 168.4; the '
for instance to the fact that, in the case of- a
sudden opening of the throttle valve, the cyl
cylinder head is actuated by means of a cam y inder heads would not move upwardly suiiiciently .
70
"
I2.
p ` Springs II, lof suilcient lstrength,~ are 'pro-~ quickly), to submit. they-,cylinder heads to the 30
` vided .for "keeping the cylinder-_head applied` `action. of -the organ that controls the admission
against said cam, or any other equivalent organ.v
when'the latter doœ not exert an operative action
, in .both directions.
_.
order_to
of fuel mixture to the 4engine (and which'will be;
hereinafter called throttle pedal). This oper
ative connection between the throttle pedal and V
engine proper mrd- the; cylinder heads is so devised that, in the l5».
3 .
2,120,612 ,
case of a variation ofthe rate of feed of fuel 'resistance decreases, the suction increases, the
diaphragm of box 25 'acts on point 31, so as to
ation causes the cylinder heads to move ~up- produce a reduction of ther clearance spaces and
wardly, the throttle valve opening gradually in - to reduce the torque. The vmovement of control
member I4 produces, through the displacement
the course of this upward movement of the cyl
inder heads until it reaches the position of open ,of pivot 30, the return of slide valve I9 to its neu
ing that corresponds to the position given to the tral position, at the same time as element 21 re
mixture, the operation that produces this vari
pedal
throttle.
._
'
duces the opening of-the throttle valve to the i
'
In the embodiment of Flg. 5, I have shown,
-besides control member i4 and'servo-motor I1,
the intake pipe 22, its throttle valve 23, and also
proper degree.
y
' An equilibrium is thus established which cor
10
responds to a lower rate of feed and the auto
l
matic regulation of the capacity of the cylinders
On pipe 22, beyond throttle valve 23, I pro-v and of the turques is obtained.
-
the throttle pedal 24.
In the preceding description I have been re
ferring to the case of internal combustion en
gines.> The invention is of course applicable to
any type of such engines, provided that they in
clude a simultaneous control of air and fuel.
vide a manometric box 25 communicating with
15 said pipe and including a. diaphragm '28.
I ñx to control member I4, on the one hand an
‘element 21 adapted to limit the displacements
of a lever 28 keyed on the spindle _of the throttle
valve in the direction that corresponds to the
opening of said throttlev (so that the opening of
. Thus these engines will no longer require the
pumping o_f air which is necessary at the present
said throttle can neverbe greater than that co'r- I time under low loads. This pumping reduced
responding to the actual position of` the cylin
the emciency and prevented the fuel from being
der heads) and, on the other hand, an element utilized under the optimum conditions.
When applied to aircraft engines, the present»
29 carrying, at its end a pivot 30 for a lever 3l
invention makes it possible to obtain a `better
a suitable point 32 of which is connected, for in
stancethrough an articulated r'od 33, with slidev A'utilization of the fuel at all altitudes.
valve I9.
,
It suillces, in this case, in order to obtain the
Throttle valve 23 is thus controlled through desired eñect, to complete the mechanism shown>
lever 28, which is itself engaged at its upper end by Fig. 5 by adding thereto a manometric box
28a in a slot 34 carried by a piece 34a operatively 39 (Fig. 6) the diaphragm of which is mechani 30
connected with throttle pedal 24. . Therefore said cally connected with point 31 and inside which
the pressure _is equal to the atmospheric pressure
throttle pedal can be moved in the direction cor- ,
‘responding to the opening of the vthrottle even
on the ground level._
`
when said throttle is prevented from opening at
This box then dilates more and more as the
this time by the fact that lever 23 is in vcontact
-external pressure decreases and actsin. the same 35
manner as' an increase of the suction in the in
take pipe of the engine, that is to Asayreduces the
'- ' with nement 21.
This throttle isv further subjected to the action
of a spring 35 tending to open it.
` Finally I interpose, between throttle pedal 24
40 and the free end of lever 3i, a connecting rod 3B
4-an intermediate point 31 of which, for instance
clearance spaces and restores the normal pres
sure .of explosion.
e
`
`This solution isbelieved to be superior tothe
usual constantunder-feed or to the provisionl of
,its _middle point. is operatively connected with
compressors.
