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Патент USA US2120784

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June' 14, 1938.
' Filed June 18, 1955
'4 Sheets-Sheet 1
June 1%,, 1955
/ 551m
(4 Shams-Sheet 2
il l l'l l lil'l l ls
M4 5 (11" gm
Filed June 18, 1955
4 Sheets-Sheet 3
June 14, 1938.
w. T.‘ HowALD .
Filed June 18, 1935
4 Sheets-Sheet 4 ,
$5.45. ‘
Z4 "50 I)“:
Patented June 14,v 1938
Werner T. Howaid, Brooklyn, N. ‘SY.
Application June 18, 1935, Serial No. 273%
’ 3 Claims.
‘ This invention relates .to apparatus for auto
matically distributing liquid ‘under high pressure
and more particularly to hydraulically operated
apparatus which is especially adapted to deliver
5 high pressure jets of liquid upon the interior sur
faces of compartments, such for example as tanks
(Cl. 299-67)
Referring to the drawings and the construc
tion shown therein, the reference numerals i and
2 designate the upper, and lower relatively ro
tatable sections of the spindle housing of said
spray head, the. former having a top ?ange 3, 5
and intermediate ?ange t, and having a re
duced cylindrical portion 5 which snugly fits with
nomically accomplishing either the e?ective. in the upper end of the section 2. A '?anged
or other receptacles, for expeditiously and eco
cleansing of such surfaces or, in case the appara
housing 6 is bolted~to the upper end of said sec
drenching of the surfaces of such compartment
which is tapped to receive a hose connecting bush
ing 8. A ratchet housing it], having an apertured
lower end, is secured‘ to the lower end-of the sec
10 tus is employed for ?re prevention, the eifective - tion i, the same having an inlet aperture 1 10
and material stored therein.
Among the principal objects of the invention
' are the provision of a simple, compact, rugged and
15 highly e?lcient device which while normally op
erated hydraulically may be also easily rotated
through a partial revolution in order to facilid
tate the ready insertion and removal of the dis
tributor head of the apparatus through rela
20 tiveiy small openings in a deck or ?oor which
covers the particular compartment into which it
_ is desired that the streams of liquid be projected.
Another object of the invention is the automatic
compensation of any change in pressure of the‘
25 liquid delivered to the apparatus whereby, with
out necessitating any manual adjustments of the
parts thereof, any change in the speed of move
ment of the nozzles, due to such pressure changes,
will be minimized. Further objects of the inven
tion 2, the same being rigidly secured together by
a thrust nut i i that is screwed on the lower end 1
of the elongated, depending bearing boss 12 which
is cast integral with three depending converging
struts or truss members l3 which are integral
vwith the housing section 2. A roller bearing I4
is interposed between said unit I I and the bottom
of section 2 of the housing, the same ‘encircling
the depending neck l5, and a bushing I6 is in
terposed between the boss i2 and the adjacent
surface of the lower end of section 2.
As shown, the con?guration of the housing-6 25
and section 2 of the spindle housing are such as
to form an ovoid chamber A within which is po
sitioned a two-piece oviform de?ector member
comprising a stationary guide vane-head 20, ,
equipped with a peripheral series of curved vanes 30
2i, and a rotatable runner skirt element 22. To
the latter is bolted a runner 23, which latter is
and also the reduction of power 10%, due to fric- - also provided with a peripheral series of curved
impeller vanes or blades 24 (see Fig. 10) that are
tion, to a minimum because of the effective lu
of opposite curvature to the aforesaid vanes 2|.
brication of the moving parts with the water be
Said vane-head 20 is mounted in a ‘?anged.
