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Патент USA US2120108

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June 7, 1.938.
R. w, MCLEANI
APPARATUS FOR LIBERATING USEFUL FIBERS
Filed May 11, 1935
2,120,108
Patented June 7, 1938
2,120,108
UNITED STATES,
PATENT OFFICE *
2,120,108
APPARATUS FOR LIBERATING USEFUL
FIBERS
'
. Robert Walter McLean, Bridgewater, Mass., as
signor to Carver Cotton Gin Company, East
Bridgewater, Mass., a corporation of Massa
chusetts
Application May 11, 1935, Serial No. 20,952
11 Claims.
This invention relates to the liberation of use
ful ?ber, or fibrous material, from its attach
ments, for example from seeds, by the use of
toothed disks or “saws” projecting through slots
in a “grate-fall”, and relates more particularly to
an improved method of and apparatus for use
in so liberating ?bers from their attachments. As
herein disclosed the invention is shown as em
bodied in a linter gin for delinting cottonseed,
but I contemplate its wider utility in any mech
anism of the general class.
In one common form of gin, the slots for the
saws in the grate-fall are de?ned by independent
grate-bars, adjacent bars being in substantial
(CI. 19-62)
take root,—so to speak, thus providing an an
chorage for the accumulation of an accretion of
material.
Not only do minute cracks or irregularities at
the end of the slot itself cause tagging, but abrupt
shoulders, projections, crevices or rough sur
faces upon or in the parts de?ning the space im
mediately above and behind the upper ends of
the slots, or the sudden contraction of this space,
also result in the accumulation of streamers of 10
lint at this point.
As one step in the effort to eliminate the tag
ging effect, I believe it desirable to have the ends
of the slots defined by transverse elements which
contact at their upper and lower ends where they
are integrally continuous from one side to the
are supported by transverse rails,—the bars being
other of the slot so that not even an invisible
recessed or relieved along their sides, intermedi
ate their upper and lower ends, so that the op
posed recesses in adjacent bars collectively form
the slot in which the saw blade turns. Sometimes
crevice or crack exists at this point.
In my patent just referred to I have suggested
these slots are somewhat widened near their up
per ends on the theory that such wider spaces or
holes will permit foreign matter, such as trash,
leaf stalks, pebbles or the like, which may be
caught by the saw teeth, to escape.
However, as these holes are soon plugged‘up
during use, this theoretical utility is of little prac
tical value but, on the other hand, it has been
observed that when these openings are appar
,.,3(>\ent1y plugged or even when the openings are
omitted, there is a tendency for ?ber to enter
between the closely adjacent upper ends of the
bars and to catch and cling so as to form masses
in the space behind the grate-fall and above the
35 dof?ng brush. This tendency of the ?bers to
form into streamers or “tags” of substantial size
at this point may perhaps be, in part at least, due
to electri?cation. When these streamers become
of su?icient weight, they break off and drop down
40 into the moting space and are moted out with the
motes, so that this ?ber is lost, and loss of ?ber
from this cause may amount to a substantial per
centage of the total output of the gin. On the
other hand, if these streamers, which usually in
45 clude dirt and trash as well as clean ?ber, are
carried along with the other ?bers to the con
denser, the value of the product of the machine is
greatly lessened.
,
Although the action which takes place adja
50 cent to the ginning point is not easily observable,
I have ascertained that even a microscopic crack,
invisible to the eye, at the end of the slot (for
example, such as results from ?tting adjacent
gratebars together), provides a place in which
55 ?bers, impelled at high velocity by the saw teeth,
"15
the desirability of guarding the joints between
adjacent bars nearly down to the ginning point.
However, it does not appear to be wholly sufficient
merely to cover or guard the minute cracks or
joints between the adjacent grate-bars beyond
the ends of the slots, since further experiment
has convinced me that for most effective results we. 5
the distance between the slot-terminating ele
ment and the path described by the tips of the
saw teeth is critically small, to wit, of the order
of one-sixteenth of an inch. Wherever practi
cable, a spacing of less than one-sixteenth inch
is recommended. With this small spacing the
tips of the saw teeth pass so close to the slot
terminating element as to sweep the end of the
slot itself completely clean of lint, so that the in
cipient growth of tags or streamers is prevented, 35
not only along the joint between, adjacent bars
above the slot proper, but within the end of the
slot itself.
