Патент USA US2120784код для вставки
June' 14, 1938. w, T, HQWALD ' 2,120,? APPARATUS FOR WASHING TANKS AND THE LIKE ' Filed June 18, 1955 '4 Sheets-Sheet 1 8 .75 I EQJ’ATTIIORNEYQ JAF?B¢RATUS v ,, FOR WASHING TANKS AND THE LIKE ' 1mm ' ,4 June 1%,, 1955 / 551m llllllllllHiiiiii‘ _ (4 Shams-Sheet 2 4 Ill"llilklllsllaih‘lf il l l'l l lil'l l ls “ BY M4 5 (11" gm Jww ATTORNEY. vJump!"19:38; _ ' W.T.HOWALD 2,120,784 APPARATUS FOIRWA'SHING TANKS AND THE LIKE Filed June 18, 1955 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 INVENTOR: f . ATTORNEY." June 14, 1938. w. T.‘ HowALD . 2,120,784 APPARATUS FORv WASHING TANKS AND THE LIKE ' Filed June 18, 1935 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 , $5.45. ‘ r26 ‘ ‘WWI. H Z4 "50 I)“: , 8/’ ' . INVENTOR.‘ ' ' . ” t ‘ I A ' BY - . 1; ' ATTORNEY.‘ ' 22,120,784 Patented June 14,v 1938 UNITED sTATEs PATENT APPARATUS FOR WASmG 'E'g AND THE Werner T. Howaid, Brooklyn, N. ‘SY. Application June 18, 1935, Serial No. 273% ’ 3 Claims. ‘ This invention relates .to apparatus for auto matically distributing liquid ‘under high pressure and more particularly to hydraulically operated apparatus which is especially adapted to deliver 5 high pressure jets of liquid upon the interior sur faces of compartments, such for example as tanks (Cl. 299-67) Referring to the drawings and the construc tion shown therein, the reference numerals i and 2 designate the upper, and lower relatively ro tatable sections of the spindle housing of said spray head, the. former having a top ?ange 3, 5 and intermediate ?ange t, and having a re duced cylindrical portion 5 which snugly fits with nomically accomplishing either the e?ective. in the upper end of the section 2. A '?anged or other receptacles, for expeditiously and eco cleansing of such surfaces or, in case the appara housing 6 is bolted~to the upper end of said sec drenching of the surfaces of such compartment which is tapped to receive a hose connecting bush ing 8. A ratchet housing it], having an apertured lower end, is secured‘ to the lower end-of the sec 10 tus is employed for ?re prevention, the eifective - tion i, the same having an inlet aperture 1 10 and material stored therein. Among the principal objects of the invention ' are the provision of a simple, compact, rugged and 15 highly e?lcient device which while normally op erated hydraulically may be also easily rotated through a partial revolution in order to facilid tate the ready insertion and removal of the dis tributor head of the apparatus through rela 20 tiveiy small openings in a deck or ?oor which covers the particular compartment into which it _ is desired that the streams of liquid be projected. Another object of the invention is the automatic compensation of any change in pressure of the‘ 25 liquid delivered to the apparatus whereby, with out necessitating any manual adjustments of the parts thereof, any change in the speed of move ment of the nozzles, due to such pressure changes, will be minimized. Further objects of the inven tion 2, the same being rigidly secured together by a thrust nut i i that is screwed on the lower end 1 of the elongated, depending bearing boss 12 which is cast integral with three depending converging struts or truss members l3 which are integral vwith the housing section 2. A roller bearing I4 is interposed between said unit I I and the bottom of section 2 of the housing, the same ‘encircling the depending neck l5, and a bushing I6 is in terposed between the boss i2 and the adjacent surface of the lower end of section 2. 20v . As shown, the con?guration of the housing-6 25 and section 2 of the spindle housing are such as to form an ovoid chamber A within which is po sitioned a two-piece oviform de?ector member comprising a stationary guide vane-head 20, , equipped with a peripheral series of curved vanes 30 2i, and a rotatable runner skirt element 22. To the latter is bolted a runner 23, which latter is and also the reduction of power 10%, due to fric- - also provided with a peripheral series of curved impeller vanes or blades 24 (see Fig. 10) that are tion, to a minimum because of the effective lu of opposite curvature to the aforesaid vanes 2|. brication of the moving parts with the water be Said vane-head 20 is mounted in a ‘?anged. ing circulated through the apparatus. Still other objects of the invention are hereinafter set forth. sleeve 25 which is provided with a peripheral-se In the accompanying drawings in which I have ries of slots 26 that are adapted to receive lugs 21 formed on the top of the vanes 2| and both said illustrated a preferred form of my invention Figure 1 is a vertical section of my improved lugs and the top of said vanes 