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Патент USA US2120194

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‘June 7, 1938.
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'
M. SMITH
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2,120,194
CONSTRUCT ION OF MACHINES
Filed Sept. 9, 19.36
3 Sheets-Sheet l
$19
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M4106
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June 7, 1938.
M. SMITH
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2,120,194 7
CONSTRUCTION OF MACHINES
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Filed Sept. 9, 1936
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s Sheets-Sheet2
10
Fig.9.‘
45b
45
.45a
17
'11,
June 7, 1938.
-
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M. sMlTH
CONSTRUCTION
OF
MACHINES
Filed Sept. 9, 1956
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2,120,194
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3 Sheets-Sheet 5
.61
37
56
Patented June 7, 1938
2,120,194 '
UNITED STATES PATENT‘ OFFICE‘
2,120,194
CONSTRUCTION OF MACHINES
Morton Smith, Long Eaton, England, assignor to
Sidney Hobson, Nottingham, England
Application September 9, 1936, Serial No. 100,029
In Great Britain September 12, 1935
5
10
15
20.
25
2 Claims. (01. 51—118)
This invention is for improvements in the con
is actually built up in the frame-work in con
struction of machines. Machines as at present tradistinction to any arrangement in which a
built have their working parts supported in the machine as a complete working entity is attached
requisite interacting relation in a solid frame or to a framework.
bed plate, which is usually of cast or wrought
In the arrangement provided by the present
metal, although sometimes this bed plate or invention, the framework is detachably built up
frame consists of two or three comparatively solid from comparatively inexpensive interchangeable
castings rigidly bolted together. This form of or similar parts, such as circular sectional metal
construction has certain disadvantages. In the bars and split clamping-brackets or lugs. The
?rst place, the arrangement is generally such framework is, therefore, light and may be erected
that the machines must be packed and transport
by unskilled labour, and moreover may be trans
ed, each as a complete unit, which leads to sub
ported in pieces for assembly at its destination,
stantial freightage and tariff charges. In the for the bars may be packed side by side in long
second place, expensive patterns are required for packing cases and the brackets packed in quan
the bed plates, which latter themselves are mas
titles in other cases. In this manner freightage
sive and expensive and necessitate intricate ma
and tariff charges are reduced and in the case
chining and ?tting operations to provide the of a breakage the broken member is readily and
necessary bearings and other points of attach
inexpensively replaceable. ~ Additionally, the
ment for the working parts. Finally in the case framework ‘may readily be extended to accom
of a series of machines arranged along a produc
'modate further ‘working parts or machines and 20"
tion line and adapted to perform successive op-. this is of importance in connection with a lay
erations upon identical articles passing in suc
out of the kind referred to hereinbefore, for all
cession along the line, each machine must of ne
the machines may be built into the same con
cessity be a complete entity, with its own frame tinuous framework which itself is built up by
or bed plate, for it would be impracticable, ow
connecting longitudinal bar-like members end to 25.v
ing to the size of the frame or bed plate required,
end and supporting them on uprights that are
to build the working parts of successive machines
into one continuous length of bed plate. Because connected‘ by transverse’ members. Thus the
each machine necessitates its own frame or bed invention may be said to embrace the provision
30 plate, the capital cost of each is correspondingly
increased and the feasibility of replacing or al
tering any one machine in the succession is di
minished.
The present invention has for its chief object
to avoid these disadvantages and is especially con
cerned with machine lay-outs of the kind where
in machines are arranged in a succession each to
perform repetition operations upon identical are
ticles that are passed in a stream along the pro
40 duction line. The invention provides a method
of constructing machines which consists in dis
pensing with the usual cast or Wrought solid
frame or bed plate and employing in substitution
therefor a lattice-like, or skeleton, frame-work,
45 built up from bar-like members and clamping
brackets-or lugs, and in utilizing the said mem
bers as supports for the working parts of the
machine, which parts are desirably mounted
thereon, individually or separately but in their
50
correct working relation, by clamping-brackets
or lugs that are clamped to the said members.
The working parts are referred to as being in
dividually or separately mounted to indicate that
they are assembled on the said frame-work one
55 by one or in small sub-units so that the machine
in a machine or machines of a lattice-like or
skeleton framework comprising bar-like frame
work members (e. g. uprights, transverse and
longitudinal members connecting them), split
clamping-brackets or lugs securing said frame
work members together, and component working
parts of the machine secured individually but in
their interacting relation to the framework mem
5.
bers desirably by split clamping brackets.
The framework may be built up wholly or in
the main of circular section bars, and advan
tageously at least one rotating part of the ma 40'
chine assembly may be journalled on one of the
circular frame members. These members, be
ing circular, may also be employed to support
parts of the machine that necessitate rotational
adjustment.
