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Патент USA US2120429

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June 14, 1938.
I‘ 2,120,429
Filed Feb. 27, 1936 '
Patented June 144, 193$’
John H. Nash, Dayton, Ohio
Application February 27,\1936, Serial No. 65,986 ,
1 Claim.
This invention relates to improvements in base
exchange water softening apparatus, it more par
ticularly relating to the apparatus for produc
ing the brine solution for regenerating the ex
change material.
One of the objects of the present invention is
to provide a comparatively large saturator in
which may be made and stored a comparatively
large quantity of brine, thereby ?tting the satu
10 rator for service with a battery of softeners, or
providing suf?cient brine to regenerate a single
softener several times.
A further object of the invention, in order to
eliminate salt encrustation and corrosion of the
metals of which the saturator is made at the
brine level due to contact with air, is to provide
in the saturator that two compartments are
formed in effect, a brine compartment and a
fresh water compartment, whereby, as the brine
is heavier due to the diiference in speci?c grav
ity, the fresh water remains above the brine.
I avail myself of the fact that the fresh water
will remain above the brine by providing that the
fresh water compartment is of such size and
capacity that even the larger quantities of salt
that can be used in this saturator are completely
submerged, leaving a stratum of fresh water
above the uppermost portions of the salt. This
extreme upper stratum of fresh water can not
do otherwise than remain fresh, as its upper
portion can not sink to the salt level. Therefore,
as any corrosion of metals by brine in contact
with air can not take place in this saturator
since air is not in contact with‘ the brine, the
metals of the saturator are protected.
In this saturator, also, there is no need of
supplying measured quantities of salt per quan
tities of fresh water. Fresh water, of course, is
added from time to time to make up for any
i. evaporation, or for :withdrawal of brine as will
be described, but as large a quantity of salt may
be placed in the salt carrying receptacles at any
time as can be accommodated. The formation of
brine goes on automatically and stops and starts
5 according to whetherthe stored brine solution
is at its maximum saturation or not. For this
reason, salt may be added at the convenience of
the operator even though the solution is then at
its greatest quantity and greatest degree of satu
In view of the larger quantities of salt that are
to “be handled, it is another object to provide a
low-down or floor-level saturator to eliminate
unnecessary lifting of the salt to an overhead
55 position, and this feature also makes it possible
(Cl. 210_—-24) ’
to install the apparatus in places where the head
room is not suf?cient to accommodate a gravity
flow device such as is shown in my Patent No.
1,940,965, dated December 26th, 1933. f
To cause the flow of brine through the exchange 5
materials, I prefer to employ an electrically
driven pump, and to prevent corrosion of the
pump and its ?ttings I submerge the pump in a
so-called pump sump connected to the saturator
by a single connection in such manner that brine 10 I
flows in the pump sump and establishes a brine
compartment in the sump. As the pump dis
charges this brine, more brine flows from the
saturator to the sump. This obviously lowers the
level in the saturator which is made up by the 15
admission of fresh water to the proper height,
and in the present instance, fresh water is also
added at the same time to the upper portion of
the sump and thereby maintains an upper
stratum of fresh water in the sump above the 20
brine therein and thereby forms a fresh water
compartment in the sump, this fresh water pro
tecting the pump from corrosion. This feature
makes it possible to provide an ordinary pump
for the installation, that is, it is not necessary to 25
employ the more expensive corrosion resisting
alloys in the manufacture of the pump.
Another object and advantage is that by proper
proportionlng and placement of the pump sump
in relation to the saturator, that an overflow 30
opening in the pump sump takes care not only of
the liquid level in the sump but also of that in
the saturator. This is advantageous in that the
operator need only be instructed to re-?ll with
fresh water so that the level in the saturator 35
reaches a certain de?nite, marked height therein;
no allowance need be estimated for the salt that
will later form brine to cause a re?lling to a
point below the proper level. This feature is
further explained in the speci?cations.
In the accompanying drawing:
The ?gure is a conventional view showing in
elevation partly broken away of the improved
brine producing apparatus in connection with
typical softeners.
Referring to the drawing, at I is shown a typi
cal base exchange softener and at v I’ a por
tion of another, the two representing a part of a
battery of similar softeners. In each softener,
the exchange granules are shown at 2, while in l 50
the gravel diifuser bed is indicated at 3. The noz
zle through which the fresh water enters during
ordinary service is shown in broken lines at 5 in
the softener l,it being understood that each soft
ener is similarly equipped.