2|, as shown, are 40 spraying apparatus or so-called spray head; and streamlined, i. e. of generally curvilineal or el liptical cross-section. The housing 6 and the Fig. 2 is a side elevation thereof; Figs. 3 and 4. are sectionsv on lines 3-3 and 4-4 upper end of said section I are grooved, as shown, ‘to form an annular recess 28 for the reception of respectively of Fig. 2; ' the top ?ange of the sleeve 25 and the inner wall 45 Fig. 5 is a side elevation‘ of, the nozzle mem ber, isolated, viewed from the inner face thereof ; of said section 2 is grooved to form a recess 29 , into which the sleeve 25 is adapted to partially Fig. 6 is a side elevation of the nozzle gear; Figs. '7 and 8 are horizontal sections on the enter but, as shown, the margin of the top'of recess 28 overhangs the margin of the bottom lines 'l--'| and 8-8 of Fig. 1, respectively; Fig. 9 is a side elevation of, the top of the of recess 29 and consequently when the ‘sleeve 25 ‘50 30 tion are the elimination of’ any fire hazard, due to possible sparking, such as is likely to occur in‘ the case of electrically driven distributor heads, ' 35 40 45 guide vane head, isolated; is mounted in the position shown in Fig. 1, the , - Fig. 10 is an’elevation and Fig. 11 a plan of the vane-carrying runner, isolated; and ' Fig. 12 is a perspective view of the sleeve whic 55 is associated with said vane-head. inner face of the body proper of said sleeve will- ' extend inwardly a slight distance beyond the outer edges of the vanes 24. thereby serving to de?ect water passing over said sleeve away from 55 2 V10 . 2,120,784 the' narrow slit 80 and lessen the tendency for objectionable gritty sediment or scale to pass through said slit 38 and into the narrow space 8| between the outer edges of the vanes 24 and the adjacent inner wall of section I. Said sleeve is positioned by means of a locating pin 32 which ?ts into a vertical slot 33 formed in the inner face of section I and which pin also positively prevents any possibility of rotation of the sleeve 25 and' the vane-head 20 carried thereby by the rapid current of water impacting against the vanes 2|. A spindle member 35 projects through the hollow boss i2, the same having a cylindrical upper end 86 of reduced diameter and a portion, as desigr the top of the skirt 22 and both of these members are rigidly secured to each other by pins 88. As shown, in order to admit of the water lubri cation of all of the wearing parts, the vane-head 20 and hub 88 are provided with top apertures 85 and 88, a slight clearance is provided between the spindle and the adjacent wall of the hollow boss l2, as well as between the unit H and the adja cent wall of the rachet housing l0. ' While any suitable nozzle member may be em wherein the respective nozzles proper, such as indicated by the reference numerals 80, are offset 15 nated by the numeral 81, which is approxi with respect to each other and the respective mately square in cross-section. The upper end outlets from the hub of the nozzle member to the of the spindle projects into a bushed recess 88 in nozzles are not diametrically opposed to each the hub 39 of said vane-head 24 and at its lower other and thereby the rotation of the nozzles end, which is also reduced and of rectangular about both a horizontal and vertical axis, while 20 cross-section, is mounted in and has a drive lit, primarily effected by the worm gearing, which is with a crank 46 which is mounted in a bushing in turn actuated by the impeller element or liquid 41 carried in the central boss 42 of a crank hear motor, will be augmented by the reactance of the ing 48 and which bearing is secured by cap screw water being discharged through the nozzles and 44 to lug 45 formed on the inner face of ratchet consequently the pressure on the gear will be re _ 25 housing l0. lieved with the consequent substantial reduction The eccentric arm 46 of said crank projects in the wear on the teeth of thevarious gears of through a bronze bushing 41 carried by a pawl the spray head, all without there being any possi member 48 that is adapted to, oscillate on said bility of the reactance of the water on such offset crank arm. A laminated leaf spring 48 which is nozzles causing the over-running of the same 80 rigidly clamped to housing serves to normally _ beyond the selected speed as determined by the press said pawl against the teeth of a ratchet gear ratios and velocity of the water introduced wheel 50 that is rotatably mounted on the lower through the inlet into the spray head. It is end of a vertical worm shaft 5| which is mounted - especially desirable where reactance nozzles are in bushed bearings 52 and 53 carried by a worm utilized for the above stated purpose that the 85 housing 54 that is secured by cap screws 55 and same should be but slightly offset or but slightly 56 to arms 51 and 58 which arms project inwardly bent so as to produce but a slight reactance in from the ratchet housing and the section 2 of the order to take up any lost motion and minimize spindle housing respectively. wear on gear teeth but insufficient to‘ exert ex A nozzle feed pipe‘ 60, which is integrally formed on section 2 of the spindle housing, has'a bearing boss 8| projecting outwardly therefrom, serves as a support for a nozzle member 82 which is rotatably mounted thereon, said nozzle member being retained by a thrust nut . 