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Патент USA US2120859

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June 14, 1938.
- w. s. DE LlsLE y'
2,120,859
AMAIJGAMATOR
Filed Nov. 2'7, r1935
I|i
37
70
/
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
`
June 14, 1938.
'
w. s. DE LlsLE
`
2,120,859
AMALGAMATOR
Filed Nov. 27, 1955
2 Sheets-»Sheet 2
Patented June 14, 193s
I 2,120,859
?UNITED -STATES
PATENT OFFICE ’
2,120,859
AMALGAMATOR
Winfield S. De Lisle, Colonia, N. J.
lApplication November 27, 1935, Serial No. 51,958
y
’
9 Claims.
(C1. 209-205)
The present invention relates to amalgamators
Vfor extracting gold and other precious metals
fromv ore in a pulverized or ñnely divided state.
w A»
One of the primary objects of the invention is
to provide an amalgamator which is capable of
extracting a greater portion of the gold or metal
from the ore than has heretofore been possible,
thus rendering it profitable to extract gold or
s
other metal from ore in which the gold or metal
fg? is present in relatively small proportion and
which it has heretofore been unproñtable to ex
tract.
.
A more particular object of the invention is
to provide an amalgamator wherein the ore con- .
1"(5î taining the> gold or other metal is forced down
wardly into a bath of mercury in a manner which
will effectively expose the gold or metal >to the
. mercury, thus insuring Aamalgamation of such
»_ gold or metal as the ore may contain, with the
mercury.
Y
Another object is to provide an amalgamator
wherein feed water and the ore are carried down
into the mercury and spread so that any gold
or metal contained in the ore will be amalga
25;» mated by the mercury and flaky or other parti
Y cles of the gold or metal which tend to float will
be prevented from washing away with the tailings
and thus lost.
v
Another object is to provide novel means for
V`gîyfïsubmerging the ore in the mercury whereby ef
fective contact between the ore and mercury is
produced without undue agitation of the mercury,
thus minimizing flouring of the mercury.
A further object of the invention is to provide
an amalgamator means for supplying wash
Figure 5 is a detail View of one of the distribu
tor pipes for supplying feed water or wash water.
Similar parts are designatedv by the same refer
ence characters in the several figures.
Y
,
'
The amalgamator shown in the present in
stance is particularly adapted for the extraction
of ñne particles of gold from ore in a pulverized
state or state4 of fine subdivision, but it isl to be
understood that the invention isV applicable to
the extraction of other metals capable of amal
gamating with .mercury and that the invention
is not restricted to the precise construction shown
since equivalent constructions are contemplated
and such will be included within the scope of
the claims.
Y
The amalgamator, as shown in the present in
stance, comprises a suitable frame which may
consist of longitudinally extending laterally
spaced side members l and a connecting cross
member 2, this frame supporting Within it a pan
or receptacle 3, composed preferably. of sheet iron
or other suitable metal which will not amalga
mate with mercury, this pan being supported
within the frame by a suitable number of angle
irons 4. This pan or receptacleforms a well in
which is contained a body or bath of mercury 5,
and the bottom of the well is provided with an
opening 6 through which the amalgamated gold
may be withdrawn from' time to time, this open
ing being normally closed by suitable means such
as by a screw plug 1. The portion 8V of the pan
toward the end thereof which receives the ore is
at a level slightly higher than the. portion 9 there
of at which the ore tailings are discharged, the
portion 9 preferably sloping downwardly to a>
water to remove the tailings from the mercury,„ ' ~tailings -discharge chute I0. 'I‘he pan is filled
withthe mercury to a level :1: which is slightly
in combination with a baffle over which the tail
ings pass and which protects the mercury which below the edge ila over which the tailings dis
charge in order to prevent discharge of the mer
_ lies beneath it.
`
cury from the pan, but permit the tailings to 40
To these and other ends, ythe invention ¿con
sists in certain improvements and combinations ' discharge from the surface of the body of mer
and arrangements of parts all as will be herein
A drum I I is mounted on the frame in coopera
after more fully described, thefeatures of nov
îelty being pointed out more particularly in thev tive relation with the` mercury containing pan or
receptacle. As shown in the present instance,
45 claims at the end of this specification. ,
this drum comprises a cylindrical peripheral por
' In the accompanying drawings:
Figure l isa top plan View, partly in section, tion I2, which may be -composed of wood or other
of an amalgamator constructed in accordance suitable material not affected by the mercury,
cury.
with the present invention;. .
50"' „Figure 2 is a vertical longitudinal section of
the amalgamator shown in Fig. l;
Figure 3 is a transverse vertical section, on an
enlarged scale `with portions broken-away;
Figure 4 is a vertical section taken on the line
53?;4-4 in Fig. 3; and
„
f
.
