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Патент USA US2120130

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June 7, 1938.
2,120,130
J. B. HARRINGTON
OIL BURNER
‘Original Filed Dec. 2, 1935
i; ATTORNEY.
Patented June 7, 1938
2,120,130
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,120,130
OIL BURNER
James B. Harrington, Dorchcster, Boston, Mass.,
assignor to The Waverly Heating Supply 00.,
Boston, Mass., a corporation of Massachusetts
Continuation of application Serial No. I700,698,
December 2, 1933. This application January
28, 1936, Serial No. 61,157
6 Claims. (Cl. 158—87)
This invention relates to oil burners of the
type designed more especially for use in domestic
ranges and similar heating apparatus. It aims to
improve oil burners of this character with a view
especially to facilitating the starting of such
burners and reducing the length of time required
to bring them up to a normal operating condi
tion.
The nature of the invention will be readily
10 understood from the following description when
read in connection with the accompanying draw
ing, and the novel features will be particularly
pointed out in the appended claims.
‘
In the drawing,
15
Figure l is a plan view of a burner base em
bodying features of this invention;
-
Fig. 2 is a vertical, sectional view substantially
on the line 2-2, Fig, 1, and illustrating, also, the
perforated sleeves which are supported on the
20 base; and
Fig. 3 is a fragmentary, sectional View on ap
proximately the line 3—3, Fig. 1.
The burner base shown in the drawing is most
conveniently made by casting, although it can
25 be manufactured in other ways, and it includes
inner and outer grooves 2 and 3, respectively, for
conducting oil and combustible vapors. Extend
ing upwardly from the inner groove are two per
forated metal sleeves 4 and 5, respectively, which
30 cooperate with the groove to provide an inner
combustion chamber, and similar sleeves 6 and 1
are associated with the outer groove 3 to provide
an outer combustion chamber. Preferably the
base, the grooves, and the sleeves are of circular
35 form, as in the common commercial construc
tions. The oil is fed initially to one of the grooves
and is conducted to the other through radial
ducts 8, Figs. 1 and 3, cored in the base and serv
ing to connect the two grooves together at inter
40 vals. Usually, also, wicks, such as those shown
at 9 and In, Fig. 3, are located in the respective
grooves 2 and 3. Air openings l2 are provided
through the base and open into» the space between
the two combustion chambers.
_
So far as the features above described are con
cerned, the construction is essentially like that of
the common commercial oil burners of this gen
eral character. In starting up such a burner it
is the usual practice to allow oil to ?ow into the
50 grooves in the burner base until it at least ?lls
them up to a point considerably above the lower
edges of the wicks, and then to light the wicks at
several places by means of a lighted taper. The
?ame soon spreads, and after the burner has
been in operation for several minutes the sleeves
become heated and transmit their heat to the
metal base, thus serving to vaporize the oil in the
grooves more rapidly. As the parts heat up, the
vaporizing action becomes more rapid until ?nal
ly a normal rate of vaporization of the oil is pro
duced, and the ?ames in the two concentric com
bustion chambers are fed almost completely, if
not entirely, by vapor so generated, very little
liquid oil being present in the burner base. When
the burner ?rst starts the ?ame is of a yellowish, 10
smoky character, but it becomes cleaner as the
burner heats up, and ?nally takes on the clear
bluish color which is characteristic of normal
operation. Usually, however, considerable time
elapses, in the neighborhood of twenty minutes, 15
between the initial lighting of the burner and the
establishing of normal operation. To reduce this
period of time constitutes the chief object of this
invention.
~
_
In the construction shown the inner groove 2
is made of triangular form in vertical section,
the inner wall of this groove consisting of an
inclined annular member M of the burner base.
Oil is conducted into the inner margin of this
groove through the hole l5, an oil supply pipe
(not shown) being threaded into the boss is
through which this hole is formed. From this in
let the oil flows around the entire inner surface of
the groove 2 and through the radial passages a
into the outer ‘groove 3. One of the perforated 30
sleeves for the inner ‘combustion chamber, in
this particular arrangement the inner sleeve 4,
instead of being mounted in the usual manner,
is extended down almost to the bottom of ' the
oil groove 2 so that its lower margin projects
into the body of.oil present in this groove during
the starting period. Qil passages are formed
under the edge of this sleeve by providing a series
of radial lugs I‘! extending from the outer wall
of the groove 2 part way across said groove, the
lower edge of the sleeve 4 resting on'the upper
surfaces of these lugs.
