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' June 14, 1938. ‘ 2,120,428 H. R. LEE RAIL JOINT AND METHOD OF MAKING THE SAME Filed Feb. 28, 1934 (l8 29/ 3// Z0 /) 27 33 28 FFZ 7 /23\ 35) <5‘) 3237) r35 r”? (26 [lg/24 ' \\ 28/ INVENTOR . HARRY R, L_££ BY I ATTORNEY Patented June 14, 1938 2,120,428 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,120,428 RAIL JOINT AND METHOD OF . _ s H THE _ . Harry R. Lee, White Plains, N. Y., assignor, by mesne assignments, to Union Carbide and Car bon Corporation, a corporation of New York Application February 28, 1934, Serial No. 713,278 18 Claims. This invention relates to the art of recondition ing rail joints, and more especially it concerns a method of reforming Worn joint bars or plates to accurately ?t the abutting ends of battered or 5 worn rails. The usual rail joint comprises a pair of joint bars arranged at the ends of two abutting aligned rails, the bars being disposed on opposite sides of the rails and bolted together through openings in the webs of the rails and the bars. When new, the upper’ fishing or bearing surfaces of the bars contact with the bottom surfaces of the rail heads, and the lower ?shing surfaces of the bars con tact with the top surfaces of the rail ?anges, so v) that the bars ?t accurately between the heads and ?anges of the rails. After a joint has been in use for some time, there develops progressive wear of the bars at their ?shing surfaces, due to the constant pound 2 O ing or battering of the rail ends at the joint by the wheels of tra?ic moving upon the rails. The joints gradually become loose and the ?shing 2 surfaces of the bars become depressed at their mid-portions adjacent the worn ends of the rails. Since the amount and shape of wear at the bearing surfaces of the bars and rails is not the same at all joints, it has long been known that the usual methods for rail joint repair, requiring removal of the bars from the joints and a sub sequent crowning operation for building up the depressed portions of the bars, in addition to being relatively slow and costly, failed to pro vide at the respective rail joints the accurate fits required for effectively prolonging the active 35 life of the joint members. Among the important recent advances in the art of conditioning and repairing rail joints was (o1. 2ss_243) degree of impact is not uniform for successive blows. Furthermore, variations in the width of the slots produced in the bars or of the size or degree of‘ bevel on the wedge members some times requires ?tting of some of the wedge mem bers to the slotted joint bars before driving the wedges into place. The present invention is based upon the dis covery that the important results attained in the above type of operation can be fully attained in 10 a simple, easy manner, While eliminating in large measure the need for the said ?tting of specially sized parts. Moreover, standard interchangeable parts may in all cases be used as the rail bar spreading agency. 15 Among the more important objects of the in vention are the following: to provide in'novel manner for the reforming of joint bars while positioned at a rail joint; to provide in novel manner for reforming worn rail joint bars having 20 therein one or more longitudinal slots and having at least one enlarged transverse aperture extend ing ,therethrough in a mid-portion of each of the said slots; to provide in novel manner for reform ing a rail joint bar to produce a'crowned effect 25 which compensates for its own wear and also the uneven’wear in the rail bearing surfaces con tacting therewith; and to provide a novel re formed rail joint bar having a crowned portion individually shaped under steady pressure to con so form to the shape of the particular rail bearing surfaces contacting therewith. Further objects and advantages of my inven tion will become apparent from the following description. The various features of novelty which characterize my invention are pointed out the discovery that by reforming the joint bars with particularity in the accompanying claims. Referring to the drawing: while positioned at the rail joint the depressed Fig. 1 is a side elevation of a worn rail joint having joint bars of angle bar form; 40 areas of the bearing surfaces of the joint bars 40 can be raised just enough to compensate for their , V Fig. 2 is a longitudinal section taken through own wear and the wear of the bearing surfaces of the rails adjacent thereto. This is accom plished by forming one or more slots in each joint bar and then by suitable wedging means spread ing the walls of said slot or slots vertically to press either or both of the upper and lower bear ing surfaces of the bar into tight and conforming contact with the rail heads and ?anges. The above-mentioned method of rail joint 50 conditioning depends upon driving the wedges by a series of sudden sharp blows applied at approxi a worn rail joint bar embodying one form of my invention; Fig. 3 is a perspective View of a Worn joint bar illustrating a feature of the invention; 45 Fig. 4 is a transverse