’
In order that the invention may be better un
derstood reference will now be made to the ac
companying drawings, in which
Figure 1 is a perspective view of a machine
frame according to this invention.
,
Figure 2 is a section of a pedestal employed .
therein.
.
'
Figure 3 comprises two sections through a
clamping-bracket employed in the frame.
65,
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2,120,194
Figure 4 is a section of a clip employed for
attaching a transverse beam.
'
Figure 5 is a plan of one end of, and
Figure 6 is a section through, the said trans
verse beam.
Figures '7 and 8 each comprise two sections of
further split clamping-brackets employed in the
frame.
Figure 9 is a front elevation showing the man
ner in which the said frame is incorporated in
a machine, while
Figure 10 is a section on the line l0—l0 in
Figure 9, on a somewhat enlarged scale.
Throughout this description like reference nu
15 merals indicate like parts.
In the preferred construction of built-up ma
chine frame illustrated there is a plurality of
uprights I0 arranged in two parallel lines, each
upright consisting of. a suitable length of a cir
20 cular section bar of steel or other metal, reduced
in diameter at its lower end to spigot into a disc
like foot plate I I (Fig. 2). The uprights In in
each line are connected by outer longitudinal
members I2 of a superstructure portion of the
25 framework, (which may be ‘provided at upper and
lower levels) themselves consisting of circular
section steel or like bars of the appropriate length.
These longitudinals l2 are clamped to the up
rights ID by split clamping-brackets I3 (Fig. 3).
That is to say, each bracket comprises‘ a vertical
sleeve [3a, split longitudinally and provided with
a transverse bolt hole in a suitable boss or lug to
take a horizontal clamping bolt l4 by which the
sleeve may be clamped around the upright I0
after the latter has been inserted into it. Inte
gral with this vertical sleeve,there is a horizon
tal sleeve I32)‘ to receive the longitudinals. This
sleeve may either be split longitudinally at one
side whereat it is provided with two spaced ver
401 tical clamping bolts, but more desirably it is
constructed, in two halves, a bottom half of
trough-like form integral with the vertical sleeve
and a top half which consists of two trough-like
caps. , Two longitudinal members such as [2 may
45. be laid, with their ends abutting, in the lower
half of ‘the sleeve, and the caps placed in position
(one over the end of eachlongitudinal) and se
cured by. clamping bolts I5, of which’ there are at
least two diametrically opposed bolts to each cap.
By providing removable caps, it is possible to re
move any longitudinal simply by lifting the up
per cap, without disturbing the other component
ends insuring a substantial and rigid transverse
connection between the lower ends of the oppos
ing uprights of the framework. The latter is de
sirably of I-section, machined at the edges of the
?anges and along the upper surface of the top
?ange.
On the central web there is a line of
‘through slots 24 (Fig. 6), thereby providing for
the attachment thereto in thev desired position of
certain machine components" or auxiliaries, such
as dust-extracting pipes and‘the ‘like. In the 10
upper, ?at face portion of the beam H, is formed
a longitudinal slot l9 preferably of an inverted
T-shape 1 into which bolts may be inserted
through apertures I901. (Fig. 5) at the ends of said
slot, these apertures being sufficiently enlarged 15
to receive the bolt heads and to permit the bolts
to be slid along so that their heads are received
in the cross barof the T and their stems project
upwards through the vertical part thereof. Thus
bearing blocks 20, for a line of drive shafting 2| 20
extending along in the base of the framework,
may be bolted to the transverse beams or frame
members as illustrated in Figs. 6 and 9. Other
machine components may also be‘bolted there-'
to, such for example as an electric motor.
2.5
While this construction of beam is preferred
for connecting the uprights near the base, circu
lar section bars l6 and split clampingébrackets 22
(Fig. '7) are preferred for connecting the up
rights transversely at higher levels. The brack
ets employed consist of a split sleeve 22a adapted
to be clamped round the upright It) or. a longitu
dinal l2 by a clamping bolt, and another split
sleeve 22b extending at right angles thereto and
adapted to be clamped round the‘ transverse bar
“5. This second sleeve may (as in the brackets
previously described and: illustrated in Fig. 3)
consist of an integral trough-like lower part and
a
removable
cap.
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The Various interacting componentv parts of 40
the machine, such as gearwheels and the'like,
may be connected in their appropriate working
relation to the frame members hereinbeforev de
scribed by means of split clamping-brackets. In
general, however, it will be found desirable to se-‘
cure certain of these Working parts to' two inner
(auxiliary) longitudinals 30 that extend parallel
with each other inside two outer longitudinals [2
at the top of the framework, for by utilizing ap
propriate lugs or clamping-brackets the height of
these two inner longitudinals may be varied ac
cording to the arrangement required by the work
members of the framework. It will also be ap
ing, parts and the relation that any one unit or
preciated that the framework may be built up to
any desired length by providing the requisite
number of uprights i0 and connecting them by
longitudinals I 2,'the ends of which abut within
the clamping brackets.