In starting this burner into operation the usual
practice above described may be followed, The
fact, however, that the sleeve 4 extends downwardly into the body of oil in the inner groove 2,
results in transmitting heat very rapidly to the
oil and thus produces a more vigorous vaporiz
ing action than otherwise would be possible.
After the wicks have been lighted, or the burner '
has been started in anyother way, the sleeves
are the ?rst parts to receive heat, and the inner
sleeve 4 heats up more rapidly than any of the
others. .In the arrangement shown, this inner
sleeve transmits its heat 'very rapidly, both by‘
2.
2,120,130
conduction and also by radiation, to the incom
ing oil. It is important, in order to produce the
best results, that the thermal conductivity be
tween the inner sleeve 4 and the base shall be
poor, to the end that an e?icient conduction of
heat be maintained from the upper part of the
sleeve to its lower margin. Thus the lower part
of this sleeve, resting in the oil groove, will be
kept at as high a temperature as possible, and its
effectiveness in vaporizing the oil will be corre
spondingly increased. For this purpose the area
of contact between the sleeve and the base is
reduced to a minimum. Such contact consists
simply of that between the lower edge of the
sleeve and the lugs I1 and a very small contact
of the inner surface of the sleeve with the rounded
outer margin of the inner wall l4 of the base.
The base usually is cast while the sleeve is of
sheet metal and, due to the eccentricities of
these two elements, they do not ?t tightly to
gether but practically always are in touch at
only three or four points around the edge of the
wall l 4. Also, as the sleeve heats up and expands,
the area of contact tendsto become smaller. In
any event, the entire surface contact is such that
very little heat is transmitted from the sleeve to
the upper part of the base. At its extreme lower
edge the loss of heat also is small, but it is not so
important here as it would be at points above
30 for the reason that the high temperature is uti
lized in the region where the sleeve is immersed
in the oil during the starting operation. It is in
this region that it is important to have a high
temperature maintained. Careful tests have
shown that the construction illustrated produces
these results.
Upon starting the burner, the
sleeve 4 heats up very much more rapidly than
the base and within a very few minutes the lower
margin of the sleeve which is submerged in oil
attains a temperature of several hundred degrees
higher than adjacent portions of the base. This
materially reduces the time required to bring the
burner up to its normal operating condition.
Also this temperature difference is maintained
45
continuously.
In addition to the foregoing, the sloping inner
wall M of the burner base is rapidly heated by
the radiant heat transmitted from the inner sur
faces of the cylindrical sleeve 4, and assists in
heating the oil in the inner groove.
After the burner has been in operation for a
few minutes, it is usually customary to partially
open the oil feed valve so that a continuous ?ow
of oil comes in through the inlet l5 and into the
inner margin of the groove 2 where it flows around
the entire circumference of this groove, and
thence outward radially into the outer part of
the groove 2 and through the passages 8 into the
outer groove 3. Thus the part of the groove 2
60 inside of the sleeve 4 may be considered as an oil
distributing and vaporizing groove, and that out
side of the sleeve 4 as part of the combustion
chamber, or, as the oil groove for the inner com
bustion chamber, these two groove sections being
65 separated by the lower margin of the inner
sleeve 4. As the incoming oil flows through the
oil distributing section of the inner groove, it is
vaporized by the heat of the base, and more
especially by the higher temperature of the lower
70 margin of the inner sleeve, and this vapor is dis
tributed to the grooves at the bases of the combus
tion chambers between the inner and outer pairs
of perforated sleeves. Experience has shown that
the construction provided by this invention pro
~75 duces a better operating condition and a higher
ultimate temperature when the innermost sleeve
4 is extended down into the inner oil groove, as
above described. This appears to be due to the
more rapid vaporization produced by the lower
margin of the sleeve even after the burner base
has become thoroughly heated up. The best ex
planation that I can give for this result is that
the highly heated lower margin of the sleeve,
projecting into the space where vaporization is
taking place, maintains a higher temperature in
this vaporizing zone than otherwise would be pos
sible. Also, as the vapor is generated and flows:
upwardly along the inner surface of the wall l4,
it is guided by this wall through the perfora
tions in the sleeve 4 where its temperature is in 15
creased even further.
This application is a continuation of my co~
pending application Serial No. 700,698, ?led
December 2, 1933.
While I have herein shown and described, a pre 20
ferred embodiment of my invention, it will be
understod-that the invention may-be embodied in
other forms without departing from the spirit or
scope thereof.
