Патент USA US2120130код для вставки
June 7, 1938. 2,120,130 J. B. HARRINGTON OIL BURNER ‘Original Filed Dec. 2, 1935 i; ATTORNEY. Patented June 7, 1938 2,120,130 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,120,130 OIL BURNER James B. Harrington, Dorchcster, Boston, Mass., assignor to The Waverly Heating Supply 00., Boston, Mass., a corporation of Massachusetts Continuation of application Serial No. I700,698, December 2, 1933. This application January 28, 1936, Serial No. 61,157 6 Claims. (Cl. 158—87) This invention relates to oil burners of the type designed more especially for use in domestic ranges and similar heating apparatus. It aims to improve oil burners of this character with a view especially to facilitating the starting of such burners and reducing the length of time required to bring them up to a normal operating condi tion. The nature of the invention will be readily 10 understood from the following description when read in connection with the accompanying draw ing, and the novel features will be particularly pointed out in the appended claims. ‘ In the drawing, 15 Figure l is a plan view of a burner base em bodying features of this invention; - Fig. 2 is a vertical, sectional view substantially on the line 2-2, Fig, 1, and illustrating, also, the perforated sleeves which are supported on the 20 base; and Fig. 3 is a fragmentary, sectional View on ap proximately the line 3—3, Fig. 1. The burner base shown in the drawing is most conveniently made by casting, although it can 25 be manufactured in other ways, and it includes inner and outer grooves 2 and 3, respectively, for conducting oil and combustible vapors. Extend ing upwardly from the inner groove are two per forated metal sleeves 4 and 5, respectively, which 30 cooperate with the groove to provide an inner combustion chamber, and similar sleeves 6 and 1 are associated with the outer groove 3 to provide an outer combustion chamber. Preferably the base, the grooves, and the sleeves are of circular 35 form, as in the common commercial construc tions. The oil is fed initially to one of the grooves and is conducted to the other through radial ducts 8, Figs. 1 and 3, cored in the base and serv ing to connect the two grooves together at inter 40 vals. Usually, also, wicks, such as those shown at 9 and In, Fig. 3, are located in the respective grooves 2 and 3. Air openings l2 are provided through the base and open into» the space between the two combustion chambers. _ So far as the features above described are con cerned, the construction is essentially like that of the common commercial oil burners of this gen eral character. In starting up such a burner it is the usual practice to allow oil to ?ow into the 50 grooves in the burner base until it at least ?lls them up to a point considerably above the lower edges of the wicks, and then to light the wicks at several places by means of a lighted taper. The ?ame soon spreads, and after the burner has been in operation for several minutes the sleeves become heated and transmit their heat to the metal base, thus serving to vaporize the oil in the grooves more rapidly. As the parts heat up, the vaporizing action becomes more rapid until ?nal ly a normal rate of vaporization of the oil is pro duced, and the ?ames in the two concentric com bustion chambers are fed almost completely, if not entirely, by vapor so generated, very little liquid oil being present in the burner base. When the burner ?rst starts the ?ame is of a yellowish, 10 smoky character, but it becomes cleaner as the burner heats up, and ?nally takes on the clear bluish color which is characteristic of normal operation. Usually, however, considerable time elapses, in the neighborhood of twenty minutes, 15 between the initial lighting of the burner and the establishing of normal operation. To reduce this period of time constitutes the chief object of this invention. ~ _ In the construction shown the inner groove 2 is made of triangular form in vertical section, the inner wall of this groove consisting of an inclined annular member M of the burner base. Oil is conducted into the inner margin of this groove through the hole l5, an oil supply pipe (not shown) being threaded into the boss is through which this hole is formed. From this in let the oil flows around the entire inner surface of the groove 2 and through the radial passages a into the outer ‘groove 3. One of the perforated 30 sleeves for the inner ‘combustion chamber, in this particular arrangement the inner sleeve 4, instead of being mounted in the usual manner, is extended down almost to the bottom of ' the oil groove 2 so that its lower margin projects into the body of.oil present in this groove during the starting period. Qil passages are formed under the edge of this sleeve by providing a series of radial lugs I‘! extending from the outer wall of the groove 2 part way across said groove, the lower edge of the sleeve 4 resting on'the upper surfaces of these lugs. In starting this burner into operation the usual practice above described may be followed, The fact, however, that the sleeve 4 extends downwardly into the body of oil in the inner groove 2, results in transmitting heat very rapidly to the oil and thus produces a more vigorous vaporiz ing action than otherwise would be possible. After the wicks have been lighted, or the burner ' has been started in anyother way, the sleeves are the ?rst parts to receive heat, and the inner sleeve 4 heats up more rapidly than any of the others. .In the arrangement shown, this inner sleeve transmits its heat 'very rapidly, both by‘ 2. 