.
and apair of circularend members or heads I3
which may beV composed Vof» iron or other suitable 50
material inert to the mercury, the heads of thek
drum being clamped against the ends of the cyl
indrical portion I2 thereof by a lsuitable Vnum
ber of >tire bolts I4. The drum is supported ro
tatably in the frame by a shaft l5 which is 55
2
2,120,859
ñxed in the heads I3 and is journalled to rotate
in bearings I6 which may be supported on the
side members I of the frame, and this shaft is
provided with suitable means for rotating it, as
'for example a belt pulley I'I fixed on this shaft.
'I‘he cylindrical or peripheral portion I2 of the
drum has a series of ñights or blades I8 ar
ranged thereon in circumferentially spaced rela
`tion around its circumference and extending be
tween the heads I3 of the drum.
These nights
extend longitudinally of the drum but are ar
ranged preferably at a slight angle to the axis
of the drum so that the ends of the flights at one
end of the drum will be slightly in advance of the
15 ends thereof at the opposite end of the drum,
,for a purpose which will hereinafter appear. The
flights IB are preferably of angle form in cross
section, one flange of each flight being secured
to the periphery of the portion I2 of the drum
20 and the other flange thereof projecting outwardly
from the periphery of the portion I2. YThe
flights are preferably somewhat longer than the
peripheral portion I2 of the drum, and the inner
faces of the heads I3 are preferably provided
25 with coatings I9 of rubber which may be vul
canized in recesses 2li in the inner faces of the
heads I3, so that When these heads are drawn
together by the tie bolts I4, theends of the
flights will become imbedded more or less in
30
Èthese rubber surfaces, thereby providing fluid
tight joints between the heads i3 and the ends
'fof the flights, and the ends of -the peripheral
portion I2 of the drum will form ñuid tight joints
with the heads I3.
35
The drum is mounted at such a height in re
lation to the pan 3 that the under side of its cy
lindrical peripheral portion I2 will be approxi
mately tangential to the surface :r of the body
of mercury 5 but will dip slightly below said
40 surface, and the flights projecting outwardly from
the surface of the peripheral portion I2 will be
immersed in the mercury and will travel there
order to prevent the passage of >water or ore
50 around the ends of the drum, sealing strips 2li,v
composed of rubber or other suitable material
are secured to the inner sides of the frame mem
bers I, these sealing strips extending downward
ly to the lower edges of the heads I3 and having
55 a wiping contact with the outer sides of these
heads of the drum, thereby completely sealing the
spaces at the ends of the drum and making it
impossible for anything to pass to the discharge
side of the drum without passing down through
the
mercury.
-
,
«
,
A hopper 2l is mounted on the frame at one
side of the drum and above the portion 8 of the
pan, this hopper being adapted to` receive the
gold-containing ore in a pulverized or finely di
65 vided state, the lower portion of this hopper
having an inclined bottom 22 and a discharge
opening 23 which may be controlledV by a verti
cally adjustable gate 24 which regulates the rate
of feed of the ore to the amalgamator. The in
70 clined bottom 22 of this hopper is preferably eX
tended> downwardly between the heads I3 of the
drum and to a level slightly above the surface
of the body of mercury in the pan, so that the
ore `will be fed at a point close to the surface
of the body of mercury and in close relation to
Feed water is fed
zontal distributing pipe 26, lthe latter being lo
cated preferably beneath the inclined bottom 22
of the ore supply hopper 2l and having a series
of perforations 27 therein disposed at such >an
angle as to discharge feed Water beneath the
lower edge of the inclined hopper bottom 22 and
against the ore as the latter comes into contact 10
with the body of mercury. A wash Water pipe
28 is provided, it supplying wash water to a dis
tributing pipe 29 located at the opposite side of
the drum, the distributing pipe having a series
of perforations 3B therein disposed to project jets 15
of wash water against the periphery of the drum,
thereby washing any small globules of mercury,
or particles ofY ore or >gold which might adhere
to the drum and tend to be lifted thereby from
the body of mercury. A baffle or plate Y3| is also 20
preferably provided, it being supported to ex
tend across the mercury containing pan sub
stantially at the level of the surface .r of the body
of mercury,- this baliie or plate being inclined
downwardly toward the tailings discharge end of 25.
the pan, and the wash water distributing pipe 29
is provided with a series of openings 32 arranged
Vto project wash water onto the upper surface of
the inclined baffle or plate 3|.