-
~
When devising an automobile vehicle according
The systemy above described works inV the fol-h- to the present invention, it will be preferable to
lowing manner:`
interpose, lbetween the engine and the driving'
supposing, mst, that the'tnrbtue' pedal 1s actedv wheels an automatic clutch 33, _for instance of -theuponv for opening the throttle valve, theÀ end" of hydraulic type, capable ofÀ transmitting „the maxi
lever 23 being in contact with element 21, the mum torque of the engine when the vehicleis
throttle valve 23 is not influenced.. Point 31 re stationary. _ I may, for this purpose, make.. use
maining stationary, the end of lever 3l is moved of a clutch such as those called “fluid ñy-wheeis", .60
counter-clockwise in the direction that produces, which lensure a.- nearly complete release' at very
through servo-motor I_1, the upward movement
of the cylinder, heads. But, at the same time,~ '_ ' It is thus possible to wholly dispense with a
pivot >3|) is moved through the ‘action of the servo-y . change speed device and to have awhollly auto
motor I1 in such manner as_to bring .back_slide matic control of the vehicle, 'since the: driver is
diaphragm 2B.
e
‘
low
speeds.
~
„
,
-
ì
valve I9 into its neutral position and the' servo,A -concerned merely with the throttle pedal (or the
motor stops. @uring this time, the- element V21 ’ equivalent) and the brake.
' ,
against which lever 23.-was, applied also moves,
thus permitting the throttle to open 4the desired
According to 'the present invention, an auto'
mobilevehicle provided with an engine such as
amount. 'I'he engine therefore gives a` greater
that above described may be streamlined .fin such 60
.manneras to reduce the head resistance.
torque than before. '
If now, on the contrary,'the throttle valve is'A
acted upon _in such manner as to close the- throt- ,
G
tle valve, the operationsy above described take
place in the reverse order, but in this case the
throttle valve' is closed directly by the. throttle
pedal and the rate of feed is immediately re'
duced. The displacement of the cylinder heads
As a matter .of fact, one of the most character- `
istic drawbacks o_f streamlined bodies for auto
mobile vehicles- is'tthat said vehicles are nearly
always running (except for the maximum speed 65'
’ corresponding to the'maximum power of their
engine) withv a power substantially lower than
said maximum power.`
_
.
.
is then facilitated by the action of diaphragm . "Thus, with an ordinary engine,- the specific
26 and'the clearance spaces in the cylinders-of consumption is _not so good, for a giv'en speed, v"
the engine are reduced until they correspond
with the newV position of the throttle.
ï If, contrary to what has been assumed upto
-now, the throttle 24 is stationary' and the speed
of revolution of the engine increases because the
than if the vehicle were. not streamlined. since
the throttlevalve is less'opened and therefore the
true ratio of compression. is lower. Therefore,
due to the fact that the fuel is not so wellutilized.
a portion of the benefit obtained by the reduction 7.5
4
i
2,120,012
of the power necessary iîorl propelling the vehicle
is lost.
'
«
~
' On the contrary, with an engine according to
the present invention, as the specific consumption
is not inñuenced ina detrimental manner by thel
reduction of the load, it is possibleto obtain the
maximum bene?t of the advantages of stream
lined bodies and the consumption of fuel will
remain very low at all speeds.
Y.
Ina general manner, while I have, in the above
' description, disclosed what I deem to be practical
'
.
size of said compression chamber and adjusting
said valve in accordance with variations of said
pressure.
6. An internal combustion-engine according to
claim 2, further comprising resilient means con
necting said movable member to said regulating
means for delayingv the movement of said member
in said compression chamber when the pressure
withinv said chamber exceeds a certain‘lim-it.