Having thus described my invention, what I 25
desire to claim as new is:
1. In ‘an oil burner, the combination with a
burner base having an oil groove therein, of a
pair of perforated sleeves extending upwardly
from said groove and spaced apart, said sleeves 30
cooperating with said groove to provide a com
bustion chamber, the inner of said sleeves ex
tending downwardly approximately to the bot
tom of said groove but the area of contact of
said sleeve with said base being so restricted 35
that the rate of transfer of heat from the sleeve
to the base is abnormally low and the tempera
ture of the portion of said sleeve in said groove
is maintained high, and means for conducting oil
into said groove.
1410
2. In an oil burner, the combination with a
burner base having a circular oil groove therein,
of a pair of perforated sleeves supported on said
base and extending'upwardly from said groove,
said, sleeves being spaced apart and cooperating
with said groove to provide a combustion cham
ber, the inner of said sleeves extending down
wardly into the space in said groove occupied by
the oil during the starting of the burner and
dividing said groove into an inner oil vaporizing
and distributing section and a combustion sec
tion, said sleeve and said base being constructed
and-arranged to facilitate the efficient transmis
sion of heat from the upper portion of the sleeve
into the lower margin thereof so that said lower '
margin will be maintained at a considerably
higher temperature than the base and will there
by serve to vaporize the oil in said groove dur
ing the starting of the burner, and means for
conducting oil into said inner section of said 60
groove.
'
3. In an oil burner, the combination of a
burner‘base having a circular oil groove therein
the inner wall of which is inclined upwardly and
outwardly, a pair of spaced perforated sleeves ex- ,
tending upwardly from the side walls of said
groove, said sleeves cooperating with said groove
to provide a combustion chamber, the inner of
said sleeves extending downwardly into said
groove and dividing said groove into an inner 70
fuel vaporizing and distributing chamber and an
outer combustion compartment, and means sup
porting said inner sleeve slightly above the bot
tom of- said groove whereby the lower end of said
sleeve is immersed'in liquid fuel‘during the start
2,120,130
3
ing period to conduct heat thereto to aid rapid
tending downwardly approximately to the bot
vaporization, and means for conducting oil into
said inner chamber, the outer inclined surface of
tom of said groove, to present a substantial heat
conducting area to oil therein, said inner sleeve
and said base having edge to surface contact
only, with each other, whereby the area of con~
tact therebetween is so restricted and in such
poor heat conducting relationship that the rate
of transfer of heat from the sleeve to the base is
abnormally low and the temperature of the por
tion of the sleeve in said groove below the initial 1O
oil level therein is maintained high, and means
for conducting oil into said groove.
said inner wall being exposed to the radiant heat
from the inner sleeve of the burner.
4. In an oil burner, the combination of a
burner base having two circular concentric
grooves therein, the inner wall of the inner of
said grooves being inclined upwardly and out
wardly, two pairs of perforated sleeves extending
upwardly from the respective grooves, each pair
cooperating with its respective groove to pro
vide a combustion chamber, the innermost of
said sleeves extending downwardly into the space
in the inner groove occupied by the oil during the
starting of the burner and dividing said inner
groove into inner and outer sections, means for
conducting oil into said inner section of the lat
ter groove, said base having passages connecting
20 said grooves through which the fuel can flow
freely from the inner to the outer groove, said
base and said innermost sleeve being constructed
and arranged to support the sleeve in its opera
tive position while protecting said sleeve from
any substantial heat conducting contact with
said base at points above its lower edge.
5. In an oil burner, the combination with a
burner base having an oil groove therein, of a
pair of perforated sleeves extending upwardly
from said groove and spaced apart, said sleeves
cooperating with said groove to provide a com
bustion chamber, the inner of said sleeves ex
6. In an oil burner, the combination with a
burner base having an oil groove therein and
means for conducting oil into said groove, of a 15
pair of perforated sleeves extending upwardly
from said groove and spaced apart, said sleeves
cooperating with said groove to provide a com
bustion chamber, and means to transmit the high
temperature of the upper portion of the inner of 20
said sleeves to the lower margin thereof to pro
duce and facilitate a rapid vaporization of said
oil including an extension of said inner sleeve
downwardly into the space in said groove oc
cupied by the oil during the starting of the 25
burner to a point substantially below the initial
oil level in the groove, and a mounting for said
sleeve with its extended portion, constructed and
arranged to provide a poor heat conducting rela
tionship to said base whereby to minimize dis .30
sipation of heat directly to said base.
JAMES B. HARRINGTON.
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