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Патент USA US2120545

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June 14, '1938.__
2,120,545 ‘
Filed Jan; 25, less
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June 14, 1938.
Filed Jan. 23, ‘1936
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Patented June 14, 1938
Ernest James Buckton, London, England
Application January 23, 1936, Serial No. 60,436
In Great Britain March 4, 1935
(Cl. 114—0.5)
3 Claims.
This invention relates to devices for receiving
the thrust of a ship’s side during berthing and
like operations, and has for its object to pro
vide a yielding device capable of arresting a slow
ly drifting or swinging ship without damage and
with the minimum of shock and disturbance.
The invention accordingly consists in a bump
er-buoy, fender, guard, water spring or like de
vice for docks, ?oating wharves, mooring berths
buoyant member associated therewith, and means
for so anchoring or pivotally mounting the mem
and the like, comprising a fender member and a
Figure 12 is a diagrammatic side elevation of
a further modi?cation of the invention, suitable
for use on Quays and like berths, and
comprises a generally cylindrical ?oating fender
mally ?oating buoyancy chamber maintained in
spaced relationship by a rigid connecting struc
member I and a long rectangular tank or buoy
ture, in which case the fender may be anchored
to a submerged point or points lying substan
fender, and the buoyancy chamber to a sub
merged point or points in or adjacent to the
said plane.
Thus, for example, the fender and the buoy
Figure 13 is a plan view thereof.
The form of device shown in Figures 1 to 3
members comprise a ?oating fender and a nor
tially in a vertical plane passing adjacent to the
a common landing or mooring platform,
Figure 8 is a section thereof on an enlarged
Figure 9 is a diagrammatic side elevation of a
form of device adapted to be carried by a wharf,
pier or the like,
Figure 10 is a plan view thereof,
Figure 11 is a view similar to Figure 9 but
showing the device in ‘place in a quay or jetty
bers that lateral displacement of the fender
member causes depression of the centre of buoy
15 ancy of the buoyant member, preferably rela
tively rapid depression thereof so as rapidly to
absorb a large amount of energy. Preferably the
Figure '7 is a plan view showing two bumper
buoys with their fender portions incorporating
ancy chamber 2 maintained in parallel spaced 20
relationship by a rigid braced structure indicated
generally at 3. The whole device is anchored
to a single submerged point t in the following
Two chains 5 are fastened at their upper ends
to points in the structure 3 adjacent to the fender
l and lying on a line parallel thereto. These
ancy chamber may each be provided with an
chorage means comprising one or a set of chains
or links, that for the fender lying in a substan
30 tially vertical plane so that the fender moves
substantially horizontally on receiving a lateral
chains converge downwardly and in a vertical
thrust, and that for the buoyancy chamber lying
4, and so lie in a very much inclined plane.
Chains 5 are joined to form a single chain 1
which passes through an enlarged link at the
generally in a plane at a high angle to the ver
tical so that the buoyancy chamber is sharply
35 depressed on receiving said thrust from the
junction of chains 5 and out along the harbour
bed to an anchorage at 8.
Further features of the invention and their
attendant advantages will be apparent from the
Thus when as indicated in Figure 3, the side
9 of a ship bears against the fender l, the entire
following description and accompanying draw
practical forms which the invention may take.
In the drawings:-—
Figure 1 is a side elevational view of one form
plane, their junction being adjacent to the har
bour bed at t, where they are anchored. Two
further chains attached to spaced points on the
buoyancy chamber 2 also converge towards point
fender through the rigid connecting structure.
4 O ings, which have reference to certain of the many
of bumper-buoy according to the invention, at
the commencement of its operation.
side. Whereas, however, the fender l moves hor
exerts a resilient restoring force in opposition to
the momentum of the ship, bringing the latter to
Figures 4 and 5 are respectively a section and
a longitudinal elevation of a self-draining “dash
fender i, a ship’s side can de?ect the bumper
a mooring berth comprising three bumper-buoys
in alignment,
izontally the buoyancy chamber 2, owing to the
obliquity of its anchoring chains 6, is sharply de
pressed by the said pivotal movement, and so 45
rest in a smooth and certain manner.
Figure 6 is a plan view, on a reduced scale, of
bumper-buoy device pivots about an axis passing
through the point It and parallel to the ship’s
Figure 2 is a plan view thereof,
Figure 3 is a view similar to Figure l, but
showing the device in full operation,
pot” form of buoyancy chamber,
It is to be noted that owing to the plane of
the chains‘E being somewhat offset from the
buoy within reasonable limits without fouling
It is also to be noted that the resilient action
of the buoy will continue until the buoyancy 55
chamber 2 touches bottom, this range being suffi
cient for all normal requirements. Should, how
ever, the ship continue to bear down on the buoy
after the chamber 2 becomes grounded, the buoy
will act as a positive strut and may readily be
made strong enough, at least in combination with
its fellows, to arrest the ship safely in such an
It will further be observed that the fact that
10 the buoy is in effect anchored at, or substan
tially at, the single point 4 permits it always to
swing into alignment with a ship’s side coming
into contact with the fender I. In order how
ever, to keep such freedom within bounds when
15 the buoy is idle, subsidiary lateral anchorage
chains ill (see also Figure 6) may be used, such
chains being of course relatively slack.
It may in some cases be desirable to ensure
that when a ship has been brought to rest a
20 minimum of stored energy remains in the bump
er-buoys which, if appreciable, would tend grad
ually to push the ship away from its berth again,
and with this in view a modi?ed form of buoyancy
chamber such as indicated in Figures 4 and 5
25 may be used.