2,120,130 conduction and also by radiation, to the incom ing oil. It is important, in order to produce the best results, that the thermal conductivity be tween the inner sleeve 4 and the base shall be poor, to the end that an e?icient conduction of heat be maintained from the upper part of the sleeve to its lower margin. Thus the lower part of this sleeve, resting in the oil groove, will be kept at as high a temperature as possible, and its effectiveness in vaporizing the oil will be corre spondingly increased. For this purpose the area of contact between the sleeve and the base is reduced to a minimum. Such contact consists simply of that between the lower edge of the sleeve and the lugs I1 and a very small contact of the inner surface of the sleeve with the rounded outer margin of the inner wall l4 of the base. The base usually is cast while the sleeve is of sheet metal and, due to the eccentricities of these two elements, they do not ?t tightly to gether but practically always are in touch at only three or four points around the edge of the wall l 4. Also, as the sleeve heats up and expands, the area of contact tendsto become smaller. In any event, the entire surface contact is such that very little heat is transmitted from the sleeve to the upper part of the base. At its extreme lower edge the loss of heat also is small, but it is not so important here as it would be at points above 30 for the reason that the high temperature is uti lized in the region where the sleeve is immersed in the oil during the starting operation. It is in this region that it is important to have a high temperature maintained. Careful tests have shown that the construction illustrated produces these results. Upon starting the burner, the sleeve 4 heats up very much more rapidly than the base and within a very few minutes the lower margin of the sleeve which is submerged in oil attains a temperature of several hundred degrees higher than adjacent portions of the base. This materially reduces the time required to bring the burner up to its normal operating condition. Also this temperature difference is maintained 45 continuously. In addition to the foregoing, the sloping inner wall M of the burner base is rapidly heated by the radiant heat transmitted from the inner sur faces of the cylindrical sleeve 4, and assists in heating the oil in the inner groove. After the burner has been in operation for a few minutes, it is usually customary to partially open the oil feed valve so that a continuous ?ow of oil comes in through the inlet l5 and into the inner margin of the groove 2 where it flows around the entire circumference of this groove, and thence outward radially into the outer part of the groove 2 and through the passages 8 into the outer groove 3. Thus the part of the groove 2 60 inside of the sleeve 4 may be considered as an oil distributing and vaporizing groove, and that out side of the sleeve 4 as part of the combustion chamber, or, as the oil groove for the inner com bustion chamber, these two groove sections being 65 separated by the lower margin of the inner sleeve 4. As the incoming oil flows through the oil distributing section of the inner groove, it is vaporized by the heat of the base, and more especially by the higher temperature of the lower 70 margin of the inner sleeve, and this vapor is dis tributed to the grooves at the bases of the combus tion chambers between the inner and outer pairs of perforated sleeves. Experience has shown that the construction provided by this invention pro ~75 duces a better operating condition and a higher ultimate temperature when the innermost sleeve 4 is extended down into the inner oil groove, as above described. This appears to be due to the more rapid vaporization produced by the lower margin of the sleeve even after the burner base has become thoroughly heated up. The best ex planation that I can give for this result is that the highly heated lower margin of the sleeve, projecting into the space where vaporization is taking place, maintains a higher temperature in this vaporizing zone than otherwise would be pos sible. Also, as the vapor is generated and flows: upwardly along the inner surface of the wall l4, it is guided by this wall through the perfora tions in the sleeve 4 where its temperature is in 15 creased even further. This application is a continuation of my co~ pending application Serial No. 700,698, ?led December 2, 1933. While I have herein shown and described, a pre 20 ferred embodiment of my invention, it will be understod-that the invention may-be embodied in other forms without departing from the spirit or scope thereof. Having thus described my invention, what I 25 desire to claim as new is: 1. In ‘an oil burner, the combination with a burner base having an oil groove therein, of a pair of perforated sleeves extending upwardly from said groove and spaced apart, said sleeves 30 cooperating with said groove to provide a com bustion chamber, the inner of said sleeves ex tending downwardly approximately to the bot tom of said groove but the area of contact of said sleeve with said base being so restricted 35 that the rate of transfer of heat from the sleeve to the base is abnormally low and the tempera ture of the portion of said sleeve in said groove is maintained high, and means for conducting oil into said groove. 