ing circulated through the apparatus. Still other
objects of the invention are hereinafter set forth. sleeve 25 which is provided with a peripheral-se
In the accompanying drawings in which I have ries of slots 26 that are adapted to receive lugs 21
formed on the top of the vanes 2| and both said
illustrated a preferred form of my invention
Figure 1 is a vertical section of my improved lugs and the top of said vanes 2|, as shown, are 40
spraying apparatus or so-called spray head; and streamlined, i. e. of generally curvilineal or el
liptical cross-section. The housing 6 and the
Fig. 2 is a side elevation thereof;
Figs. 3 and 4. are sectionsv on lines 3-3 and 4-4 upper end of said section I are grooved, as shown,
‘to form an annular recess 28 for the reception of
respectively of Fig. 2;
the top ?ange of the sleeve 25 and the inner wall 45
Fig. 5 is a side elevation‘ of, the nozzle mem
ber, isolated, viewed from the inner face thereof ; of said section 2 is grooved to form a recess 29
, into which the sleeve 25 is adapted to partially
Fig. 6 is a side elevation of the nozzle gear;
Figs. '7 and 8 are horizontal sections on the enter but, as shown, the margin of the top'of
recess 28 overhangs the margin of the bottom
lines 'l--'| and 8-8 of Fig. 1, respectively;
Fig. 9 is a side elevation of, the top of the of recess 29 and consequently when the ‘sleeve 25 ‘50
30 tion are the elimination of’ any fire hazard, due
to possible sparking, such as is likely to occur in‘
the case of electrically driven distributor heads,
guide vane head, isolated;
is mounted in the position shown in Fig. 1, the
- Fig. 10 is an’elevation and Fig. 11 a plan of
the vane-carrying runner, isolated; and
Fig. 12 is a perspective view of the sleeve whic
55 is associated with said vane-head.
inner face of the body proper of said sleeve will- '
extend inwardly a slight distance beyond the
outer edges of the vanes 24. thereby serving to
de?ect water passing over said sleeve away from 55
the' narrow slit 80 and lessen the tendency for
objectionable gritty sediment or scale to pass
through said slit 38 and into the narrow space 8|
between the outer edges of the vanes 24 and the
adjacent inner wall of section I. Said sleeve is
positioned by means of a locating pin 32 which
?ts into a vertical slot 33 formed in the inner face
of section I and which pin also positively prevents
any possibility of rotation of the sleeve 25 and'
the vane-head 20 carried thereby by the rapid
current of water impacting against the vanes 2|.
A spindle member 35 projects through the hollow
boss i2, the same having a cylindrical upper end
86 of reduced diameter and a portion, as desigr
the top of the skirt 22 and both of these members
are rigidly secured to each other by pins 88.
As shown, in order to admit of the water lubri
cation of all of the wearing parts, the vane-head
20 and hub 88 are provided with top apertures 85
and 88, a slight clearance is provided between the
spindle and the adjacent wall of the hollow boss
l2, as well as between the unit H and the adja
cent wall of the rachet housing l0.
While any suitable nozzle member may be em
wherein the respective nozzles proper, such as
indicated by the reference numerals 80, are offset
15 nated by the numeral 81, which is approxi
with respect to each other and the respective
mately square in cross-section. The upper end outlets from the hub of the nozzle member to the
of the spindle projects into a bushed recess 88 in nozzles are not diametrically opposed to each
the hub 39 of said vane-head 24 and at its lower other and thereby the rotation of the nozzles
end, which is also reduced and of rectangular about both a horizontal and vertical axis, while
20 cross-section, is mounted in and has a drive lit, primarily effected by the worm gearing, which is
with a crank 46 which is mounted in a bushing in turn actuated by the impeller element or liquid
41 carried in the central boss 42 of a crank hear
motor, will be augmented by the reactance of the
ing 48 and which bearing is secured by cap screw water being discharged through the nozzles and
44 to lug 45 formed on the inner face of ratchet consequently the pressure on the gear will be re
25 housing l0. lieved with the consequent substantial reduction
The eccentric arm 46 of said crank projects in the wear on the teeth of thevarious gears of
through a bronze bushing 41 carried by a pawl the spray head, all without there being any possi
member 48 that is adapted to, oscillate on said bility of the reactance of the water on such offset
crank arm. A laminated leaf spring 48 which is nozzles causing the over-running of the same
80 rigidly clamped to housing serves to normally _ beyond the selected speed as determined by the
press said pawl against the teeth of a ratchet gear ratios and velocity of the water introduced
wheel 50 that is rotatably mounted on the lower through the inlet into the spray head. It is
end of a vertical worm shaft 5| which is mounted - especially desirable where reactance nozzles are
in bushed bearings 52 and 53 carried by a worm utilized for the above stated purpose that the
85 housing 54 that is secured by cap screws 55 and same should be but slightly offset or but slightly
56 to arms 51 and 58 which arms project inwardly bent so as to produce but a slight reactance in
from the ratchet housing and the section 2 of the order to take up any lost motion and minimize
spindle housing respectively.
