Патент USA US2120545код для вставки
June 14, '1938.__ ‘E. J. BUCKTON 2,120,545 ‘ SHOCK ABSOHBING MARINE BERTHING DEVICE , Filed Jan; 25, less “L- 'ji ‘ , ' s Sheets-Sheet 2 June 14, 1938. E. J. BUCKTON 2,120,545 SHOCK ABSORBING MARINE BERTHING DEVICE‘ Filed Jan. 23, ‘1936 , 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 M- i“rlLN/w!“ nuwm l.Mr w .1 Mt ,. 1 m _ 1,: / m .2 . M . / __. ,?/ 6+ ._ .. u 1 w./.IH%. /. H . m v _-J -- .n 4 m // .“m m M _ x r In9 |“In. .. .r ‘ 2,4 <0”. \2 a L i: 1 WM / , l: r in .2 2,129,545 Patented June 14, 1938 UNITED STATES PATENT FFHQE 2,120,545 SHOCK ABSORBING MARINE BERTHING DEVICE ' Ernest James Buckton, London, England Application January 23, 1936, Serial No. 60,436 In Great Britain March 4, 1935 (Cl. 114—0.5) 3 Claims. This invention relates to devices for receiving the thrust of a ship’s side during berthing and like operations, and has for its object to pro vide a yielding device capable of arresting a slow ly drifting or swinging ship without damage and with the minimum of shock and disturbance. The invention accordingly consists in a bump er-buoy, fender, guard, water spring or like de vice for docks, ?oating wharves, mooring berths 10 scale, buoyant member associated therewith, and means for so anchoring or pivotally mounting the mem wall, and the like, comprising a fender member and a Figure 12 is a diagrammatic side elevation of a further modi?cation of the invention, suitable for use on Quays and like berths, and comprises a generally cylindrical ?oating fender mally ?oating buoyancy chamber maintained in spaced relationship by a rigid connecting struc member I and a long rectangular tank or buoy ture, in which case the fender may be anchored to a submerged point or points lying substan fender, and the buoyancy chamber to a sub merged point or points in or adjacent to the said plane. - _ Thus, for example, the fender and the buoy 15 Figure 13 is a plan view thereof. The form of device shown in Figures 1 to 3 members comprise a ?oating fender and a nor tially in a vertical plane passing adjacent to the 25 a common landing or mooring platform, Figure 8 is a section thereof on an enlarged Figure 9 is a diagrammatic side elevation of a form of device adapted to be carried by a wharf, pier or the like, Figure 10 is a plan view thereof, Figure 11 is a view similar to Figure 9 but showing the device in ‘place in a quay or jetty bers that lateral displacement of the fender member causes depression of the centre of buoy 15 ancy of the buoyant member, preferably rela tively rapid depression thereof so as rapidly to absorb a large amount of energy. Preferably the 2 Figure '7 is a plan view showing two bumper buoys with their fender portions incorporating ancy chamber 2 maintained in parallel spaced 20 relationship by a rigid braced structure indicated generally at 3. The whole device is anchored to a single submerged point t in the following way:-— Two chains 5 are fastened at their upper ends to points in the structure 3 adjacent to the fender l and lying on a line parallel thereto. These ancy chamber may each be provided with an chorage means comprising one or a set of chains or links, that for the fender lying in a substan 30 tially vertical plane so that the fender moves substantially horizontally on receiving a lateral chains converge downwardly and in a vertical thrust, and that for the buoyancy chamber lying 4, and so lie in a very much inclined plane. Chains 5 are joined to form a single chain 1 which passes through an enlarged link at the generally in a plane at a high angle to the ver tical so that the buoyancy chamber is sharply 35 depressed on receiving said thrust from the junction of chains 5 and out along the harbour bed to an anchorage at 8. Further features of the invention and their attendant advantages will be apparent from the Thus when as indicated in Figure 3, the side 9 of a ship bears against the fender l, the entire following description and accompanying draw practical forms which the invention may take. In the drawings:-— ' Figure 1 is a side elevational view of one form 4 plane, their junction being adjacent to the har bour bed at t, where they are anchored. Two further chains attached to spaced points on the buoyancy chamber 2 also converge towards point fender through the rigid connecting structure. 4 O ings, which have reference to certain of the many of bumper-buoy according to the invention, at the commencement of its operation. 