The fresh or hard 55
water to be softened is conducted to the nozzle I
from the service pipe I through the branch pipe 1
' and a valve I. An identical system is also shown
in connection with the second softener I‘. Above
the broken line 0' in each softener is the'free
board space, and in the upper portion of the soft
ener I is shown at I. the mineral screen which
prevents the exchange granules from passing
through the filler device I I into the house pipe l2.
The saturator is shown at the right and is in
dicated in general as 8. This is a comparatively
large tank or tub it open at the top, set on the
floor on legs I 3' and having a cover II". There
is a plurality of angle brackets ll attached to the
15 inner surface of the vertical walls of the tank at
some distance down from the open end, on which
brackets is supported the salt basket I! formed
of wire mesh. At It is shown the salt, preferably
in cloth bags, resting in the salt basket. As can‘
20 be seen, the salt is entirely covered by water, the
water being let into the tank ll until the proper
level at I! is reached, this mark in the present
case being formed by rolling anv annular bead It’
in the side wall of the tank. A gauge glass I1 is
25 fitted to the tank so as to give an indication of the
height of the contained liquid.
As previously stated, the saturator is placed
of the fresher water. In this way, the strong
brine liquid is prevented from attaching the
metals of the tank where such corrosion is in
duced by the oxygen of the air,‘ as there is inter
posed between the air and the brine, the stratum
of fresh water.
There is thus formed in ‘the saturator, a brine
compartment extending from the bottom up
wardly to the proximity of the salt and indicated
by the heavier horizontal lines by which liquids 10
are indicated, and a fresh water compartment
above the brine to the water mark I 8, indicated
by the lighter horizontal liquid lines. There are
also brine and fresh water compartments in the
sump 2|. Due to the single connecting pipe 22,‘
the brine does rise to as great a height in the
sump as in the saturator, this height being ap
proximately indicated by the heavy liquid shade
lines. This portion is the brine compartment and
the lighter liquid shade lines thereabove indicate 20
the fresh water compartment of the sump. It
will be noticed that the high level line in the
sump, at the upper portion of the fresh water, is
higher in the sump than the high level of. the
fresh water in the saturator. This is because of
the greater. depth of the brine in the saturator,
the effective depth extending from the proximity
of the salt to the pipe connection 22. As stated,
the brine does not build up to so great a height
on the ?oor to avoid lifting of the heavier quan
titles of salt possible to use in this larger satura
30 tor, and to cause the brine to ?ow through the in the sump as in the saturator, therefore, a
exchange materials a small electrically driven greater depth of fresh water supported above the
pump, shown at is, is employed, 20 being the mo
brine in the fresh water compartment of the sump
tor by which the pump is driven by a shaft not is necessary to balance a column of brine and
shown. For reasons which will appear, the pump fresh water and brine in the saturator.
35 is housed in a so-called pump sump 2|, which
It was previously mentioned that an over?ow
is a tank smaller in diameter and of slightly outlet is placed in the side wall of the sump,
greater length than the saturator tank I I, and which over?ow governs the level of liquid in both
is also placed somewhat higher above the ?oor - sump and saturator, and that when the satura
than the saturator. The sump 2| is connected tor is filled to the water mark 18, the later ad
40 to the saturator I: by the single pipe connection dition of salt would not cause the level to rise
22, whereby liquid from the saturator may ?ow in the saturator. By placing the over?ow indi
into the sump 2!.
cated at 29 in the sump at or slightly below
The pump discharges through a pipe 23 having ‘ the-fresh water level therein when the satura-.
a check valve 24 and valve 25, to the branch pipe tor and sump are in working condition, the
7 of the softener i, and at 26 is shown a pipe lead
fresh water in the fresh water compartment of
ing around the softener I to the corresponding the saturator can not rise although the water
branch pipe 1' for the softener I’. It will be therebelow is taking up salt. The displacement
obvious that if there are other softeners in the resulting therefrom causes a rise of brine in the
battery, these softeners will be similarly con
sump, and in turn causes fresh water in the
nected to the pump.
fresh water compartment of the sump to flow
A fresh water pipe 21 conducts water from the out through the over?ow pipe 29.
service pipe 6 under control of the valve 28 to
When it is desired to regenerate any of the
both the saturator l3 and the sump 2| through softeners of the battery, the valve controlling the
the connections 22'.