The rectangular side frames thus formed by
machine incorporated in the framework ‘bears to
other units incorporated therein.
It ‘has been
found convenient to mount these inner longitudi
nals 36 on the upper transverse bars 16, which
themselves extend across the frame immediately
above (or below) the upper longitudinals I2 and
are secured thereto by split clamping-brackets 22. 60.
There are also auxiliary longitudinals 3| spaced
connected together by transverse members I76 of
the superstructure. (Fig. 1). These members apart to a greater extent than the inner longi
also comprise circular section bars clamped in tudinals 3B and supportedfrom the vtransverse
position by clamping brackets. As represented members l6 by uprights32. j These members 3!
65 the uprights are connected together near the may be connected to the uprights 732 and_the
floor level by transverse beams I‘! (Fig. 1) of, latter to the transverse member 65 > by split
say, cast iron. These beams are preferably clamping-brackets 22 such as are shown in Fig
formed with flat upper surfaces to afford ?rm ure '7, or by split clamping brackets 33 smiles
supports for bearings to be secured thereto and are shown in Figure 8. It will be noticed that
70 with‘ flat face ends, and are bolted at their ends the clamping-bracket 33_ has one split socket '10
to split brackets I8 (Fig. 4) that are clamped to 330. and a second split socket 33b‘ abutting there
'the uprights, each‘ bracket comprising a vertical on,.suchlbrackets may also be used for ‘connect
60 the uprights l0 and outer longitudinals l2 are
plate lBb formed with bolt holes for the attach
ment of the beam, the contacts of the plates I8by
of the brackets with the flat faces of the beam
ing any other of the frame members at right
angles.
.
7
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It will readily be appreciated that this method 751
2,120,194
of machine frame construction, is extremely elas
tic. The frame maybe builtupto the required
dimensions from simple interchangeable parts,
and may be extended or addedyto as’ occasion
requires. Longitudinal: and transverse members
may be inserted by means of- clamping-brackets
at any location and in any attitude determined
by the required location of the working ‘parts that
are to be mounted on them by meansof other
10 clamping-brackets. The invention isgcapable of
application to many diverse types ofmachines,
but it is particularly applicable to the end-paring
machine illustrated in Figures 9 and .10.v This
machine comprises two spaced conveyordiscs 40
secured to a'shaft14l thatois journaled at the
upper end of brackets 42 clamped upon the inner
longitudinals 3!]. ‘This permits the spacing of
the discs 46 to be adjusted in accordance with
the length of the rods 44, the ends'of which are
20 to be ground. These rods are shown as being
of circular cross section and are discharged from
a hopper 45 in which they are stacked into
notches 46 in the peripheries of the discs, the
said conveyor discs rotating past the base of the
25 hopper. Actually in each kind of disc various
kinds of notches may be cut appropriate to the
section of the rods to be dealt with. For example
in each disc there may be three kinds of notches,
large
semi-circular notches,
half-hexagonal
30 notches and smaller semi-circular notches, and
attached to each disc there may be an adjust
able selector plate having notches in its periphery
spaced apart by an amount equal to the spacing
between notches of one kind in the disc. Hence
this selector plate may be so positioned on the
3
.thespacinggofatheTdiscs. 403 irlllach of theseire
,taining bands runs;approximatelylhal?eway round
the conveyor periphery and over certainpulleys.
These pulleys includea‘pair ofjojckey pulleysi't?
thatgare rotatably-journaled. on one of the inner;
longitudinals 36 (that inner-longitudinalwhichis
immediately below the shaft“);v further-jockey
pulleys 66 which are rotatableupon anaecce'ntric
61 adjustably clamped on one .of the‘imainilon
gitudinals 12 so that the belt tensionlmay be 119
adjusted by rotating theeccentric, another pair
ofv pulleys68 rotatable on one of the auxiliary
longitudinals 3|,» and furtherhswivelling jockey
pulleys 6.9.‘ The latter are carriedat theend of
a forked-arm- lo. pivotally adjustable. about said
longitudinal 3i, and in order to adjust it there
is another arm ‘H clamped to the said longitu
dinal and provided with an adjustment screw
12 engaging the underside of the arm 70. »
Also adjustably clamped to the longitudinal 3| 20
there is a split depending arm 13 which at its
.lower end rotatably supports a shaft 14. This
shaft carries an emery disc 15 so located that
the left-hand ends (Figure 9) of the rods gripped
between the conveyor and the retaining band 64 25
are carried across its periphery and are ground
?ush. This grinding operation exerts an end--,
thrust on the rods (tendingto move them axially) -
and the said thrust is resisted by a curved plate
76 that is adjustable by means of a screw 11 30
carried in an arm 18 depending from and clamped _
to the aforesaid auxiliary longitudinal 3| by a
bracket such as 33 (Fig. 8). Additionally the
forked depending arm or bracket 73 is adjust
able along the said longitudinal 3l, after its 35
clamping bolts have been slacked off, by means
disc that for example it covers the half~hexagonal
and small semi-circular notches and only exposes of a screw '19 carried in an arm 8!} also clamped
the large semi-circular notches when round rods to the longitudinal. It is to avoid the arm or
of comparatively large diameter are to be dealt bracket 13 that the hopper bar 41 cranked, and
40 with.