‘
The requisite accuracy of setting of the saw
cylinder shaft relatively to the grate-fall may asO
‘ readily be obtained by the‘ use of mechanism such
as disclosed in the patent to McLean No. 1,988,850,
dated January 22, 1935, but doubtless can be ac
complished in other ways if sufficient care be ex
ercised,—though perhaps less expeditiously.
In the accompanying drawing, in which cer
tain features of the invention are illustrated by
.way of example,
Fig. l is a fragmentary front View of the upper '
part of a one-piece grate-fall, showing the upper
ends of the slots and with the saw blades project
ing through the slots and arranged in accordance
with the present invention;
Fig. 2 is a fragmentary vertical section of the
2
2,120,108
front part of a linter gin, substantially on ‘the
plane of the line 2-2 of Fig. 1;
slot to the other, so there is no crack, however
minute, in which ?brous material may lodge.
‘ Fig. 3 is a view similar to Fig. 1, but illustrating
a modi?ed form of grate-fall;
ential path 8 of the saw teeth and the terminal
Fig. 4 is a section, to ‘larger scale, substantially V
on the line 4—4 of Fig. 3, showing that part of
theIgrate-fall which is immediately above the
ginning point, together with a portion of a saw
' blade, arranged in, accordance with the present, 7
invention; and
I
v
Fig. 5 is another view, similar to Fig. 1,‘ but
showing a slight further modi?cation.
'
Figs. 1 and 2 illustrate a grate-fall 1 consisting
' of a single piece of sheet material, for example
15 steel, suitably shaped at its upper and lower edges
for anchorage to the transverse rails 2 and 3,
respectively. As illustrated in Fig. 2, the rail 2
is integral with the rear wall of the roll box of
the gin, and the sheet I is set into a recess in
20 the rail so that the upper surface of the sheet is
substantially flush with and forms an uninter
rupted continuation of the ‘inner curved surface’
21“ of said wall.
The lower surface 2° of the rail
2' is smooth (preferably being buffed and pol
2.5.
ished), and is preferably upwardly and rear
wardly inclined at'2dv so as to provide a space
which ?ares, or ‘increases upwardly in vertical
dimensions, rearwardly of the ginning point.
With an arrangement substantially as just de
30 scribed, no ledges, recesses, projections or rough
element of the slot is of the order of one-six
teenth inch, although in practice, this distance
may be'vari'ed in‘ either direction slightly.
By
so arranging the saw relatively to the terminal '
element of the grate-fall within the range above
suggested, it is found that the saw teeth sweep 10
the end of the slot itself clean, even though the ~
teeth do not actually touch such terminal ele
ment. It seems probable that, with this very
close spacing, the current of air driven forward
by the tip of the tooth suffices to clean the eX-' 15
treme end of the slot, even though the tooth tip '
does not come into actual-physical contact with
the end wall of the slot.
'
'
In Fig. 3 a slightly different form of‘ grate- .
fall is illustrated, comprising independent bars
la, the adjacent bars being recessed along their
opposed surfaces to provide the slots ll‘a in which
the saw blades 6 turn. The slots between the
20'
grate-bars terminate at the points 8,.and where
such bars contact with each other there isalways
present a slight crevice 10, even though the bars
are ?nished very accurately. The upper ends of
the bars are covered by a guard membernlila
which, ‘as more fully described- in the patent'to
2,5
McLean, No. 1,999,845, dated April 30,1935, may 30
extend from one side of. the gin to the other.
surfaces are opposed to the normal movement of , This guard extends down substantially'to the gin;
the lint carrying air current, such as might pro
ning point, and its lower edge may, if desired,
vide mechanical lodgement for ?ber, or such as be provided with recesses having concavely ‘curved
would form‘points for accumulation of static elec
ends’ like those shown in, Fig. 1, each recess, be
35
tricity, while by reason of the rapid upward in
crease in the dimensions of the space rearwardly
ing of a width substantially equaling that of the
slot 15a with whichvthe recess registers. > The
of i the ginning point, air currents are set up
curved end surface 5*‘, which forms an integrally
continuous terminal element for the slot is is
which effectively sweep the surfaces clean of lint.