?ow of hard water to be softened, such as the
The operation is as follows: The water valve 28
is opened and the water flows into the saturator valve 8 in connection with the softener I, is
and sump until the proper water mark I8 is closed, also the valve 30 controlling the ?ow of
reached, and salt‘ in any quantity or form is softened water to the house pipe l2, the valve
placed in the salt basket. So long as the water is 3| in a pipe 32 leading to the sewer is opened,
fresh, the level in both saturator and sump will the valve 25 in the pump discharge line 23 is
opened, and the pump started.
be equal, as the two devices by reason of the con
The pump l9 draws brine from the brine com
nection pipe 22 are in effect a U-tube, but as soon
as the salt begins to dissolve into the fresh water, partment in the sump and from the similar com
brine begins to form, which by reason of its partment in the saturator. The pipe connection
greater speci?c gravity, settles to the bottom of 22 connecting the sump to the saturator is com
both the saturator and the sump.
paratively large, so that a free ?ow of brine from
Assuming that a sufficient quantity of salt has the brine compartment to the suction side of
been placed in the basket, the formation of brine the pump is obtained, and obviates the drawing
goes on until the dense brine builds up to the down and mixingof the fresh water of the fresh
70 proximity of the salt, where no more salt will be water compartment of the sump with the brine. 10
dissolved due to lack of opportunity of circula
The discharge of the pump is through the pipe
tion; that is, to form brine, the fresher water 23, check valve 24 and valve 25 to the branch
must be given an opportunity to’ ?ow through pipe ‘I, through the nozzle 5 and upwardly
the salt, which it can not now do, as, the heavier through the gravel bed 3, exchange granules 2, ,
76 brine prevents any downward flow or circulation through that portion of the house pipe l2’ con
nected to the ?ller device II to the opened valve
3| and thence to the sewer.
The pump is is allowed to operate until the
required amount of saturated salt solution is
pumped into either or all of the softener units,
if all require regeneration, until the units have
been given the proper amount of saturated solu
tion. The pump is then shut oif‘ and the valves
25 and 25' are closed and the valves 8 and 8'
10 are opened wide and the residue salt solution,
calcium and magnesium chloride, is washed to
the sewer through valve 31 in the pipe 32 for
the unit I, and through the corresponding valve
and pipe (not shown) for the unit I’ if that unit
15 is being simultaneously regenerated; this pipe
32 for the unit I and the corresponding pipe
for the unit I’ being the waste pipes to the
sewer. When testing and soft water shows at
the end of the pipe 32 for the unit I or the
20 corresponding pipe for unit I’, the valve 3| for
the unit I and the corresponding valve for the
unit I’ are closed and the softener or softeners
can then be returned to service by opening the
valve or valves in the soft water lines.
The saturator is then re-?lled to the water
mark I8 with water (fresh) from the service pipe
6 through the pipe 21.
Also incidentally the
sump receives fresh water, as the pipe 21 is
ing to the saturator and the pipe 21' leading to
the sump are each equipped at their lower ends
with suitable nozzles 32 so designed as to allow
the fresh water to issue with a minimum directly
downward flow which would otherwise disturb
the protective upper stratum of fresh water in
the saturator and sump. It is also preferable to
provide that the nozzles do not extend to the
water level in order that leakage of the valve 28
will disclose itself. As stated, the operator needs 10
to watch only the water mark l8 to know when
the proper amount of fresh water has been
Having thus described my invention, I claim:
In a water softening apparatus, a mineral tank, 15
a brine tank supported independently of said
mineral tank, a salt support in said brine tank
located intermediate the top and bottom there
of so as to provide in effect a compartment for the
brine below said support and a compartment for 20
fresh water above said support, a pump, a hous
ing for said pump having its lower end in com
munication with the lower end of said brine tank,
said pump being located in the brine in said
housing, a communication between said pump 25
and said mineral tank, and means for supplying
fresh water to the upper ends of the pump hous
ing and the brine tank.
branched to provide the pipe 21' leading to the
30 sump. ’ It should be noted that the pipe 21 lead
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