wear on gear teeth but insufficient to‘ exert ex
A nozzle feed pipe‘ 60, which is integrally
formed on section 2 of the spindle housing, has'a
bearing boss 8| projecting outwardly therefrom,
serves as a support for a nozzle member 82 which
is rotatably mounted thereon, said nozzle member
being retained by a thrust nut . 63 which is
45 threaded on the outer end of the boss ‘8|.
A nozzle gear 85 and a worm gear 68, which are
rigidly secured together by pins 61, are loosely
mounted on the hollow boss or intake conduit 88
.of the nozzle member in such a manner as to be
5.0 capable of limited rotation through a partial
revolution with respect to said nozzle member,
this being accomplished by means of oppositely
disposed lugs 88 formed on the inner face of the
nozzle, (see Fig. 5) which are adapted to effect
55 the positive drive of the nozzle members when
they are rotated so as to engage. co-operating lugs
10 formed on outer end of the nozzle gear 85 (see
Fig. 6). A stationary ring gear 18 is secured by
60 cap screws 18 to the lower face of the ?ange '4
of section I of spindle housing, said gear being
in permanent mesh with the'said nozzle gear 85.
In order to eil’ect the positive drive of the'spindle
by the~ runner 28, the hollow hub 80 of said run- I
65 ner is provided with a cylindrical bore‘ 8i
throughout the major portion of the height there
i of which is of a size to snugly receive the reduced
ployed‘with my improved spray head, I prefer
ably employ reactance nozzle member elements
cessive'pressure on such teeth.
In order to cause the‘jets issuing from the 40
nozzles to travel in constantly changing paths
wherein‘such change occurs in precise predeter
mined‘ increments of change, the number of
teeth in the vertical gear 85 should include a
hunting tooth, or in other words the number of 45
teeth should be greater by one than the number
of teeth in the horizontal stationary gear 15, or
vice versa, for example where it is desired that
the nozzles should rotate in a complete cycle in
one-half hour and the rotation of such nozzles
about a horizontal axis should be about 1%
R. P. M. and the water pressure employed should
be between 150 and 180 lbs. per square inch, I
.have found that a ratio of 41 teeth in the vertical
gear to 40 in the stationary horizontal gear to be
eminently satisfactory.
As an example of the manner in which my im
proved spray. head may be employed in the clean
ing of a tank of a petroleum cargo vessel in order
to gas free the same and to remove residual
deposits from the walls ‘thereof, the following is
The spray head, after being coupled by means
of the coupling 8 to a ?exible hose which is con
nected to a source of high pressure water supply, 65
for example water heated to about 180° F. and
under 180 lbs. pressure per square inch, is
cylindrical upper end 86 of the spindle and at the , introduced through a small opening in a deck
of such tanker above the particular tank to be
70 con?guration, forming a slot 82 which is adapted cleaned, after first insuring that the nozzles had 70'
to fit over the square section 81 of the spindle and been manually turned substantially in the posi
thereby insure rotation of the said spindle upon tion shown in Fig.1 so that the longitudinal axis
rotation of said runner by the impact of the thereof is substantially parallel to the longitudi
power liquid with the vanes or blades of said nal axis of the housing of the spray head or of
75 runner. The bottom of said runner is fitted Over the spindle thereof. Water is then introduced 75
lower end of said bore the same is of rectangular
from such source of supply into the housing 6,
wherein substantially all the water except that
which incidentally passes through the aperture
85 in the vane-head will be deflected outwardly
around the vane-head and forcibly impact
against the vanes 2| thereof. The curvature of
these vanes is such as to create an effective start
ing torque on the vanes onv the runner 23 and
consequently these latter vanes and the skirt 22,
10 to which such runner is secured, will be caused
to rapidly rotate. Thereby through the spindle
35, the crank 40 will be rapidly rotated in exact
consonance with the rotation of the runner and,
through the ratchet'mechanism, in accordance
15 with the well known principle of operation there
of, the worm shaft 5! will be rotated step by
step and its worm will in turn effect the rotation
of the worm gear in mesh therewith which will
effect the rotation of the vertical nozzle gear,
20 affixed thereto, at relatively slow speed depend
ing upon their reduction effected by said wormv
and ratchet mechanism, and the rotation of said
nozzles will be effected in consonance with the
rotation of said nozzle gear due to the engage
ment' of the respective lugs 69 and ‘ill on the
nozzle member and the nozzle gear and due to
the fact that the horizontal gear 175 and the noz
zle gear 65 each have a different number‘ of teeth,
the number preferably differing by one, as above
30 stated, the jet of liquid projected from the cham
ber A through the nozzle intake conduit will, as
it issues from the nozzle tips, travel in a con
stantly changing path along the tank walls until
the spray head is operated through a complete
35 cycle, whereupon the spray head will return to
its original position insofar as the position of the
section 2 of the spindle housing and the position
of the respective nozzles are concerned, and
thereupon the cycles of operation are repeated.
