Патент USA US2120194код для вставки
‘June 7, 1938. ' ' M. SMITH ' 2,120,194 CONSTRUCT ION OF MACHINES Filed Sept. 9, 19.36 3 Sheets-Sheet l $19 '17 #wewrae M4106 5%”04/ FM?" June 7, 1938. M. SMITH ' _ 2,120,194 7 CONSTRUCTION OF MACHINES ' Filed Sept. 9, 1936 " s Sheets-Sheet2 10 Fig.9.‘ 45b 45 .45a 17 '11, June 7, 1938. - ' M. sMlTH CONSTRUCTION OF MACHINES Filed Sept. 9, 1956 _ 2,120,194 ’ ' 3 Sheets-Sheet 5 .61 37 56 Patented June 7, 1938 2,120,194 ' UNITED STATES PATENT‘ OFFICE‘ 2,120,194 CONSTRUCTION OF MACHINES Morton Smith, Long Eaton, England, assignor to Sidney Hobson, Nottingham, England Application September 9, 1936, Serial No. 100,029 In Great Britain September 12, 1935 5 10 15 20. 25 2 Claims. (01. 51—118) This invention is for improvements in the con is actually built up in the frame-work in con struction of machines. Machines as at present tradistinction to any arrangement in which a built have their working parts supported in the machine as a complete working entity is attached requisite interacting relation in a solid frame or to a framework. bed plate, which is usually of cast or wrought In the arrangement provided by the present metal, although sometimes this bed plate or invention, the framework is detachably built up frame consists of two or three comparatively solid from comparatively inexpensive interchangeable castings rigidly bolted together. This form of or similar parts, such as circular sectional metal construction has certain disadvantages. In the bars and split clamping-brackets or lugs. The ?rst place, the arrangement is generally such framework is, therefore, light and may be erected that the machines must be packed and transport by unskilled labour, and moreover may be trans ed, each as a complete unit, which leads to sub ported in pieces for assembly at its destination, stantial freightage and tariff charges. In the for the bars may be packed side by side in long second place, expensive patterns are required for packing cases and the brackets packed in quan the bed plates, which latter themselves are mas titles in other cases. In this manner freightage sive and expensive and necessitate intricate ma and tariff charges are reduced and in the case chining and ?tting operations to provide the of a breakage the broken member is readily and necessary bearings and other points of attach inexpensively replaceable. ~ Additionally, the ment for the working parts. Finally in the case framework ‘may readily be extended to accom of a series of machines arranged along a produc 'modate further ‘working parts or machines and 20" tion line and adapted to perform successive op-. this is of importance in connection with a lay erations upon identical articles passing in suc out of the kind referred to hereinbefore, for all cession along the line, each machine must of ne the machines may be built into the same con cessity be a complete entity, with its own frame tinuous framework which itself is built up by or bed plate, for it would be impracticable, ow connecting longitudinal bar-like members end to 25.v ing to the size of the frame or bed plate required, end and supporting them on uprights that are to build the working parts of successive machines into one continuous length of bed plate. Because connected‘ by transverse’ members. Thus the each machine necessitates its own frame or bed invention may be said to embrace the provision 30 plate, the capital cost of each is correspondingly increased and the feasibility of replacing or al tering any one machine in the succession is di minished. The present invention has for its chief object to avoid these disadvantages and is especially con cerned with machine lay-outs of the kind where in machines are arranged in a succession each to perform repetition operations upon identical are ticles that are passed in a stream along the pro 40 duction line. The invention provides a method of constructing machines which consists in dis pensing with the usual cast or Wrought solid frame or bed plate and employing in substitution therefor a lattice-like, or skeleton, frame-work, 45 built up from bar-like members and clamping brackets-or lugs, and in utilizing the said mem bers as supports for the working parts of the machine, which parts are desirably mounted thereon, individually or separately but in their 50 correct working relation, by clamping-brackets or lugs that are clamped to the said members. The working parts are referred to as being in dividually or separately mounted to indicate that they are assembled on the said frame-work one 55 by one or in small sub-units so that the machine in a machine or machines of a lattice-like or skeleton framework comprising bar-like frame work members (e. g. uprights, transverse and longitudinal members connecting them), split clamping-brackets or lugs securing said frame work members together, and component working parts of the machine secured individually but in their interacting relation to the framework mem 5. bers desirably by split clamping brackets. The framework may be built up wholly or in the main of circular section bars, and advan tageously at least one rotating part of the ma 40' chine assembly may be journalled on one of the circular frame members. These members, be ing circular, may also be employed to support parts of the machine that necessitate rotational adjustment. ’ In order that the invention may be better un derstood reference will now be made to the ac companying drawings, in which Figure 1 is a perspective view of a machine frame according to this invention. , Figure 2 is a section of a pedestal employed . therein. . ' Figure 3 comprises two sections through a clamping-bracket employed in the frame. 