0 side. Whereas, however, the fender l moves hor exerts a resilient restoring force in opposition to the momentum of the ship, bringing the latter to Figures 4 and 5 are respectively a section and a longitudinal elevation of a self-draining “dash fender i, a ship’s side can de?ect the bumper a mooring berth comprising three bumper-buoys in alignment, m I izontally the buoyancy chamber 2, owing to the obliquity of its anchoring chains 6, is sharply de pressed by the said pivotal movement, and so 45 rest in a smooth and certain manner. Figure 6 is a plan view, on a reduced scale, of 5 ' bumper-buoy device pivots about an axis passing through the point It and parallel to the ship’s Figure 2 is a plan view thereof, Figure 3 is a view similar to Figure l, but showing the device in full operation, pot” form of buoyancy chamber, 5 It is to be noted that owing to the plane of the chains‘E being somewhat offset from the buoy within reasonable limits without fouling them. It is also to be noted that the resilient action of the buoy will continue until the buoyancy 55 2 2,120,545 chamber 2 touches bottom, this range being suffi cient for all normal requirements. Should, how ever, the ship continue to bear down on the buoy after the chamber 2 becomes grounded, the buoy will act as a positive strut and may readily be made strong enough, at least in combination with its fellows, to arrest the ship safely in such an emergency. It will further be observed that the fact that 10 the buoy is in effect anchored at, or substan tially at, the single point 4 permits it always to swing into alignment with a ship’s side coming into contact with the fender I. In order how ever, to keep such freedom within bounds when 15 the buoy is idle, subsidiary lateral anchorage chains ill (see also Figure 6) may be used, such chains being of course relatively slack. It may in some cases be desirable to ensure that when a ship has been brought to rest a 20 minimum of stored energy remains in the bump er-buoys which, if appreciable, would tend grad ually to push the ship away from its berth again, and with this in view a modi?ed form of buoyancy chamber such as indicated in Figures 4 and 5 25 may be used. This chamber is adapted gradually to lose some or all of its buoyancy on continued depression or submersion, and to this end it is divided up by internal watertight bulkheads in the following 30 manner:-- 7 An approximately horizontal bulkhead i I is situated at or slightly above the normal water line, and the space above it is divided by vertical bulkheads l2 into a series of watertight compart 35 ments I 3. It will be observed that the bulkhead II has a slight slope so that each of the com partments l3 has a lowest point, at which, in the case of some of the compartments, is provided an opening or sea-cock l4. 110 Thus when the buoyancy chamber 2 is de pressed or submerged, water will commence to enter such of the compartments as are provided with sea-cocks l4, air vents [5 being provided in the roofs thereof, and the chamber 2 gradually 45 loses buoyancy. The rate at which it does so is determined by the size and number of the floodable com partments and the eifective apertures of the sea cocks I4 and air vents H3. The arrangement will 50 of course be such that the minimum buoyancy will be normally reached when or shortly after the ship has been brought to rest, the buoy thus simultaneously absorbing and dissipating energy in the manner of a dashpot device. There will 55 of course always remain a certain reserve ‘buoy ancy, due to the permanently sealed compart ments, su?icient when the lateral thrust on the buoly is removed for the chamber to rise and drain itse f. The sea~cocks M may be adjustable simultane ously or individually to determine the appropriate rate of leak and reserve buoyancy, as may be the air vents 15 for the same purpose. Additionally or alternatively the air vents It‘: may be in communication with air pumping and escape means, in which case the buoyancy of the chamber 2 may be varied at all times by such means independently of the degree of submersion of the buoy. In such a case the construction of 70 the chamber 2 may be simpli?ed'and the sea-cock or cocks [4 need not necessarily be above the normal water line, so that a greater range of buoyancy is obtainable. Further, in cases where the buoyancy is so positively adjustable at all times