1410 2. In an oil burner, the combination with a burner base having a circular oil groove therein, of a pair of perforated sleeves supported on said base and extending'upwardly from said groove, said, sleeves being spaced apart and cooperating with said groove to provide a combustion cham ber, the inner of said sleeves extending down wardly into the space in said groove occupied by the oil during the starting of the burner and dividing said groove into an inner oil vaporizing and distributing section and a combustion sec tion, said sleeve and said base being constructed and-arranged to facilitate the efficient transmis sion of heat from the upper portion of the sleeve into the lower margin thereof so that said lower ' margin will be maintained at a considerably higher temperature than the base and will there by serve to vaporize the oil in said groove dur ing the starting of the burner, and means for conducting oil into said inner section of said 60 groove. ' 3. In an oil burner, the combination of a burner‘base having a circular oil groove therein the inner wall of which is inclined upwardly and outwardly, a pair of spaced perforated sleeves ex- , tending upwardly from the side walls of said groove, said sleeves cooperating with said groove to provide a combustion chamber, the inner of said sleeves extending downwardly into said groove and dividing said groove into an inner 70 fuel vaporizing and distributing chamber and an outer combustion compartment, and means sup porting said inner sleeve slightly above the bot tom of- said groove whereby the lower end of said sleeve is immersed'in liquid fuel‘during the start 2,120,130 3 ing period to conduct heat thereto to aid rapid tending downwardly approximately to the bot vaporization, and means for conducting oil into said inner chamber, the outer inclined surface of tom of said groove, to present a substantial heat conducting area to oil therein, said inner sleeve and said base having edge to surface contact only, with each other, whereby the area of con~ tact therebetween is so restricted and in such poor heat conducting relationship that the rate of transfer of heat from the sleeve to the base is abnormally low and the temperature of the por tion of the sleeve in said groove below the initial 1O oil level therein is maintained high, and means for conducting oil into said groove. said inner wall being exposed to the radiant heat from the inner sleeve of the burner. 4. In an oil burner, the combination of a burner base having two circular concentric grooves therein, the inner wall of the inner of said grooves being inclined upwardly and out wardly, two pairs of perforated sleeves extending upwardly from the respective grooves, each pair cooperating with its respective groove to pro vide a combustion chamber, the innermost of said sleeves extending downwardly into the space in the inner groove occupied by the oil during the starting of the burner and dividing said inner groove into inner and outer sections, means for conducting oil into said inner section of the lat ter groove, said base having passages connecting 20 said grooves through which the fuel can flow freely from the inner to the outer groove, said base and said innermost sleeve being constructed and arranged to support the sleeve in its opera tive position while protecting said sleeve from any substantial heat conducting contact with said base at points above its lower edge. 5. In an oil burner, the combination with a burner base having an oil groove therein, of a pair of perforated sleeves extending upwardly from said groove and spaced apart, said sleeves cooperating with said groove to provide a com bustion chamber, the inner of said sleeves ex 6. In an oil burner, the combination with a burner base having an oil groove therein and means for conducting oil into said groove, of a 15 pair of perforated sleeves extending upwardly from said groove and spaced apart, said sleeves cooperating with said groove to provide a com bustion chamber, and means to transmit the high temperature of the upper portion of the inner of 20 said sleeves to the lower margin thereof to pro duce and facilitate a rapid vaporization of said oil including an extension of said inner sleeve downwardly into the space in said groove oc cupied by the oil during the starting of the 25 burner to a point substantially below the initial oil level in the groove, and a mounting for said sleeve with its extended portion, constructed and arranged to provide a poor heat conducting rela tionship to said base whereby to minimize dis .30 sipation of heat directly to said base. JAMES B. HARRINGTON.