63 which is 45 threaded on the outer end of the boss ‘8|. A nozzle gear 85 and a worm gear 68, which are rigidly secured together by pins 61, are loosely mounted on the hollow boss or intake conduit 88 .of the nozzle member in such a manner as to be 5.0 capable of limited rotation through a partial revolution with respect to said nozzle member, this being accomplished by means of oppositely disposed lugs 88 formed on the inner face of the nozzle, (see Fig. 5) which are adapted to effect 55 the positive drive of the nozzle members when they are rotated so as to engage. co-operating lugs 10 formed on outer end of the nozzle gear 85 (see Fig. 6). A stationary ring gear 18 is secured by 60 cap screws 18 to the lower face of the ?ange '4 of section I of spindle housing, said gear being in permanent mesh with the'said nozzle gear 85. In order to eil’ect the positive drive of the'spindle by the~ runner 28, the hollow hub 80 of said run- I 65 ner is provided with a cylindrical bore‘ 8i throughout the major portion of the height there i of which is of a size to snugly receive the reduced 10 ployed‘with my improved spray head, I prefer ably employ reactance nozzle member elements 15 20 25 30 35 cessive'pressure on such teeth. In order to cause the‘jets issuing from the 40 nozzles to travel in constantly changing paths wherein‘such change occurs in precise predeter mined‘ increments of change, the number of teeth in the vertical gear 85 should include a hunting tooth, or in other words the number of 45 teeth should be greater by one than the number of teeth in the horizontal stationary gear 15, or vice versa, for example where it is desired that the nozzles should rotate in a complete cycle in one-half hour and the rotation of such nozzles about a horizontal axis should be about 1% R. P. M. and the water pressure employed should be between 150 and 180 lbs. per square inch, I .have found that a ratio of 41 teeth in the vertical gear to 40 in the stationary horizontal gear to be eminently satisfactory. As an example of the manner in which my im proved spray. head may be employed in the clean ing of a tank of a petroleum cargo vessel in order to gas free the same and to remove residual deposits from the walls ‘thereof, the following is given: The spray head, after being coupled by means of the coupling 8 to a ?exible hose which is con nected to a source of high pressure water supply, 65 for example water heated to about 180° F. and under 180 lbs. pressure per square inch, is cylindrical upper end 86 of the spindle and at the , introduced through a small opening in a deck of such tanker above the particular tank to be 70 con?guration, forming a slot 82 which is adapted cleaned, after first insuring that the nozzles had 70' to fit over the square section 81 of the spindle and been manually turned substantially in the posi thereby insure rotation of the said spindle upon tion shown in Fig.1 so that the longitudinal axis rotation of said runner by the impact of the thereof is substantially parallel to the longitudi power liquid with the vanes or blades of said nal axis of the housing of the spray head or of 75 runner. The bottom of said runner is fitted Over the spindle thereof. Water is then introduced 75 lower end of said bore the same is of rectangular 3 2,120,784 from such source of supply into the housing 6, wherein substantially all the water except that which incidentally passes through the aperture 85 in the vane-head will be deflected outwardly around the vane-head and forcibly impact against the vanes 2| thereof. The curvature of these vanes is such as to create an effective start ing torque on the vanes onv the runner 23 and consequently these latter vanes and the skirt 22, 10 to which such runner is secured, will be caused to rapidly rotate. Thereby through the spindle 35, the crank 40 will be rapidly rotated in exact consonance with the rotation of the runner and, through the ratchet'mechanism, in accordance 15 with the well known principle of operation there