As shown, the crank 40 is preferably supported
in a crank journal 95 to which it is eccentrically
secured being rigidly connected thereto by means
of a taper pin 96, and said journal is preferably
supported on an anti-friction washer, which also
serves as a thrust washer, as designated by the
reference numeral 91! and which seats upon the
shoulder 98 formed adjacent the bottom of the
journal well 99 of said ratchet housing.
Among the advantages of my improved con
60 struction, other than those above specified, are
that the liquid motor being mounted in a sta
tionary conduit, there is no waste of water by
passage through a revolving secondary conduit,
and as a consequence, it is possible to utilize the
55 full force obtainable from the flow of the entire
stream of water without any part being diverted
to operate a secondary motor or secondary feed
pipe. One of the distinct advantages of this
arrangement is the fact that the speed of rota
60 tion of the nozzles will be ‘substantially constant
with a given velocity of water and since the
velocity of the water, while a function of the
pressure does not vary directly therewith and
therefore is not subject to the same variation as
65 is the pressure of the water, it is possible, even
when the pressure falls from 180 lbs. per square
inch to about 100 lbs. per square inch, to main—
.tain the nozzle speed far more uniform than
would be the case if the velocity of the water
70 varied directly with, the pressure and, due to
the very great reduction effected by the ratchet
and worm mechanism aforesaid the difference
in the speed of rotation of said nozzles even when
the velocity of the water varies considerably, is
75 scarcely noticeable. Likewise, when a high water
pressure, say of 180 lbs. per square inch, or su?l
cient pressure to substantially overcome the fric
tion due to the resistance of the bearings, ratchet
mechanism and worm, is present in the system
the herein described ratchet ‘mechanism, in con
junction with the worm, not only acts as an
escapement to prevent any over-running of the
nozzles in response to any reactance of the water
thereon, when reactance nozzles of the type here- ,
in described are employed, but such mechanism 10
and worm permit of accomplishing a high ratio
of reduction with a minimum loss of power, due
to the essential absence of ordinary reducing
gears, such as would otherwise be required in
order to accomplish the high reduction which is 15
necessary to effect where water under pressure
of 180 lbs. per square inch is introduced into the
spray head and a nozzle speed, as is eminently
desirable, of but a very few revolutions per min
ute is to be effected, preferably of about 1%; 20
R. P. M._ Furthermore, by the employment of
the two sets of vanes of opposite curvature on the
vane-head and runner respectively, not only as
above stated is it possible to quickly start the
spindle in rotation, but the tendency of the same 25
to lift in its bearings and exert excessive and
undesirable upward pressure against the top
bearing in which it is mounted due to the inertia
of rest, is eliminated.
This application is a continuation in part of 30
my copending application Ser. No. 695,460 filed
October 27, 1933.