sectional view through a rail joint illustrating one embodiment of my in vention; Fig. .5 is a transverse sectional view through a rail joint showing another embodiment of the 50 invention; Fig. 6 is a perspective view of one form of mately right angles to the rail length. Since this usually is done manually with a trackman’s ham expansion member; mer, the force applied is widely variable, as the expansion member and associated parts; Fig. 7 is a perspective view of another form of 55 2 2,120,425 Figs. 8 and 9, respectively, are fragmentary views of rail joint bars illustrating still other modi?cations of the invention; and Fig. 10 is a fragmentary front view of an ellip tical expansion member and associated parts. Referring to the drawing, there is shown a typical rail joint comprising a pair of joint bars I5, 16, having upper and lower ?shing surfaces 24, 25. These bars may be of any well-known 10 type, such as angle bars, disposed against the webs I1, 18, of two abutting rails I9, 20, and ar ranged on opposite sides of the rails. The bars are secured tightly together by bolts 2| passing through aligned apertures in the webs l1, l8, and 15 apertures 22 in the bars l5, I6, the bolts having threaded ends to receive nuts 23. When the rail joint is new, the upper and lower ?shing surfaces 24, 25, of the bars 15, I6, ?t the rails perfectly throughout the entire length of the 20 bars. However, after the bars become slightly worn near the rail ends, the continual passage of tra?ic over the rails causes gradually increasing wear on the rail bearing surfaces 32, 33, that make occasional contact with the worn portions 25 30, 3|, of the bar. As progressive wear forms depressed areas, the bars no longer ?ll the spaces between the bearing surfaces of the rail heads and ?anges. The depressed worn areas of different joint 30 bars may Vary in length and depth according to the amount of traffic that passes over different portions of track; and the said, areas will vary in shape according as the traf?c is one-way, two way with approximately the same amount in both 35 directions, or two-way with the traffic in one direction exceeding the tra?ic in the opposite direction. In accordance with one form of the present invention the joint bars I5, I6, may be reformed 40 while positioned at the rail joint against the rails 19, 20. When this is done the rail heads 26, 21, and rail flanges 23, 29, serve as cooperating die elements to reshape the bearing surfaces of the joint bars. 45 In the practice of the invention, one or more relatively narrow longitudinal slots 35 are out or otherwise formed in the mid-portions of the bars l5, l6 adjacent the depressed worn portions 30, 3|. Each slot is located su?iciently close to 50 the bearing surface to be reshaped that the ap plication of an expanding force within the slot will cause the metal of the bar to spring or flow and thus to ?ll the depressed areas formed by wear on the bearing surfaces of the bars and the 55 rails, to provide a satisfactory reformed rail joint. In the form of the invention illustrated in Figs. 2 to 5, a single long narrow slot 35 is shown as joining the two track-bolt apertures 22 nearest the joint between abutting rails. However, the forming the apertures 31 may be tapered, as shown in Fig. 4. A pair of cooperating, channel-shaped, inter nally-threaded expansion members or segments 39 of hardened metal or alloy, each having a lon gitudinally-tapered outer surface 4|, are adapted to be removably mounted within the aperture 31 with a portion projecting outwardly therefrom. The outer surfaces of the respective segments 39 adjacent the margins of the slot 35 preferably are 10 ?attened in parallel planes normal to a horizontal plane through the said slot to provide lips 42, 42. The pair of members 39, 39 are inserted into the circular apertures 3'! with these flattened por tions vertically disposed. Then when the mem 15 bers 39, 39 are urged apart under the action of a bolt 43, all or the major portion of the pressure is transmitted vertically upward and downward to ward the worn ?shing surfaces of the joint bar. Moreover, it will be seen that the area of that 20 portion of the bar at the aperture 3'! that is acted upon by the downwardly-directed forces, applied through the segments 39, is approximately the same as the area of the portion of the bar at the aperture which is acted upon by upwardly-di 25 rected forces. The curved portion of the outer surface of each of the pair of separate cooperating channel shaped expansion members 39 preferably sub tends an angle of about 90° (see Fig. 6). The 30 members are adapted to be placed in juxtaposi tion with their lips closely adjacent or in contact. The inner surfaces of the members 39, 39, are threaded to accommodate a heavy or armored threaded bolt or a tapered cap screw 43 of hard 35 ened metal, preferably of around 1% inches to 1% inches or more in diameter. The construc tion of these parts is such that the threadwise movement of the bolt into the members 39 forces the segments apart and presses them against the inner wall of the aperture 31. These segments are placed with the curved por tions of their outer surfacesrespectively below and above the bolt. When the progressively in creasing pressure developed as the bolt advances 45 in the members 39 has reached a suitable mag nitude, slight movement of the metal of the joint bars occurs in the direction of the upper and lower bearing surfaces of the bars to effect the desired spreading action. . 