This chamber is adapted gradually to lose some
or all of its buoyancy on continued depression or
submersion, and to this end it is divided up by
internal watertight bulkheads in the following
An approximately horizontal bulkhead i I is
situated at or slightly above the normal water
line, and the space above it is divided by vertical
bulkheads l2 into a series of watertight compart
35 ments I 3. It will be observed that the bulkhead
II has a slight slope so that each of the com
partments l3 has a lowest point, at which, in
the case of some of the compartments, is provided
an opening or sea-cock l4.
Thus when the buoyancy chamber 2 is de
pressed or submerged, water will commence to
enter such of the compartments as are provided
with sea-cocks l4, air vents [5 being provided in
the roofs thereof, and the chamber 2 gradually
45 loses buoyancy.
The rate at which it does so is determined
by the size and number of the floodable com
partments and the eifective apertures of the sea
cocks I4 and air vents H3. The arrangement will
50 of course be such that the minimum buoyancy
will be normally reached when or shortly after
the ship has been brought to rest, the buoy thus
simultaneously absorbing and dissipating energy
in the manner of a dashpot device. There will
55 of course always remain a certain reserve ‘buoy
ancy, due to the permanently sealed compart
ments, su?icient when the lateral thrust on the
buoly is removed for the chamber to rise and drain
itse f.
The sea~cocks M may be adjustable simultane
ously or individually to determine the appropriate
rate of leak and reserve buoyancy, as may be the
air vents 15 for the same purpose.
Additionally or alternatively the air vents It‘:
may be in communication with air pumping and
escape means, in which case the buoyancy of the
chamber 2 may be varied at all times by such
means independently of the degree of submersion
of the buoy.
In such a case the construction of
70 the chamber 2 may be simpli?ed'and the sea-cock
or cocks [4 need not necessarily be above the
normal water line, so that a greater range of
buoyancy is obtainable. Further, in cases where
the buoyancy is so positively adjustable at all
times it is possible to maintain buoys at their
minimum buoyancy during the period when a
ship is tied up, and when subsequently casting
o? to restore the buoyancy to the buoys simul
taneously or selectively to push a part or the
whole of the ship away from the berth to facili
tate its departure.
Figure 6 shows the manner in which three,
say, of the buoys as above described may be
moored in general alignment so as to take the
lateral thrusts of ships of various sizes Without 10
allowing a swinging movement thereof.
In the arrangement of Figures 7 and 8 the
fender l is of considerable length and carries an
extensive, and preferably ?exible or articulated,
platform structure [5 floatingly supported by 15
tanks I‘! incorporated therein. A plurality of
buoyancy chambers 2 are spaced from the plat
form 55 by structures 3 and the mooring arrange
ments are similar in principle to those described
in connection with Figures 1 to 6.
The composite buoy thus obtained operates in
the same way as those previously described, with
the added advantage that when the ship has been
berthed the platform‘ iii may be used to facilitate
the embarkation or landing of passengers and/or 2,5
Figures 9 and 10 illustrate diagrammatically the
manner in which a modi?ed form of bumper-buoy
according to the invention may be pivoted to a
?xed or ?oating landing stage, pier or the like 30
it about an axis l9 parallel and adjacent to its
nose or fender part i and the edge of the landing
stage. It will be apparent that when the lateral
thrust of a ship’s side is applied to the fender I
the buoyancy chamber 2 will be progressively
submerged as in the previous cases, and as indi
cated in dotted lines in Figure 9. The chamber
2 may of course be adapted to have its buoyancy
varied or controlled as previously described.
Figure 11 shows how a similar form‘ of bumper
buoy may be housed in a suitable recess or bay 20
in a solid sea wall, quay or jetty. The bay 20 may
be roofed over for safety. as indicated at 2|.
In the modi?cation illustrated by Figures 12
and 13 the bumper-buoy comprises a “bank” of
chambers 22 projecting laterally from a quay wall
and provided with fender portions 23 along their
seaward faces. Each cylindrical chamber 22 is
pivoted about a horizontal axis 24 close under
neath it, and it will be seen that under the lateral
thrust of a ship’s side the chambers move in
wards into a recess or bay 25 in the quay and at
the same time are depressed or increasingly sub
merged. Vertical connecting rods 26 are provided
at the ends of the chambers to ensure that the
lateral thrust is distributed equally between all
the chambers. If desired, however, the “bank”
shown could be replaced by a single cylindrical
chamber of suitable size and buoyancy.
It is to be noted that where bumper-buoys ac
cording to the invention are mounted on or
anchored to ?oating structures they will have the
desirable feature of operating independently of
wide variations in the general water level due to 05
tidal or other conditions.
What I claim and desire to secure by Letters
Patent of the United States is:—
l. A shock-absorbing marine berthing device,
comprising in combination a normally floating 70
buoyancy member and a ?oating fender member
rigidly spaced therefrom, and means forming a
common submerged horizontal axis substantially
in the vertical plane of said fender member and
about which said members are each pivoted, so
that horizontal displacement of said fender mem
ber causes, and is resiliently opposed by, a sharp
depression of said buoyancy member.
2. A shock-absorbing marine berthing device
comprising in combination a buoyancy member
and a fender member carried thereby, and means
forming a horizontal underlying axis about which
said members are each pivoted, so that lateral
displacement of said fender member causes, and
perforated for the gradual admission of water to
alter its buoyancy.
3. A shock-absorbing marine berthing device
according to claim 2, and wherein said buoyancy
member is so- perforated immediately above an
internal transverse partition forming the ?oor of
a ?oodable portion thereof, and is sealed below
said partition to retain su?icient reserve buoyancy
to rise and drain itself when free to do so.
10 is resiliently opposed by, depression of said buoy
ancy member and said buoyancy member being
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