The step-by-step or intermittent movement of
the nozzles both about a horizontal'as well as a
vertical axis which is effected by the liquid motor
acting through the ratchet and worm mechanism
is especially advantageous in the cleaning of pe
troleum cargo tanks to remove oil residuum there
from, since the same insures that the hot high
pressure jets issuing from the nozzles to linger 40
or dwell temporarily on each area of the tank
against which the jets impinge, relieve the load
on the motor.-
While the form of spray head herein described
has proven eminently satisfactory in ‘actual op ,45
eration, it is to be understood that the same is
merely illustrative of my invention and that var
ious changes may be made therein without de
parting from the spirit of my invention as em»
braced within the scope of theappended claims.
Having thus described my invention, what I‘
claim and desire to obtain by United States
Letters Patent is:
1. A spray head for cleaning tanks and the
like, comprising a main feed conduit, a second 55
ary feed conduit rotatably mounted thereon, a
nozzle member mounted on said latter conduit, a
liquid motor, including a rotor member, having a
series of driven blades, mounted in one of said
feed conduits and directly interposed in the path 60
of the washing liquid ?owing to the nozzle mem
ber, an intermediate worm gear and ratchet
mechanism interposed between said liquid motor
and said nozzle member for effecting step-by-step
rotation of the nozzle member at an extremely slow 65
speed as compared with the speed of rotation of,
said rotor member, said liquid motor serving to
either itself drive the nozzle member or else co
operate with said worm gear and ratchet mecha
nism to maintain a substantially uniform speed of 70
rotation of the nozzle member, when the reactance
of the liquid being discharged therefrom might
tend to otherwise cause the speed of the nozzle
member to ?uctuate, and a de?ector element po
sitioned above said rotor member and having a 75
' peripheral series oi.’ blades arranged to discharge
liquid at an angle to the vertical axis of the spray
head and against the blades of the rotor member.
2. A spray head as claimed in claim 1, in which
the secondary feed conduit is so mounted as to .
be rotatable about a vertical axis and having the
nozzle member rotatably mounted on said rotat
' able secondary feed conduit in such a manner
as to be capable of rotating about a horizontal
10 axis while said conduit is rotating about a verti
‘connection can be e?ected between said hub and
said spindle, a boss secured to and depending
from the first mentioned housing, the same serv
ing as a guide for the lower end of said spindle,
an eccentric crank member having a drive ?t with
the lower end of said spindle, a bottom bearing
for supporting the same, a pawl member mov
ably mounted on said crank member, an asso
ciated ratchet wheel, elastic means for main
taining said pawl normally in engagement with 10
cal axis.
the teeth of said ratchet wheel, a reactance nozzle
lower end thereof, a sleeve mounted in the wall of
each other at the respective discharge ends
thereof, said nozzle member being rotatably 15
mounted on said rotatable housing, co-operat
3. A spray head comprising a main housing, a' member, having oppositely extending conduits
secondary rotatable housing mounted on the which are of opposite curvature with respect to
said main housing, a de?ector element having a
series of curvilinear blades on the periphery
extend into recesses formed in said sleeve, a rotor
ing stop members carried byasaid nozzle member
and the secondary rotatable housing, respectively,
element positioned beneath said de?ector and
for permitting independent movement of the
thereof, said blades having projecting lugs which
‘having a plurality of blades disposed on the pe
nozzle member about a horizontal axis through 20
riphery thereof, which are of generally opposite
curvature to the aforesaid blades carried by said
a partial revolution, with respect to the ratchet
wheel, when the respective stop members are
disengaged, while effecting the positive drive of
said nozzle member by said gearing when said
stop members are in engagement with each other, 25
de?ector, a hub member carried by said rotor
element, the same having a cylindrical bore ex
tending throughout the greater portion thereof
and having a rectangular slot adjacent the bot
tom of said bore,_ a spindle member having a
cylindrical upper end mounted in said hub, said
spindle having a portion of substantially rec
tangular cross-section adjacent its upper end,
which portion is adapted to have a snug ?t in
the slot in said hub-member, wherebya drive
and gears, including a worm gear, associated with
said ratchet wheel for eiiecting positive rotation
of said nozzle member about a horizontal axis
and of said rotatable housing about a vertical axis
in response to the movement of said ‘rotor ele 30
ment by' power liquid delivered to said spray head.
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