50 This spreading action at the selected areas of a joint bar may be facilitated, and the ?t of the bar to the bearing surfaces of the rail may be im proved, by heating those portions of the joint bar in which plastic flow of the metal in response 55 to the pressure is desired. Such heating may be performed either before or during the tightening of the screw or bolt 43. This can be accom plished, for instance, through raising selected areas of the joint bar to a dull red near the 60 60 slot may be shorter, so as to terminate at one or both ends in solid metal of the rail web, provided _ bearing surfaces to be corrected; and for this the always that the slot has such length and position that the expanding force within it will cause a springing or flowing movement of the surround 65 ing metal of the bar su?icient to ?ll the worn de pressed areas in the ?shing surfaces. For applying force to spread the joint bars vertically for ?lling the spaces between the bars and rails due to wear, a large transverse aperture 70 31, preferably circular in cross section and at least 11/; inches in diameter, is drilled‘or other wise formed in each of the joint bars l5, H5, at about midlength of the slot 35. It is advanta geous to position this aperture approximately 75 midway of the height ‘of the slot 35. The walls oxy-acetylene flame is preferred. Where heating is to be utilized, the expansion members and the cooperating bolt or other spreading member preferably are made of air hardening steel or other air-hardening alloy, such as the alloy steel containing chromium, manganese and silicon, commercially known as Cromansil. Thus the subsequent air cooling will restore much of the original strength and hard ness of the metal. ' Although for purposes of illustration I have shown the slot or slots 35 to be long, narrow, and of uniform width, such construction is not essen tial to the practice of the invention. However, 3 2,120,428 the longer this slot, the more readily can the metal between the slot and the rail bearing sur face be forced into place for reforming the joint. The slot or slots 35 and the transverse aperture or apertures 31 may, if desired, be formed with out removing the bars l5, I6, from the rails, by means of a cutting torch or other well-known means. After the slots 35 and apertures 3'! have been 10 formed in each bar [5, [6, the expansion mem bers 39 are placed in the apertures of the respec tive bars and these segments are forced apart by screwing the bolt 43 into the same to force either or both the upper and‘lower surfaces of each 15 bar into contact with the adjacent surfaces of the rail head and/or ?ange. After restoring the joint, the bolt 43 may be locked in position in the members 39, 39 in suit able manner, if desired, as for example, by pins 20 extending through the shaft of the bolt and en gaging the walls of the members 39 or of the bar. The pitch and shape of thread and the diam eter of the bolt most effective for practicing the 25 invention will naturally depend on such factors as the cross-sections of metal to be deformed, the thickness of the bar at the apertures receiving the expansion members, and the number, design, and locations of the expansion members. 30 Fig. 5 illustrates another modi?cation of the invention in accordance with which a transverse aperture 45 is drilled or otherwise formed in the rail web or webs in or near the junction of the rails. This aperture is aligned with the aper 35 tures 3'! in the webs of the joint bars l5, it. A large bolt 47 provided with cooperating nut 49 of large threaded bearing surface is adapted to extend through the apertures 3'1, 31, and 45 in the bars and rail web respectively, with its ends 40 projecting therefrom. Collars or tubular bearing members 5|, each having a tapered outer surface 53 of frusto-con ical shape and having an inner passage adapted freely to accommodate the bolt 41, are positioned 45 within the apertures 37, 3'! in the joint bars. The bolt 4'! extends through these collars in the man ner illustrated in Fig. 5. By turning the nut on the bolt 41 the two collars can be forced toward each other to the extent necessary to spread the upper and lower ?shing areas of each bar to prop“ 50 erly contact them with the adjacent portions of the rail head and rail ?ange respectively. Stud bolts or other equivalent means for the purpose tively near and at points equidistant from the rail ends and on opposite sides of the abutting joint. The expansion members previously described are positioned within these apertures; and each may then be adjusted to re?t the joint bar to the rail