65, 2 2,120,194 Figure 4 is a section of a clip employed for attaching a transverse beam. ' Figure 5 is a plan of one end of, and Figure 6 is a section through, the said trans verse beam. Figures '7 and 8 each comprise two sections of further split clamping-brackets employed in the frame. Figure 9 is a front elevation showing the man ner in which the said frame is incorporated in a machine, while Figure 10 is a section on the line l0—l0 in Figure 9, on a somewhat enlarged scale. Throughout this description like reference nu 15 merals indicate like parts. In the preferred construction of built-up ma chine frame illustrated there is a plurality of uprights I0 arranged in two parallel lines, each upright consisting of. a suitable length of a cir 20 cular section bar of steel or other metal, reduced in diameter at its lower end to spigot into a disc like foot plate I I (Fig. 2). The uprights In in each line are connected by outer longitudinal members I2 of a superstructure portion of the 25 framework, (which may be ‘provided at upper and lower levels) themselves consisting of circular section steel or like bars of the appropriate length. These longitudinals l2 are clamped to the up rights ID by split clamping-brackets I3 (Fig. 3). That is to say, each bracket comprises‘ a vertical sleeve [3a, split longitudinally and provided with a transverse bolt hole in a suitable boss or lug to take a horizontal clamping bolt l4 by which the sleeve may be clamped around the upright I0 after the latter has been inserted into it. Inte gral with this vertical sleeve,there is a horizon tal sleeve I32)‘ to receive the longitudinals. This sleeve may either be split longitudinally at one side whereat it is provided with two spaced ver 401 tical clamping bolts, but more desirably it is constructed, in two halves, a bottom half of trough-like form integral with the vertical sleeve and a top half which consists of two trough-like caps. , Two longitudinal members such as [2 may 45. be laid, with their ends abutting, in the lower half of ‘the sleeve, and the caps placed in position (one over the end of eachlongitudinal) and se cured by. clamping bolts I5, of which’ there are at least two diametrically opposed bolts to each cap. By providing removable caps, it is possible to re move any longitudinal simply by lifting the up per cap, without disturbing the other component ends insuring a substantial and rigid transverse connection between the lower ends of the oppos ing uprights of the framework. The latter is de sirably of I-section, machined at the edges of the ?anges and along the upper surface of the top ?ange. On the central web there is a line of ‘through slots 24 (Fig. 6), thereby providing for the attachment thereto in thev desired position of certain machine components" or auxiliaries, such as dust-extracting pipes and‘the ‘like. In the 10 upper, ?at face portion of the beam H, is formed a longitudinal slot l9 preferably of an inverted T-shape 1 into which bolts may be inserted through apertures I901. (Fig. 5) at the ends of said slot, these apertures being sufficiently enlarged 15 to receive the bolt heads and to permit the bolts to be slid along so that their heads are received in the cross barof the T and their stems project upwards through the vertical part thereof. Thus bearing blocks 20, for a line of drive shafting 2| 20 extending along in the base of the framework, may be bolted to the transverse beams or frame members as illustrated in Figs. 6 and 9. Other machine components may also be‘bolted there-' to, such for example as an electric motor. 2.5 While this construction of beam is preferred for connecting the uprights near the base, circu lar section bars l6 and split clampingébrackets 22 (Fig. '7) are preferred for connecting the up rights transversely at higher levels. The brack ets employed consist of a split sleeve 22a adapted to be clamped round the upright It) or. a longitu dinal l2 by a clamping bolt, and another split sleeve 22b extending at right angles thereto and adapted to be clamped round the‘ transverse bar “5. This second sleeve may (as in the brackets previously described and: illustrated in Fig. 3) consist of an integral trough-like lower part and a removable cap. ' 7 r 7 r The Various interacting componentv parts of 40 the machine, such as gearwheels and the'like, may be connected in their appropriate working relation to the frame members hereinbeforev de scribed by means of split clamping-brackets. In general, however, it will be found desirable to se-‘ cure certain of these Working parts to' two inner (auxiliary) longitudinals 30 that extend parallel with each other inside two outer longitudinals [2 at the top of the framework, for by utilizing ap propriate lugs or clamping-brackets the height of these two inner longitudinals may be varied ac cording to the arrangement required by the work members of the framework. It will also be ap ing, parts and the relation that any one unit or preciated that the framework may be built up to any desired length by providing the requisite number of uprights i0 and connecting them by longitudinals I 2,'the ends of which abut within the clamping brackets. The rectangular side frames thus formed by machine incorporated in the framework ‘bears to other units incorporated therein. It ‘has been found convenient to mount these inner longitudi nals 36 on the upper transverse bars 16, which themselves extend across the frame immediately above (or below) the upper longitudinals I2 and are secured thereto by split clamping-brackets 22. 