it is possible to maintain buoys at their minimum buoyancy during the period when a ship is tied up, and when subsequently casting o? to restore the buoyancy to the buoys simul taneously or selectively to push a part or the whole of the ship away from the berth to facili tate its departure. Figure 6 shows the manner in which three, say, of the buoys as above described may be moored in general alignment so as to take the lateral thrusts of ships of various sizes Without 10 allowing a swinging movement thereof. In the arrangement of Figures 7 and 8 the fender l is of considerable length and carries an extensive, and preferably ?exible or articulated, platform structure [5 floatingly supported by 15 tanks I‘! incorporated therein. A plurality of buoyancy chambers 2 are spaced from the plat form 55 by structures 3 and the mooring arrange ments are similar in principle to those described in connection with Figures 1 to 6. 20 The composite buoy thus obtained operates in the same way as those previously described, with the added advantage that when the ship has been berthed the platform‘ iii may be used to facilitate the embarkation or landing of passengers and/or 2,5 cargo. Figures 9 and 10 illustrate diagrammatically the manner in which a modi?ed form of bumper-buoy according to the invention may be pivoted to a ?xed or ?oating landing stage, pier or the like 30 it about an axis l9 parallel and adjacent to its nose or fender part i and the edge of the landing stage. It will be apparent that when the lateral thrust of a ship’s side is applied to the fender I the buoyancy chamber 2 will be progressively submerged as in the previous cases, and as indi cated in dotted lines in Figure 9. The chamber 2 may of course be adapted to have its buoyancy varied or controlled as previously described. Figure 11 shows how a similar form‘ of bumper buoy may be housed in a suitable recess or bay 20 in a solid sea wall, quay or jetty. The bay 20 may be roofed over for safety. as indicated at 2|. 40 In the modi?cation illustrated by Figures 12 and 13 the bumper-buoy comprises a “bank” of superposed horizontal cylindrical buoyancy chambers 22 projecting laterally from a quay wall and provided with fender portions 23 along their seaward faces. Each cylindrical chamber 22 is pivoted about a horizontal axis 24 close under neath it, and it will be seen that under the lateral thrust of a ship’s side the chambers move in wards into a recess or bay 25 in the quay and at the same time are depressed or increasingly sub merged. Vertical connecting rods 26 are provided at the ends of the chambers to ensure that the lateral thrust is distributed equally between all the chambers. If desired, however, the “bank” shown could be replaced by a single cylindrical chamber of suitable size and buoyancy. It is to be noted that where bumper-buoys ac cording to the invention are mounted on or anchored to ?oating structures they will have the desirable feature of operating independently of wide variations in the general water level due to 05 tidal or other conditions. What I claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent of the United States is:— l. A shock-absorbing marine berthing device, comprising in combination a normally floating 70 buoyancy member and a ?oating fender member rigidly spaced therefrom, and means forming a common submerged horizontal axis substantially in the vertical plane of said fender member and about which said members are each pivoted, so 3 2,120,545 that horizontal displacement of said fender mem ber causes, and is resiliently opposed by, a sharp depression of said buoyancy member. 2. A shock-absorbing marine berthing device comprising in combination a buoyancy member and a fender member carried thereby, and means forming a horizontal underlying axis about which said members are each pivoted, so that lateral displacement of said fender member causes, and perforated for the gradual admission of water to alter its buoyancy. ' 3. A shock-absorbing marine berthing device according to claim 2, and wherein said buoyancy member is so- perforated immediately above an internal transverse partition forming the ?oor of a ?oodable portion thereof, and is sealed below said partition to retain su?icient reserve buoyancy to rise and drain itself when free to do so. 10 is resiliently opposed by, depression of said buoy ancy member and said buoyancy member being 10 ERNEST JAMES BUCKTON.