The slots 4 in this grate-fall are conveniently
40 1formed
'by a milling operation which provides
slots of very accurate width and spacing. Pref-v
erably the terminal elements of these slots are
concavely curved, as indicated at 5, so that the
opposite side walls of the slotgradually approach
the'plane of the tooth tips thereby to minimize
the space at each side of the tip of the saw
’ tooth. While noattempt has been made in the
drawing to show the exact shape of the saw
50 teeth, it is‘ well known to those skilled in the art
that gin saw teeth are of a more or less pyramidal
shape, tapering in thickness toward their tips.
Thus the narrowing of the slot at its terminus
is highly desirable in order to minimize the clear
55 ance between the extreme tip portion'of the tooth
Patent No‘. 1,988,850, above referred to.
The saw ~
?brous material.
'
v
,
In this arrangement,v as in that of Figs.v 1 and
2, a clear unobstructed space of increasing ca
pacity is provided just above and to the rear of
the ginning point. In this construction the up
lower part of the plate Illa and are held in re
cesses in the edge of a clamping member 2|‘ se
cured to the under surface of .the rail 2.‘ The
plate 10* is seated in a recess in the rail 2 with
the under surface ofthe member 2.] is smooth,
preferably polished, and closely ?ts vagainst the
in the arrangement of Fig. 1, thereare no cor
Patent No. 1,988,850, above referred to.’ The saw
stream and which might cause the collection of
lint either mechanically or; electricallyat this
point.
~
'
"
;
~
I
.
saw shaft is so set relatively to the grate-fallthat
between the ‘bars terminate at the points “and
where the bars meet at their upper endsa joint
such'an integral grate-fall as shown'in Fig. 1, this
terminal element 5 is obviously continuous and
without any break or crevice from one side of the
'
In Fig. 5 a further modi?cation is-showniin
which the grate-fall comprises the independent
bars I10 having their opposed edges recessed to
the circumferential path, indicated at 8 (Fig. 1),
.55
ners, projections, recesses or obstructions such
as to oppose the flowof the lintcarrying air vso
downwardly and rearwardly through the slots in
the grate-fall.
In accordance with the present invention the
in which the tips of the saw‘teeth move, is with
in approximately one-sixteenth of an inch or less
from the terminal element 5 of the slot 4. In
6.0,, V
its front face substantially flush with the rear.
surface of theinner wall of the roll box, .while
sides and rear surfaces of the bars is. . Thus as
saws turn in the'direction of the arrow A (Fig.
.45 I
per ends of the bars Ia are received behind the‘ . .'
1, the shaft bearings and grate-fall preferably be
ingrelatively and accurately adjustable, for ex
ample by means such "as disclosed in McLean
2) , the teeth of the saws carry the detached ?ber
.65
spaced from the periphery of the saw in the same .40
Way as the surface 5 of Figs. 1 and 2, so that the
effective end of the slot is always swept clean of
blades 6 are mounted on the sawcylinder shaft
~ blades 6 project through the slots 4' and as the
V
~ As stated, the space 9 between the circurnfei'e '
.65
provide the slots 41° for ‘the saws ,6. vThese slots
I2 is formed.v Instead of a continuous guard ex
tending transversely across the width of, the
grate-fall, independent guard 'members 13 ' are
provided, each such guard member, if desired,
being set into the grater-bars so as t0>.lie_ ?ushv
with their front surfaces, and, extending across
.70,
>
3
2,120,108
from one grate-bar to the next, said guard mem
bers each being ?rmly united to one grate-bar
at least, for example by pins, spot welding, or the
like. The lower edges 5b of these elements I3 are
integrally continuous from one side of the slot to
the other and form the effective terminal ele
ment of the slot. The saw blade is set close to
this terminal element (within the range above
speci?ed), said element, in this instance, being
shown as being substantially straight and paral
lel to the axis of the saw cylinder. The opera
tion of the saw in keeping the- end of the slot
clean is the same as previously described.
Obviously other modes of constructing the
15 grate-fall may be employed, although, as above
stated, it is preferred for best results to termi
nate each slot by means of an element which is
integrally continuous, that is to say, without any
joint, crack or crevice, from one side of the slot
to the other, and I wish it to be understood that
all such modi?cations of the arrangement herein
disclosed as may fall within the scope of the
appended claims are to be regarded as within the
purview of the invention.