of, the worm shaft 5! will be rotated step by step and its worm will in turn effect the rotation of the worm gear in mesh therewith which will effect the rotation of the vertical nozzle gear, 20 affixed thereto, at relatively slow speed depend ing upon their reduction effected by said wormv and ratchet mechanism, and the rotation of said nozzles will be effected in consonance with the rotation of said nozzle gear due to the engage ment' of the respective lugs 69 and ‘ill on the nozzle member and the nozzle gear and due to the fact that the horizontal gear 175 and the noz zle gear 65 each have a different number‘ of teeth, the number preferably differing by one, as above 30 stated, the jet of liquid projected from the cham ber A through the nozzle intake conduit will, as it issues from the nozzle tips, travel in a con stantly changing path along the tank walls until the spray head is operated through a complete 35 cycle, whereupon the spray head will return to its original position insofar as the position of the section 2 of the spindle housing and the position of the respective nozzles are concerned, and thereupon the cycles of operation are repeated. As shown, the crank 40 is preferably supported 40 in a crank journal 95 to which it is eccentrically secured being rigidly connected thereto by means of a taper pin 96, and said journal is preferably supported on an anti-friction washer, which also serves as a thrust washer, as designated by the reference numeral 91! and which seats upon the shoulder 98 formed adjacent the bottom of the journal well 99 of said ratchet housing. Among the advantages of my improved con 60 struction, other than those above specified, are that the liquid motor being mounted in a sta tionary conduit, there is no waste of water by passage through a revolving secondary conduit, and as a consequence, it is possible to utilize the 55 full force obtainable from the flow of the entire stream of water without any part being diverted to operate a secondary motor or secondary feed pipe. One of the distinct advantages of this arrangement is the fact that the speed of rota 60 tion of the nozzles will be ‘substantially constant with a given velocity of water and since the velocity of the water, while a function of the pressure does not vary directly therewith and therefore is not subject to the same variation as 65 is the pressure of the water, it is possible, even when the pressure falls from 180 lbs. per square inch to about 100 lbs. per square inch, to main— .tain the nozzle speed far more uniform than would be the case if the velocity of the water 70 varied directly with, the pressure and, due to the very great reduction effected by the ratchet and worm mechanism aforesaid the difference in the speed of rotation of said nozzles even when the velocity of the water varies considerably, is 75 scarcely noticeable. Likewise, when a high water pressure, say of 180 lbs. per square inch, or su?l cient pressure to substantially overcome the fric tion due to the resistance of the bearings, ratchet mechanism and worm, is present in the system the herein described ratchet ‘mechanism, in con junction with the worm, not only acts as an escapement to prevent any over-running of the nozzles in response to any reactance of the water thereon, when reactance nozzles of the type here- , in described are employed, but such mechanism 10 and worm permit of accomplishing a high ratio of reduction with a minimum loss of power, due to the essential absence of ordinary reducing gears, such as would otherwise be required in order to accomplish the high reduction which is 15 necessary to effect where water under pressure of 180 lbs. per square inch is introduced into the spray head and a nozzle speed, as is eminently desirable, of but a very few revolutions per min ute is to be effected, preferably of about 1%; 20 R. P. M._ Furthermore, by the employment of the two sets of vanes of opposite curvature on the vane-head and runner respectively, not only as above stated is it possible to quickly start the spindle in rotation, but the tendency of the same 25 to lift in its bearings and exert excessive and undesirable upward pressure against the top bearing in which it is mounted due to the inertia of rest, is eliminated. This application is a continuation in part of 30 my copending application Ser. No. 695,460 filed October 27, 1933. The step-by-step or intermittent movement of the nozzles both about a horizontal'as well as a vertical axis which is effected by the liquid motor acting through the ratchet and worm mechanism is especially advantageous in the cleaning of pe troleum cargo tanks to remove oil residuum there from, since the same insures that the hot high pressure jets issuing from the nozzles to linger 40 or dwell temporarily on each area of the tank against which the jets impinge, relieve the load on the motor.