In order to prevent loss of any mercury which 30
may have become floured or broken into small
particles during the operation of the amalga
mator, a pair of electrodes 34 and 35 are pro
vided at or adjacent to the ends of the mercury
containing pan 3, these electrodes being sub 35
merged in the mercury immediately below the
surface thereof, these electrodes being support
ed in the pan by suitable insulators 3S and be
ing connectedy to a suitable source of electric
current 31 which supplies electric current to the 40
electrodes during the operation of the amalga
mator.-
through during rotation of the drum. The
flights are composed preferably of so-called gal
45 vanized iron, that is iron coated with zinc, it
having beenY found that the presence of zinc in
the mercury bath promotes or facilitates the
amalgamation of the gold with the mercury. In
60
the periphery of the drum.
to the amalgamator with the crushed ore or
through a pipe 25 which is connected to a hori
Y
v
In operation, the pan or receptacle 3 is sup
plied with a body of mercury 5 to a level :r which
is slightly below the edge or lip 9a over which 45
the tailings discharge, the drum is revolved con
tinuously and at a relatively low speed, as for ex
ample about ten revolutions per minute, the ore
containing the gold, and which may be crushed
or otherwise finely divided is supplied to the feed 60.
hopper 2l, and» feed water and wash water sup
plied >to the pipes 25 and 28 respectively. The
crushed or ñnely divided ore is fed by the hop
per 2l to the surface :c of the body of mercury
in the path of the flights I8 onthe drum, which
revolves in an anti-clockwise_direction in Figure
2. As the flights enter the body of mercury they
trap beneath them the ore fed from the hopper
56'.
2| and which is flowed toward the drum by the
jets of water from the distributing pipe 26, and 00
the ore thus trapped beneath the flights, together ,
with Water and sand or other material associ
ated With the ore is forced down into the body
of mercury and is discharged at the opposite
side of the drum. `During the carrying of the
ore through the body of mercury by the flights
on the drum, the ore is spread, by the upward
pressure of the mercury, against the periphery
of the cylindrical portion I2 of the drum, thus
spreading the ore into aV thin layer which in
sures contact of the mercury with any free gold
contained in the orerso that such gold will be
effectively amalgamated by the mercury, and the
amalgamated gold, being heavier than >the mer
cury, will sink to the bottom ofV the mercury con
f3
2,120,859"
taining pan. The tailings or sand carried be?
' neath the drum by the.v rotation thereof and
which floats on the. surface of. the body of mer
cury, will be washed over the discharge edge or
lip Se and will discharge over the chute I0, the
dischargeof the tailings‘being Vassisted by the
wash water: from the distributor pipe 29. The
wash water fromthe openings 30 in this dis
tributor pipe and which are projected against the
periphery of the drum and the flights thereon,
will effectivelyv wash any »particles yof mercury,
gold or other material which might adhere to
thedrum and be lifted vfrom the mercury, and
thevjetsof‘wash Water fromîthe openings 3:2 in
the distributor pipe 29, which discharge at an
angle toward the tailings `discharge lip Se, will
act‘to advance the tailings toward the tailings
discharge. By arranging the jets of wash wa
ter from the openings 32 to discharge on the
upper' side of >-the downwardly inclined' baille
or plate 3l, the tailings will be `discharged over
this plate toward the tailings discharge, the baf
fle 3| preventing undue agitation of the mercury
by“ these wash water jets. By arranging the
il flights I8 Von the periphery of the drum at an
angle to the axis thereof so that the ends of
the flight at one end of the drum are somewhat.
in advance of those at the other end ofthe drum,
the flights will enter the bathor pool of vrner
'cury .progressively,>from one end to the other,
thereby avoiding impact between the flights and
mercury which would tend to flour it, and since
gagement'of the flights, from end to end, with
the surface of- the. mercury, due to theangular
pitch of the'flights with respect to the axis'of ‘
the drum.
v
Byy feeding water to the ore as it is fed-to the
surface of the mercury pool, the ore is spread
and carried 'into position beneath the flights,
and rotation of the drum causes the ore beneath
the flights to be spread out, thus affording an
opportunity for the mercury to contact with and
amalgamate all particles of gold contained in the
ore, before the ore reaches the tailings discharge,
and all'of the ‘ore must pass through the mer
cury before reaching the tailings discharge,- the
drum and the sealing strips at the ends thereof
forming, in effect, a barrier between the orev feed
hopper and the tailings discharge.
Since the flights extend only slightly below the
surface of the mercury, they will not carry sand
from the ore down into the lower portion of the
pool of mercury Where ity would mix' with .the
amalgamated gold, which would be objectionable;
By- providing the electrodes in the mercury and
water pool, obstruction to the discharge of the»
tailings over the surfaceof the mercury is avoid
ed, and the electric current` supplied to these
electrodes will prevent loss of any mercury that
may have become floured or broken into small
particles, by causing suchfparticles of mercury to
become reunited with the pool.