25
I claim:
»
1. Apparatus for delinting cottonseed compris
ing a grate-fall and a rotating saw cylinder hav
ing blades turning in slots in the grate-fall, the
width of each such slot, adjacent to the ginning
30 point where the saw teeth pass downwardly
through the grate-fall, not exceeding the width
of the slot at other points, a transversely con
tinuous terminal element for each of said slots,
each such terminal element having walls con
verging toward the extreme end of the slot, and
means for rotating the cylinder relatively to the
grate-fall, the parts being 50 arranged that the
tips of the saw teeth move between said con
downwardly through the grate-fall, not exceed
ing the width of the slot at other points, a trans
point and being so shaped as to provide a narrow
terminus for the slot, means for rotating the saw
cylinder relatively to the grate-fall, the parts 25
being so arranged that the saw teeth of any given
saw move within the narrow terminus of the
corresponding slot and with the tips of the teeth
spaced approximately one-sixteenth of an inch
from the extreme end of the slot as de?ned by 30
said terminal element thereby at all times to keep
the slots free from accumulations of material, ‘
and a rigid support for the upper part of the'
grate-fall, said support having an under surface
so shaped as to form a vertically ?aring space
immediately above and to the rear of the gin
ning point through which the lint may pass with
out encountering rough surfaces upon which it
might collect.
as de?ned by said terminal elements at a dis
ing a grate-fall and a rotary saw cylinder having
blades which turn respectively in slots of the
toward the edge of its saw so as to narrow the
slot near its end, and means for rotating the
saw cylinder relatively to the grate-fall, the parts
being so arranged that the saw teeth of a given
saw move within the concavity of the correspond
ing terminal element with the tips of the teeth as
close to the extreme ends of the respective slots
as de?ned by said terminal elements as is prac
ticable without actual contact of the teeth with
said terminal elements, thereby at all times to
keep said slots free from accumulations of ma
terial.
.
3. Apparatus for delinting cottonseed compris
ing a grate-fall and a rotating saw cylinder hav
ing blades turning in slots in the grate-fall, the
width of each such slot, adjacent to the ginning
point where the saw teeth pass downwardly
through the grate-fall, not exceeding the width
of the slot at other points, a transversely con
tinuous terminal element for each slot, each said
element being concave toward the edge of its re
75 spective saw, means for rotating the saw cylinder,
20
versely integral terminal element for each slot,
said element substantially de?ning the ginning
vergent walls of the respective terminal elements
and pass the extreme ends of the respective slots
tance of the order of one-sixteenth inch, thereby
at all times to keep the ends of the slots clear of
accumulations of material.
2. Apparatus for delinting cottonseed compris
ing a grate-fall and a rotary saw cylinder having
blades which turn respectively in slots of the
grate-fall, the width of each such slot, adjacent
to the ginning point where the saw teeth pass
downwardly through the grate-fall, not exceed
ing the width of the slot at other points, a trans
versely integral terminal element for each slot,
each terminal element being concavely curved
65
thetparts being so arranged that the saw teeth
of a given saw move within the concavity of the
corresponding terminal element and so close to
the extreme end of the slot as de?ned by said
terminal element as at all times to keep said slots
clean of accumulations of material, and a rigid
support for the upper part of .the grate-fall, said
support having a smooth under surface so shaped
as to provide a rearwardly ?aring space imme
diately above and to the rear of the ginning point 10
into which the lint may pass without encounter
ing elements such as might interfere with the
free movement of lint through such space.
4. Apparatus for delinting cottonseed compris
ing a grate-fall and a rotary saw cylinder having 1.5
blades which turn respectively in slots of the
grate-fall, the width of each such slot, adjacent
to the ginning point where the saw teeth pass
'
5. Apparatus for delinting cottonseed compris
40
grate-fall, the width of each such slot, adjacent’
to the ginning point where the saw teeth'v'pass
downwardly through the grate-fall, not exceed- ;
ing the width of the slot at other points, a trans
versely integral terminal element for each slot,
said element de?ning the ginning point and being
concave toward the corresponding saw blade,
means for rotating the saw cylinder relatively to 50
the grate-fall in such a way that the saw teeth
of any given saw pass through the narrow end of
the slot de?ned by the concavity of the terminal
element and with the tips of the teeth at a dis
tance of the order of one-sixteenth of an inch 55
from the extreme end of the slot as de?ned by
said terminal element.