bearing surfaces with the application of a mini mum of force to those portions of the rail and bar where the least re?tting is required. Instead of utilizing only one longitudinal slot 35, two such slots may be used, respectively placed adjacent the upper and lower ?shing surfaces of the joint bars l5, Hi. This modi?cation is illus trated in Fig. 9; and it is of especial utility in reforming the heavier rails, such as 100 pound to 136 pound rails and upward. By this construc 15 tion it is possible to place the slots 35 su?iciently close to the ?shing surfaces of the joint bars of heavy rails that the spreading force developed readily produces the necessary springing or ?ow ing movement of the portion of the bar adjacent 20 the ?shing surfaces to complete the reforming operation. ‘ It is to be understood that the apertures 31 together with the expansion members 39, or the collars 5!, may be elliptical, square, rectangular, or may have other conformations, provided they are tapered in one direction longitudinally of the associated bolt or force-transmitting member and can function in the general manner described. Fig. 10 illustrates a form of construction in which 30 is provided a smooth-bored aperture 37" that is generally elliptical in cross-section, with its major axis preferably disposed longitudinally of the rail. The bolt 43 is replaced in this con struction by an unthreaded bar 46 of hardened metal, of generally elliptical cross-section, having its major transverse axis slightly longer than the minor transverse axis of the aperture 31". By rotating the bar Within the aperture 31” a steady vertically-directed spreading pressure may 40 be exerted upon the walls of the joint bar at the slot. When the reforming process is completed, the portion of the bar within the aperture can be spot welded or otherwise secured in place. One or more such elliptical expansion members may be 45 employed. By the practice of the present invention, rail joints may be reconditioned at regular intervals accurately and readily, using standard track tools and wrenches for the purpose. There is no necessity for sledging or otherwise suddenlyand severely impacting the rails and the adjacent 50 joint bars. may be substituted for the bolt 41. 1 By developing the spreading force at the aper Fig. '7 illustrates a modi?cation of the inven tures 31, generally midway of the length of the 55 55 tion according to which the midportion of the ' joint and of the slot 35, and by distributing the outer surface of each tapered expansion member force from that point, the'resultant movement of is substantially ?at as indicated at 44. The simi the metal is greatest at the rail ends, where the, larly shaped polygonal aperture 31’ may be greatest wear is usually encountered. Because of 60 formed by means of an oxy-acetylene torch or in other suitable manner. It preferably is of less width than the expansion members 44. Fig. 8 illustrates a modi?cation of the inven tion ‘especially adapted for use where for any 65 reason the bearing surfaces between the rail and the joint bars have been worn irregularly. In this form of the invention, two or more longi tudinally-spaced transverse apertures 31, 3'! are provided in the joint bars l5, IS, in the manner previously described, each having its axis at least approximately intersecting the line of the longi tudinal axis of slot 35. These apertures may be of the same or differ ent sizes and shapes. Preferably, where two ap 75 ertures 31, 31 are used, they are located respec the ease with which the trackman can adjust the rail joints, simple periodic tightening upon the bolts to increase the steady pressure exerted by the expansion members will maintain the joints in perfect condition with a minimum of labor and expense. The amount of wear on the bearing surfaces of rails and joint bars is actually very small. Hence a slight corrective movement of the metal of the 65 joint bar at the depressed portion is sufficient, when periodically produced with proper fre 70 quency,-—to maintain a satisfactorily tight rail joint. On the other hand, as the depths of the depressed areas of the joint bar and rail endsbe come greater with the constant batter of the traffic on the rails, the rateofincreasein'depth 4 2,120,428 of this depressed area is accelerated, and the rails and joint bars rapidly wear away. Where it is desirable in reforming the joint to change the contour of but one ?shing surface, the slot 35 may be out near the depressed worn area. Instead of slotting standard rail joint bars in the manner described after they are worn, the slotted and/or apertured structure can be built 5. A method of crowning a ?shing surface of a bar having a comparatively long and narrow lon When new slotted and gitudinal slot therein, which comprises forming in the bar adjacent the said ?shing surface an enlarged transverse aperture limited in part by 15 removed and ‘the expansible member or mem bers then placed in position within the apertures. In certain instances where it is desired to re form joint bars, utilizing