60. There are also auxiliary longitudinals 3| spaced connected together by transverse members I76 of the superstructure. (Fig. 1). These members apart to a greater extent than the inner longi also comprise circular section bars clamped in tudinals 3B and supportedfrom the vtransverse position by clamping brackets. As represented members l6 by uprights32. j These members 3! 65 the uprights are connected together near the may be connected to the uprights 732 and_the floor level by transverse beams I‘! (Fig. 1) of, latter to the transverse member 65 > by split say, cast iron. These beams are preferably clamping-brackets 22 such as are shown in Fig formed with flat upper surfaces to afford ?rm ure '7, or by split clamping brackets 33 smiles supports for bearings to be secured thereto and are shown in Figure 8. It will be noticed that 70 with‘ flat face ends, and are bolted at their ends the clamping-bracket 33_ has one split socket '10 to split brackets I8 (Fig. 4) that are clamped to 330. and a second split socket 33b‘ abutting there 'the uprights, each‘ bracket comprising a vertical on,.suchlbrackets may also be used for ‘connect 60 the uprights l0 and outer longitudinals l2 are plate lBb formed with bolt holes for the attach ment of the beam, the contacts of the plates I8by of the brackets with the flat faces of the beam ing any other of the frame members at right angles. . 7 , ,, It will readily be appreciated that this method 751 2,120,194 of machine frame construction, is extremely elas tic. The frame maybe builtupto the required dimensions from simple interchangeable parts, and may be extended or addedyto as’ occasion requires. Longitudinal: and transverse members may be inserted by means of- clamping-brackets at any location and in any attitude determined by the required location of the working ‘parts that are to be mounted on them by meansof other 10 clamping-brackets. The invention isgcapable of application to many diverse types ofmachines, but it is particularly applicable to the end-paring machine illustrated in Figures 9 and .10.v This machine comprises two spaced conveyordiscs 40 secured to a'shaft14l thatois journaled at the upper end of brackets 42 clamped upon the inner longitudinals 3!]. ‘This permits the spacing of the discs 46 to be adjusted in accordance with the length of the rods 44, the ends'of which are 20 to be ground. These rods are shown as being of circular cross section and are discharged from a hopper 45 in which they are stacked into notches 46 in the peripheries of the discs, the said conveyor discs rotating past the base of the 25 hopper. Actually in each kind of disc various kinds of notches may be cut appropriate to the section of the rods to be dealt with. For example in each disc there may be three kinds of notches, large semi-circular notches, half-hexagonal 30 notches and smaller semi-circular notches, and attached to each disc there may be an adjust able selector plate having notches in its periphery spaced apart by an amount equal to the spacing between notches of one kind in the disc. Hence this selector plate may be so positioned on the 3 .thespacinggofatheTdiscs. 403 irlllach of theseire ,taining bands runs;approximatelylhal?eway round the conveyor periphery and over certainpulleys. These pulleys includea‘pair ofjojckey pulleysi't? thatgare rotatably-journaled. on one of the inner; longitudinals 36 (that inner-longitudinalwhichis immediately below the shaft“);v further-jockey pulleys 66 which are rotatableupon anaecce'ntric 61 adjustably clamped on one .of the‘imainilon gitudinals 12 so that the belt tensionlmay be 119 adjusted by rotating theeccentric, another pair ofv pulleys68 rotatable on one of the auxiliary longitudinals 3|,» and furtherhswivelling jockey pulleys 6.9.‘ The latter are carriedat theend of a forked-arm- lo. pivotally adjustable. about said longitudinal 3i, and in order to adjust it there is another arm ‘H clamped to the said longitu dinal and provided with an adjustment screw 12 engaging the underside of the arm 70. » Also adjustably clamped to the longitudinal 3| 20 there is a split depending arm 13 which at its .lower end rotatably supports a shaft 14. This shaft carries an emery disc 15 so located that the left-hand ends (Figure 9) of the rods gripped between the conveyor and the retaining band 64 25 are carried across its periphery and are ground ?ush. This grinding operation exerts an end--, thrust on the rods (tendingto move them axially) - and the said thrust is resisted by a curved plate 76 that is adjustable by means of a screw 11 30 carried in an arm 18 depending from and clamped _ to the aforesaid auxiliary longitudinal 3| by a bracket such as 33 (Fig. 8). Additionally the forked depending arm or bracket 73 is adjust able along the said longitudinal 3l, after its 35 clamping bolts have been slacked off, by means disc that for example it covers the half~hexagonal and small semi-circular notches and only exposes of a screw '19 carried in an arm 8!