one end of said bar may be integral with the 40
The hopper d5 comprises parallel end plates arm ‘8.,
>
45a, 45b the said end plates having inwardly
The sand-papering or emery disc is enclosed
directed ?anges along their side edges. These Within a cowling 8| having an outlet 82, and the
end-plates are adjustable towards and away from outer face of the disc may be provided with
45 each other in accordance with the length of the - vanes 83 for directing the dust outwords. The
rods to be stacked therein, and for this purpose shaft 14 of the sand-papering disc is driven by
the end-plate 45a is attached to a hopper bar a belt 84 from an electric motor 85 slung by
4500 which spans, and is adjustably clamped to, means of a split clamping-bracket 86 from one
the auxiliary longitudinals 3i and the plate 451) of the longitudinals l2, and the belt tension may
50 is secured to a similar hopper bar 41 which is
be adjusted by rotating said bracket 86 on the
cranked for the purpose hereinafter mentioned.
longitudinal.
The hopper contracts towards its base to a’ nar
The ends of the rods are therefore ground
row neck and in this neck there is an upwardly
flush, and when they reach the bottom of the
extending plate 48 which is adjustable to adapt conveyor (whereat the bands 64 leave the con
55 the width of the neck to the diameter or thick
veyor periphery) they are released and fall onto 55
ness of the rods dealtwith. At the upper part
of the said neck there is an agitator 48 mounted
upon a shaft 5!! that is driven by a cross belt
5| from a pulley 52 on a shaft 53.
60
This shaft 53 is carried on an upstanding
a. chute 86a which conducts them to a tray 81. '
If the other end is to be ground the rods are re
movedfrom this tray and returned to the hopper
45 after having been reversed end for end.
Various machine units such as hereinbefore de 60
bracket 43 adjustably clamped to the inner lon
scribed may be built into a long lattice-like
gitudinals 30 and drives the conveyor through ‘ framework along which longitudinal-members ex
gears 54, 54a. It is itself driven from the main tend end to end, the abutting ends being received
shaft 2| by a belt or the like 55, and pulleys 56, in brackets such as l3. Such a framework may
65 51 upon a counter-shaft 58. This counter-shaft
be provided with a‘single drive shaft such as 2|
is supported in a bracket 59 that depends from extending along its length and driven by a motor 65
and is clamped to the inner longitudinals 33. at one end.
From the pulley 51 a further belt 60 extends
It is of course unnecessary that the frame
upwards to a large pulley 6! on the shaft 53. work be in one continuous length, as same may
70 The said pulley adapted to be connected to the
be interrupted at intervals to suit'existing require
shaft by a clutch 52 operated by a handle 63. ments or conditions. Also there may be spaces 70
The conveyor rotates in anti-clockwise direc
at intervals between certain of the machine units
tion as viewed in Figure 10 and carries the rods
for enabling ‘manual operations to be carried‘ out
loaded into it beneath two retaining bands 64 and/or work stored or collected, and in said
75 which are spaced about by an amount equal to spaces work-tables‘ or benches may be ?xed
4
2,120,194
and/or racks or other receptacles for the work
or for articles or material employed in connection
therewith.
.
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By virtue of the fact that in the framework be
fore-described components of identical construc
tion or shape are employed at various and vari
able positions, it will be appreciated that pattern
making is minimized and the cost consequently
considerably reduced;
10
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I claim:—
1. In a knock down vskeleton machine frame
work such as described herein, having vertical
cated in the lower part of the framework, con
sisting of adjustable clamping brackets to be
secured to theruprights in desired positions, and
formediwith flat vertical plates and beam mem
bers with ?atrends arranged to be bolted to the
said ?at plates of opposite clamping brackets, the
saidbeam members being longitudinally slotted
for receiving connecting bolts adjustable in said
slots and serving to support bearings for a line
of shafting.
'
10
cylindrical uprights longitudinally spaced apart
2. A knock down skeleton machine framework
such as described in claim 1 further character
ized by the beam members being formed. with lines
along opposite sides of the framework, the here
of through slots.
15 indescribed supports for a line of shafting 10
MORTON SMITH.
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