the rails as die ele ments,--after the depressed worn area of the joint 20 bar has been forced into contact with the ad jacent worn bearing surfaces of the rails under pressure from the expansion members,-the por tion of the slot not occupied by‘ the latter may be built up with welding metal to provide a rigid rail tapered walls extending through the bar, the said aperture having a portion thereof in the longi tudinal axis of the said slot, and forcing apart portions of the bar at the aperture and on oppo site sides of the slot under relatively steady pres sure produced by a force having its principal com ponent applied at the aperture and directed to ward a ?shing surface of the bar across the entire thickness of the bar to change the contour 20 of the said ?shing surface and form a crowned area therein opposite said slot. 6. A reconditioned rail joint comprising opposed rail ends and a joint bar connecting the same joint. having a crowned area in at least one ?shing sur According to my invention, the forces applied within the body of the joint bar to reform it are face thereof, a longitudinal slot in said bar oppo site said crowned area, said slot being adapted to be spread to produce such crowned area, a sec tional tapered member adapted to extend into said slot, and rotatable means for regulatably 30 spreading the sections of the said tapered mem ber and the slot and for maintaining the slot in steadily and uniformly applied in vertical planes extending longitudinally of the joint bar, with 30 out subjecting the bar to severe impacts or to the sudden application of a force principally directed transversely of the bar. It will be apparent to those skilled in the art that types of rail joint bars otherthan the angle 35 bar type illustrated may be employed. The in vention is susceptible of modi?cation within the scope of the appended claims. I claim: 1. A method of crowning a ?shing surface of a 40 ing operation. apertured bars are used, metal blocks of suitable shape may be inserted into and ?ll the slots and/or apertures and be secured to the bars in any suita ble manner, for example, by spot welding. When the joints become worn, the metal block may be into the bars at the mill. 25 steady spreading pressure to the bar at the said aperture uniformly across the entire thickness of the bar so as laterally to spread the portion of the bar adjacent the aperture, and releasably locking said slot in its spread condition by a weld 25 spread condition. ‘7. A reconditioned rail joint comprising opposed rail ends and a joint bar connecting the same having a crowned area in at least one ?shing sur face thereof, a longitudinal slot in the bar oppo site the said crowned area, and at least one see rail joint bar, which comprises longitudinally tional transversely expansible member in said slot and cooperating therewith to produce and main .40 slotting said bar intermediate its ends, enlarg tain said crowned area. ing the slot at a midportion thereof to provide a curved bearing surface of relatively large area 8. A rail joint comprising opposed rail ends and joint bars connecting the same, each bar having free from abrupt changes in cross-section, slowly expanding the slot at a regulated rate by forces applied to the said bearing surface approximately uniformly across the entire thickness of the bar, thereby forming a crowned area in said ?shing surface, and locking the slot in its expanded con 50 dition. 2. A method of crowning a ?shing surface of a longitudinally-slotted joint bar, which comprises forming an enlarged tapered aperture in the bar in the line of the said slot, gradually spreading the 55 walls of the slot by force uniformly and gradually applied thereto at the said aperture and approxi- mately uniformly across the entire thickness of the bar to raise a midportion of the said ?shing surface, and releasably locking the said slot in 60 its widened condition. ‘ '1 a crowned area in at least one ?shing surface thereof, a longitudinal slot in each bar opposite 45 the crowned area, at least one sectional member extending transversely through the joint bars and slot and expansible radially of and within the plane of each joint bar and adapted to produce and maintain the said crowned area, and rotat 50 able means for expanding the said expansible member. 9. A rail joint bar having upper and. lower ?sh ing surfaces with crowned areas, a narrow longi tudinal slot in said bar adjacent said crowned 55 - areas and having at least one enlarged portion, a tapered segmental expansion member extending within the said enlarged portion and adapted to engage the bar only adjacent the said crowned 3. A method of crowning a fishing surface of a areas in the upper and lower ?shing surfaces, and rotatable means cooperating with the said mem longitudinally-slotted joint bar, which comprises ber for maintaining the slot in widened condition forming an enlarged polygonal aperture free from abrupt changes in cross-section in the bar in the 65 midportion of the line of the slot, and applying a spreading pressure to the bar across the entire width thereof at the aperture and directed mainly toward a ?shing surface to spread the said slot so as laterally to expand the portion of the bar 70 opposite the slot, and releasably locking said slot in its spread condition. 