} also clamped the large semi-circular notches when round rods to the longitudinal. It is to avoid the arm or of comparatively large diameter are to be dealt bracket 13 that the hopper bar 41 cranked, and 40 with. one end of said bar may be integral with the 40 The hopper d5 comprises parallel end plates arm ‘8., > 45a, 45b the said end plates having inwardly The sand-papering or emery disc is enclosed directed ?anges along their side edges. These Within a cowling 8| having an outlet 82, and the end-plates are adjustable towards and away from outer face of the disc may be provided with 45 each other in accordance with the length of the - vanes 83 for directing the dust outwords. The rods to be stacked therein, and for this purpose shaft 14 of the sand-papering disc is driven by the end-plate 45a is attached to a hopper bar a belt 84 from an electric motor 85 slung by 4500 which spans, and is adjustably clamped to, means of a split clamping-bracket 86 from one the auxiliary longitudinals 3i and the plate 451) of the longitudinals l2, and the belt tension may 50 is secured to a similar hopper bar 41 which is be adjusted by rotating said bracket 86 on the cranked for the purpose hereinafter mentioned. longitudinal. The hopper contracts towards its base to a’ nar The ends of the rods are therefore ground row neck and in this neck there is an upwardly flush, and when they reach the bottom of the extending plate 48 which is adjustable to adapt conveyor (whereat the bands 64 leave the con 55 the width of the neck to the diameter or thick veyor periphery) they are released and fall onto 55 ness of the rods dealtwith. At the upper part of the said neck there is an agitator 48 mounted upon a shaft 5!! that is driven by a cross belt 5| from a pulley 52 on a shaft 53. 60 This shaft 53 is carried on an upstanding a. chute 86a which conducts them to a tray 81. ' If the other end is to be ground the rods are re movedfrom this tray and returned to the hopper 45 after having been reversed end for end. Various machine units such as hereinbefore de 60 bracket 43 adjustably clamped to the inner lon scribed may be built into a long lattice-like gitudinals 30 and drives the conveyor through ‘ framework along which longitudinal-members ex gears 54, 54a. It is itself driven from the main tend end to end, the abutting ends being received shaft 2| by a belt or the like 55, and pulleys 56, in brackets such as l3. Such a framework may 65 51 upon a counter-shaft 58. This counter-shaft be provided with a‘single drive shaft such as 2| is supported in a bracket 59 that depends from extending along its length and driven by a motor 65 and is clamped to the inner longitudinals 33. at one end. From the pulley 51 a further belt 60 extends It is of course unnecessary that the frame upwards to a large pulley 6! on the shaft 53. work be in one continuous length, as same may 70 The said pulley adapted to be connected to the be interrupted at intervals to suit'existing require shaft by a clutch 52 operated by a handle 63. ments or conditions. Also there may be spaces 70 The conveyor rotates in anti-clockwise direc at intervals between certain of the machine units tion as viewed in Figure 10 and carries the rods for enabling ‘manual operations to be carried‘ out loaded into it beneath two retaining bands 64 and/or work stored or collected, and in said 75 which are spaced about by an amount equal to spaces work-tables‘ or benches may be ?xed 4 2,120,194 and/or racks or other receptacles for the work or for articles or material employed in connection therewith. . ‘ By virtue of the fact that in the framework be fore-described components of identical construc tion or shape are employed at various and vari able positions, it will be appreciated that pattern making is minimized and the cost consequently considerably reduced; 10 _ I claim:— 1. In a knock down vskeleton machine frame work such as described herein, having vertical cated in the lower part of the framework, con sisting of adjustable clamping brackets to be secured to theruprights in desired positions, and formediwith flat vertical plates and beam mem bers with ?atrends arranged to be bolted to the said ?at plates of opposite clamping brackets, the saidbeam members being longitudinally slotted for receiving connecting bolts adjustable in said slots and serving to support bearings for a line of shafting. ' 10 cylindrical uprights longitudinally spaced apart 2. A knock down skeleton machine framework such as described in claim 1 further character ized by the beam members being formed. with lines along opposite sides of the framework, the here of through slots. 15 indescribed supports for a line of shafting 10 MORTON SMITH.