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Патент USA US2120742

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June 14, 1938.
Original Filed Feb. 9, 1934
Patented June 14, 1938
Francis Wilson Grundy, Rainford, near St.
Helens, England, assignor to Rainford Potteries
Limited, Rainford, England, a British company
Original application February 9, 1934, Serial No.
710,551. Divided and this application August
20, 1936, Serial No. 97,069. In Great Britain
April 28, 1933
2 Claims.
The present invention relates to new and use
ful improvements in tiles or slabs of the type
shown in my copending application Serial No.
710,551, ?led February 9, 1934 of which this is a
5 division. The invention relates more particular
ly to improvements in tiles or slabs which are
made from ceramic earthenware or the like ma
It has been heretofore proposed to provide hol
10 low clay bodies of rectangular or substantially
rectangular section with longitudinal grooves to
form cleavage lines for the baked body. With
the exception of hollow cylindrical bodies or
pipes it has hitherto not been possible to obtain
15 a tile or slab the surfaces of which wholly con
formed to that of the original clay body as def
ormation of the sides and surfaces of the body
occurred due to the fact that the resultant
stresses incident upon drying or baking did not
20 lie wholly within the inner and outer bound
ing surfaces of the body.
An object of the present invention is to pro
vide a hollow clay body wherein the resultant
stresses incident to the drying and baking of the
25 clay body are evenly distributed and lie wholly
within its material structure so that the re
sulting slabs, after the hollow body has been
split, have ?at and regular surfaces.
A further object of the invention is to provide
30 an extruded hollow polygonal clay body in
cluding at least one acute angle which is op
posed to an obtuse angle whereby the hollow
body can be readily split through the apices of
the opposed obtuse and acute angles to form
35 angle slabs having truly ?at surfaces.
The above and other objects of the invention
will in part be obvious and will be hereinafter
more fully pointed out.
The invention relates generally to the provi
40 sions of an extruded hollow clay body having at
three sides or at most four sides wherein two
pairs of the sides are identical and disposed rel
ative to one another so that the hollow‘ clay
body is provided with at least one acute angle
45 which is directly opposed to a flat surface or to
(Cl. 72—41)
poses unless completely ?at is useless for aesthet
ic reasons.
Angular slabs of this character are particu—
larly desirable as facing bricks or tiles for form
ing corners or angles of a building where two
walls join one another so that there is no
mortar or cement seam visible down the corner
of the building. These slabs may also be used
in the making of window-sills or the like. Where
two Walls join one another at an angle of nine 10
ty degrees, it is obvious that the angle within
each duplicate slab will also be ninety degrees.
The invention is more particularly described
with reference to the accompanying drawing in
Figure 2 shows an alternative form of clay
body in end perspective View.
Figure 3 is the same body in side perspective 20
In one method of construction, plastic clay
is forced by mechanical or hydraulic pressure
between a central mandrel of substantially tri
angular shape in cross-section and an outer die 25
ring having a substantially triangular inner sur
face in cross-section. The apices of the hollow
prismatic body so extruded as shown in the
drawing are provided with grooves I.
Any desired grooving, such as 2, may be left on 30
the inside walls. This body is then dried, the
drying operation preferably including an initial
rapid drying of its surface immediately after ex
trusion from the die to convert the surface into
a porous state, whereby blisters are avoided 'on 35
subsequent baking. The element is then baked
to the biscuit stage. It may then be glazed and
re?red, whereupon the element can be broken up
into three separate slabs about the cleavage lines
3 at the bottom of the grooves l, thereby forming 40
three slabs of any desired dimensions.
Where it is desired to form smaller tiles, the
grooves, such as 4 may be cut in. the soft clay prior
to baking to form extra cleavage lines subsequent
to baking.
In another method of construction shown in
an obtuse angle. Thus, the hollow clay body is
symmetrical about a line intersecting the base
Figures 2 and 3 plastic clay is forced by mechani
or apex of the opposed obtuse, and apex of the
cal or hydraulic pressure between a central man
acute angle so that it may be split to provide
50 duplicate angular tiles or slabs which have
smooth internal and external surfaces. Hither
to it has been found almost impossible to se
cure perfectly flat slabs in dimensions larger
than a few square inches, due to the stresses set
55 up in drying and baking. A tile for facing pur
Figure 1 shows one form of clay body in per
drel of prismatic shape in cross-section and an
outer die ring of similar shape.
Grooves are preferably formed on the inside of
the body as shown at 5, by means of inwardly pro
jecting knives or the like from the die. These
grooves are preferably undercut, and as shown at
6 and 1, may be reversed relatively to one another 55
to form a good keying for cement or plaster-work,
by which the slabs are attached. It will be found
It will be found that the body, when baked, will
split readily at the “apex” 9 of the body, and
also at the opposing apex l0, thus forming two
or to predetermine the width of the ?nished slab.
From the foregoing description, it will be ap
parent that minor changes in the details of con
struction and arrangement of parts may be made
Without departing from the scope of the invention 5
as set forth in the appended claims.
I declare that what I claim is:-
angular slabs H, 12, of unequal sides, which are
particularly suitable for ledges or corner-work in
polygonal clay body, the inner and outer surfaces
that a roughened edge 8 is formed at one side of
these grooves, which further assists this.
10 the facing of buildings.
In the manufacture of the body, it is preferably
dried after extrusion, the drying operation pref
erably including an initial rapid drying of its'sur
face immediately after extrusion from the die to
15 convert the surface into a porous state, whereby
blisters are avoided on subsequent baking. The
element is then baked to the biscuit stage. It may
then be glazed and re-?red, whereupon the ele
ment can be broken up into two separate angular
slabs about the cleavage apices 9, l0.
Cleavage lines [3 may be formed in the clay
prior to baking to facilitate trimming of the slab
1. As a new article of manufacture, a hollow
of which are bounded by parallel planes and hav 10
ing acute and obtuse angles directly opposed to
one another and including at least two pairs of
symmetrical sides.
2. As a new article of manufacture a four-sided
hollow clay bodyhaving an acute angle directly 15
opposed to an obtuse angle and being symmetrical
about a line intersecting said angles whereby the
body may be split through the apices of said
angles to form duplicate angular slabs, the inner
and outer surfaces of each side of said body lying 20
in parallel planes. '
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