4. A method of crowning a ?shing surface of a longitudinally-slotted joint bar, which comprises forming an enlarged aperture in the bar in the 76 midportion of the line of the slot, applying a adjacent the said enlarged portion to produce the said crowned areas. 10. A reconditioned rail joint comprising op 65 posed rail ends, a joint bar connecting the same and having a crowned area in at least one ?shing surface thereof, a longitudinal slot in the bar opposite the said crowned area, the said slot having at least one enlarged portion of generally 70 elliptical cross-section, the same being free from abrupt changes in transverse cross-section, and being adapted to be spread to produce the said crowned area, and rotatable means of generally elliptical cross-section and free from abrupt 76 5 2,120,428 changes in such cross-section, adapted to ex tend into the said enlarged portion for regu lating the extent of the spreading action and for maintaining the slot in spread condition. 11. A rail joint comprising opposed rail ends and joint bars connecting the same, each bar having a crowned area in at least one ?shing surface thereof, a longitudinal slot in each bar midway of its length, a relatively large trans 10 verse aperture extending through the respec tive bars and rail ends and intersecting the lines of the said slots, expansion means extending within the aperture and comprising a pair of ferrous metal alloy in said slot, and cooperating therewith to produce and maintain said crowned area. 15. A reconditioned rail joint comprising op posed rail ends, a joint bar connecting the same having a crowned area in at least one ?shing sur face thereof, a longitudinal slot in the bar oppo site the said crowned area, and means disposed in said slot and expansible transversely of the bar and cooperating with the walls of the slot to pro duce and maintain said crowned area. 10 16. A reconditioned rail joint comprising op posed rail ends, a joint bar connecting the same cooperating members each having portions of having a crowned area in at least one ?shing sur its outer surface shaped to ?t the Wall of the aperture and having other portions out of con tact with the said walls, and a member for actuating the expansion means. 12. A method of crowning a ?shing surface of a longitudinally-slotted joint bar having an enlarged aperture therein in the line of the slot, which comprises heating at least the ?shing surface to be crowned, gradually spreading the walls of the slot by the steady application there to of forces applied to the bar at the said aper ture, thereby raising a midportion of the said ?shing surface to form a crowned area, and welding the bar to maintain the crowned ?shing surface in its new position. 13. A method of crowning a fishing surface of a longitudinally-slotted joint bar, which com prises forming a large tapered aperture in the bar in the line of the said slot, gradually spread ing the walls of the slot by forces applied thereto at the said aperture to raise a midportion of face thereof, a longitudinal slot in the bar op 15 posite the said crowned area, and means includ ing a threaded member disposed in said slot and having parts movable vertically within the ver tical plane of the bar and cooperating with the Walls of the slot to produce and maintain said 20 crowned area. 17. A rail joint comprising opposed rail ends and joint bars connecting the same, each bar hav ing a crowned area in at least one fishing surface, a longitudinal slot in each bar opposite the said 25 crowned area, and at least one pair of internally threaded segmental expansion members extend ing transversely of and through a corresponding one of the bars but not through the rails, and threaded members adapted respectively to co- - operate with a corresponding pair of the ex pansion members to» cause a spreading movement of the latter. 18. A rail joint bar having upper and lower ?shing surfaces, parallel narrow longitudinal ‘ the said ?shing surface, while applying heat to slots in the bar respectively adjacent the said that portion of the ?shing surface adjacent the said aperture, and releasably locking the said slot in its widened condition. 14. A reconditioned rail joint, comprising op 40 posed rail ends and a joint bar connecting the surfaces, each of the said slots having at least one enlarged midportion, tapered segmental expan sion members respectively extending within each same having a crowned area in at least one ?sh of the said enlarged portions, and means cooper ating with the respective segments of the said members for spreading apart the latter and for ing surface thereof, a longitudinal slot in the bar maintaining the slots in widened condition. opposite the said crowned area, and at least one 45 sectional expandible member of ‘air-hardening HARRY R. LEE.