- ‘ While the form of spray head herein described has proven eminently satisfactory in ‘actual op ,45 eration, it is to be understood that the same is merely illustrative of my invention and that var ious changes may be made therein without de parting from the spirit of my invention as em» braced within the scope of theappended claims. 50 Having thus described my invention, what I‘ claim and desire to obtain by United States Letters Patent is: 1. A spray head for cleaning tanks and the like, comprising a main feed conduit, a second 55 ary feed conduit rotatably mounted thereon, a nozzle member mounted on said latter conduit, a liquid motor, including a rotor member, having a series of driven blades, mounted in one of said feed conduits and directly interposed in the path 60 of the washing liquid ?owing to the nozzle mem ber, an intermediate worm gear and ratchet mechanism interposed between said liquid motor and said nozzle member for effecting step-by-step rotation of the nozzle member at an extremely slow 65 speed as compared with the speed of rotation of, said rotor member, said liquid motor serving to either itself drive the nozzle member or else co operate with said worm gear and ratchet mecha nism to maintain a substantially uniform speed of 70 rotation of the nozzle member, when the reactance of the liquid being discharged therefrom might tend to otherwise cause the speed of the nozzle member to ?uctuate, and a de?ector element po sitioned above said rotor member and having a 75 4 2,120,784 ' peripheral series oi.’ blades arranged to discharge liquid at an angle to the vertical axis of the spray head and against the blades of the rotor member. 2. A spray head as claimed in claim 1, in which the secondary feed conduit is so mounted as to . be rotatable about a vertical axis and having the nozzle member rotatably mounted on said rotat ' able secondary feed conduit in such a manner as to be capable of rotating about a horizontal 10 axis while said conduit is rotating about a verti _ ‘connection can be e?ected between said hub and said spindle, a boss secured to and depending from the first mentioned housing, the same serv ing as a guide for the lower end of said spindle, an eccentric crank member having a drive ?t with the lower end of said spindle, a bottom bearing for supporting the same, a pawl member mov ably mounted on said crank member, an asso ciated ratchet wheel, elastic means for main taining said pawl normally in engagement with 10 cal axis. the teeth of said ratchet wheel, a reactance nozzle lower end thereof, a sleeve mounted in the wall of each other at the respective discharge ends thereof, said nozzle member being rotatably 15 mounted on said rotatable housing, co-operat 3. A spray head comprising a main housing, a' member, having oppositely extending conduits secondary rotatable housing mounted on the which are of opposite curvature with respect to said main housing, a de?ector element having a series of curvilinear blades on the periphery extend into recesses formed in said sleeve, a rotor ing stop members carried byasaid nozzle member and the secondary rotatable housing, respectively, element positioned beneath said de?ector and for permitting independent movement of the thereof, said blades having projecting lugs which ‘having a plurality of blades disposed on the pe nozzle member about a horizontal axis through 20 riphery thereof, which are of generally opposite curvature to the aforesaid blades carried by said a partial revolution, with respect to the ratchet wheel, when the respective stop members are disengaged, while effecting the positive drive of said nozzle member by said gearing when said stop members are in engagement with each other, 25 de?ector, a hub member carried by said rotor element, the same having a cylindrical bore ex tending throughout the greater portion thereof and having a rectangular slot adjacent the bot tom of said bore,_ a spindle member having a cylindrical upper end mounted in said hub, said spindle having a portion of substantially rec 30 tangular cross-section adjacent its upper end, which portion is adapted to have a snug ?t in the slot in said hub-member, wherebya drive and gears, including a worm gear, associated with said ratchet wheel for eiiecting positive rotation of said nozzle member about a horizontal axis and of said rotatable housing about a vertical axis in response to the movement of said ‘rotor ele 30 ment by' power liquid delivered to said spray head. WERNER T. HOWALD.