7. An internal combustion engine comprising V10
means forming 'a compression chamber, a piston
movable with a vreciprocating motion in said
and eillcient embodiments of the present inven
tion, it should be well understood that I do not _ chamber, regulating means for adjusting the size
wish to be. limited thereto as there might be of' said compression chamber and including a
member movable in said chamber, a 'valve for
15 changes made in the arrangement, disposition
and form of the parts without departing from the feeding fuel mixture to said engine, and actuating
15
principle of the present invention as compre- ^ means connected to said regulating means and
hended within thescopeof the accompanying
movable in one direction for >enlarging said com
claims.
pressionl chamber and in opposite direction for ,
reducing the size of said4 chamber, means inte 20
'
what I‘claim is:
1. An internal combustion engine comprising ' grally connected with said regulating means for
controlling the degree of opening of said valve,
of: which is capable -of`being changed, a power means connected to said valve for normally hold
ing the same in opened position and in contact
Apiston movable in sai@ chamber. a valve for feed
means forming a compression chamber the size „
with said control means, said valve being inde
pendent of the movement of said actuating means
change in the size of said chamber and for op
erating said valve when the size of the chamber -tor enlarging the compression chamber, and
means independent of the movement of said regu
has been changed, means for delaying the mo
lating and control means, for operatively con
tion of said changing means and a one-way con
30 nection between said changing means _and said necting said valve to said actuating means during
valve, whereby said changing means will operate said reducing movement.
8. In an internal combustion engine according
said valve directly only when'said changing
tovclaim 7, said independent means comprising
means move in one d ection.
'
2. An internall com ustion engine comprising. an element slidably arranged with respect to said
means forming a compression chamber, a piston valve and being secured to said actuating means,
movable in said> chamber, regulating means for whereby, at the movement of said actuating
varying the size of said- chamber and including means for enlarging the compression chamber,
va member movable in said chamber, a valve for said _element slides with respect to said valve
leaving the same unactuated thereby.
feeding a fuel mixture to- said engine, and actuat
9. In an internal combustion engine according
4o ing means connected to said regulating means and
to claim '7, said independent means comprising
- ' movablein one direction for enlarging the com
pression chamber and in the opposite direction an element slidably arranged with respect to said
for reducing.thesame, means connecting said valve andbeing secured to said actuating means,
actuating means to -said valve and comprising a whereby, at the movement of said actuating
45. one-way connection-for moving said valve toward means for enlarging the compression, chamber,
openv position when the compression chamber is said element slides with respect l‘to said valve
25. Aing -fuel to said chamber, means for eifecting a
enlarged and for engaging the valve with said
connecting means for moving the same toward
A ' closed position when the compressicn'fchamber is
30
35
-
45
leaving the same unactuatedthereby, said ele
ment having a stop at one end thereof whereby,
at the movement of said actuating means for
reducing the size of the compression chamber, 50
reduced.
‘
3, In an internal combustion engine according . said stop immediately moves said valve toward
.
to claim 2, having an intake manifold, means a closing position.,l
10. An internal combustion engine according
connected to said manifold and said'res’ulating
to claim 2', said regulating >means including la sys
means li'or automatically controlling said regulat
55 ing means and said valve, said control means be-,. tem of levers and a servo-motor including a slide
' ing under the influence of and operated by varia-A _ valve connected to said levers, whereby upon
tions'in the degree of vacuum in said manifold. movement of said _actuating means, said slide
50.
25
sa
~4. A_n internal combustion engine according to -valve is returned to a neutral position'~ as soon
claim '_2, means for automatically adjusting said as the compression chamber has been adjusted to
regulating means and said valve, said means being 'the desired extent. 11. An internal combustion- engine having
under control -oi' the- pressure of the outer atmos
' phare Afor adjusting thesize of said compression 'means forming a compression chamber, means chamber andadjusting said valve in accordance for adjusting the size of said’ chamber, said
means comprising a servo-motor, a member actu
with variations of said pressure.
'
5. An'internal combustion engine according to, ated by said servo-motor, a mechanism ,opera
65
claim 2 having an intake manifold, said actuating tively connected with said chamber for varyingv
means comprising an element i'or automatically the size thereof, and lresilient means interposed
"controlling said regulating means and said valve. lbetween said mechanismL and said member con
necting the same vfor delaying the varying move
70 operated by >variations in the degree .of vacuum ` ment of said mechanism when the pressure within 70
in said manifold-means for. automatically adjust-‘ "said combustion chamber exceeds a certain limit,
said resilient means being Aoperative in both direc
' ing lsaid regulatingmeans
and*y
_
.
d valve. said
tions of movement of said adjusting means.
adjusting means being under control of the pres
A said element being under the innuence of and
sure oi' the outer atmosphere for
the
JEAN EDOUARD ANDREAU.
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