‘
'
6. A saw gin for delinting cottonseed comprise
ing a saw cylinder having blades, a grate-fall
having slots in which the respective blades turn,
the width of each such slot, adjacent to the gin
ning point where the saw teeth pass downwardly
through the grate-fall, not exceeding the width
of the slot at other points, each such slot being
terminated by a stationary transversely integral 65
element de?ning the ginning point, and bearings
for the saw cylinder so arranged relatively to
the grate-fall that the tips of the teeth of any
given saw blade describe a circumference which
is spaced from the terminal element of its slot 70
a distance of the order of one-sixteenth inch,
whereby the teeth of the saws sweep clean the
effective ends of the slots, and a rigid rail sup
porting the upper part of the grate-fall, said
supporting rail having a smoothly ?nished un
2,120,108
der surface including an upwardly and rear
wardly sloping face providing a clear space
which ?ares upwardly immediately to the rear
of the ginning point.
~
7. A saw gin for delinting cottonseed-‘com
prising a saw cylinder, a grate-fallhaving slots
in which the respective saw blades turn, the
width‘ of each such slot, adjacent ,to the gin
ning point where the saw teeth pass downwardly
through the grate-fall, not exceeding the width
of the slot at other points, each such ‘slot being
terminated by a stationary transversely integral
element concave toward the edge of the saw and
de?ning the ginning point, and bearings for the
15 saw cylinder so arranged relatively to the grate
fall that the tips of the teeth‘of any given'saw
blade describe a circumference which is as close
as practicable to the terminal element of its
V20
in width toward the extreme end ofcthe slot, the
saw cylinder and grate-fall being so relatively’
disposed that the tips of the teeth of any given
saw ‘move in a circumferential path which lies
between the convergent walls of the terminal .ele
ment and is at a distance of the order of one
sixteenth of an inch from the extreme end 'of
the slot.
v
~
10. A saw gin for delinting cottonseed, said gin
having a saw cylinder, a grate-fall comprising an’
integral piece of sheet material having substan
slot and within the concavity thereof whereby
tially parallel slots therein in which the respec-c
the, teeth of the saw sweep clean ‘the effective
tive saw blades turn, the width of each such slot,
adjacent to the ginning point where the saw
end of the slot.
‘
,8. A saw gin for delinting cottonseed compris
ing a saw cylinder, a grate~fall having slots in
which the respective saw blades turn, the width
25 of each such slot, adjacent to the ginning point
where the saw teeth pass downwardly through
the grate-fall, not exceeding the width of the
slot at other points, each such slot being ter
minated by a stationary transversely integral
30
tially parallel slots, therein in which therespec
tive blades turn, the .Width‘ of each such slot,
adjacent to the ginning'point where the saw teeth
pass downwardly through the grate-fall, not ex
ceeding the width of- the slot at other points, each
slot having an end wall forming a' transversely
integral terminal element whose walls converge
element concave toward the edge of the saw and
de?ning the ginning point, and bearings for the
saw cylinder so arranged relatively to the grate
fall that the tips of the teeth of any given saw
blade describe a circumference such that they
35 move within the concavity of the terminal ele
teeth pass downwardly through ‘the grate-fall,
not exceeding the width of the slot atrother
points, each slot having a curved end wall form
ing an uninterrupted terminal element concave“
toward the edge of the corresponding saw blade;
and bearings for the saw cylinder so arranged
that the tips of the teeth of any given saw blade
describe a circumferential path which is within
the concavity of the terminal element of the slot
and at a distanceof the order of one-sixteenth of,
an inch from the extreme end of the slot, there,
by to cause the teeth of the saws to sweep‘ clean
the ends of the slots.
11'. A grate-fall comprising a series of parallel .~
ment of the respective slot so that the teeth of I independent bars having their opposed edges
the saw sweep clean the effective end of the
shaped to provide slots between them for the
grate-fall, said rail having under surfaces which
ries of independent guard members each attached
40 are smooth, free of obstructions or crevices, and
to one bar only and each overlapping the end
portion of one of the slots,‘each guard member
having an edge which extends uninterruptedly
slot, and a railsupporting the upper part of the V ‘ reception of the respective saw blades, and a se
which de?ne the top of an upwardly ?aring
space into which lint may pass without danger
of being obstructed or caught by contact with
the rail.
9. A saw gin for delinting cottonseed, said gin
:45
having a saw cylinder, a grate-fall comprising an
integral piece of sheet material having substan
across the slot from one side to the'rother of the
latter, such edge constituting a terminal element
for the slot.
ROBERT WALTER MCLEAN.
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