«I claim as my inventionz-
’
`
~
l. Any amalgamator comprising a receptacle
, the substantially radial portions of the flights vcontaining a body of mercury, a drum having .
are nearly vertical when they enter the mercury,
35 since the periphery of the drum is immersed to
only a small depth in the mercury, impact of the
flights on the mercury is Vthus further reduced,
thereby further minimizing flouring of the mer
cury. The gold which is amalgamated by the
mercury'during the passageiof the gold contain
ing‘ ore‘therethrough; settles to the lowermost
portion of the mercury containing pan 3, and
the amalgamated gold may be removed from the
pan fromtime to time, by removing theplug 1.
The gold may be separated from the amalgam
in any suitable and well-known way, as by va
porization of the mercury.
Y
By immersing the revoluble drum only slightly
below the surface of the bath or pool of mer
50 cury, the pulp or gold bearing ore is all car
ried beneath the surface of the mercury so that
no portion of the ore\can discharge until after
it has been exposed to the mercury, thus afford
ing an opportunity ‘for the mercury to amalga
55 mate with any gold contained. in the ore. Since
the feed water must also pass through the mer
cury before discharging, there is no opportu
nity for flaky or light gold, or flour or float gold
that is held in suspension in the water due to
60 surface tension, to float or be washed away to
the outlet and thus lost, but such gold will be
submerged in the mercury and amalgamated
therewith.
The shallow immersion of the lower side of
65 the periphery of the drum causes the projecting
flights on the drum to contact with the mercury
first at their outer edges, thereby trapping or
pocketing the ore beneath the flights so that it
cannot escape and therefore must enter the mer
70 cury as the drum revolves and such manner of
contact of the flights with the surface of the
mercury takes place substantially without impact
or agitation of the mercury to the extent to
‘causeilouring thereof, flouring of the mercury
being further minimized by the progressive en
flanges at its ends and longitudinal flights on its
periphery extending continuously between the
flanges and at an incline to the axis of the drum,
the drum being mounted rotatably with the lower
side of its periphery in contact with the surface
of the mercury, and means for feeding ore' to
the> surface of the mercury at one side of the
drum.
’
‘
`
.
2. An amalgamator comprising a receptacle
containing a bath of mercury, a cylindrical drum
having peripheral flanges and blade-likeflights
projecting radially from itsr periphery and ex'-v
tending continuously between the flanges at a
slight angle to the axis of the drum, the drum
being mounted to rotate-with the lower side of
its periphery in contact with the surface of the
mercury and to carry the nights thereon pro-‘
gressively from end to end into the mercury, and
toV
means for >feeding ore to the surface of the mer
cury at one side of the drum.
3. An amalgamator comprising a receptacle
containing a body of mercury, a drum having 55
flights projecting from Vits periphery and mount
ed to rotate with the lower side of its periphery in contact with the surface of the mercury,
means for feeding ore and jets of water to the
same area of the surface of the mercury at one 60
side of the drum, a baille plate mounted at the
other side of the drum and having an upper sur
face disposed substantially at the level of the sur
face of the mercury and inclined downwardly
away from the drum, and means for injecting (i5
wash Water Vagainst the other side of the drum
to wash ore therefrom for discharge over the
baille.
4. An amalgamator comprising a receptacle
containing a body of mercury, a drum having 70
flights projecting from its periphery and mounted
to rotate with the lower side of its periphery in
contact with the surface of the mercury, means
for feeding ore and water to the same area of the
surface of the mercury at one side of the drum, 75
4
2,120,859`
a baille. plate having an. upper surface disposed
substantially at the surface of the mercury at
the other side of the drum and inclined away
from the drum for the passage thereover of ore
discharged from the drum, and means for in
jecting water onto the upper surface of said
baille plate to wash tailings thereover.
5. An amalgamator comprising a receptacle
containing a bath of mercury, means for feeding
10 ore and water to the surface of the mercury, a
drum mounted to rotate with its periphery lo
cated approximately tangentially to the surface
of the mercury, the drum having circumferen
tial flanges at its ends and flights projecting
from its periphery and extending continuously
between said end flanges at an incline to the axis
of the drum, the flights being submergible pro
gressively from end to end in the bath' of mer
cury and movable through the mercury during
20; relatively low speed of rotation of the drum to
submerge the ore and water below the surface
of the mercury and thereby amalgamate flour
gold in suspension in the water, and 'means for
projecting wash water against the flights on the
discharge at one end located approximately on
the level of the surface of the mercury, a drum
mounted rotatably with the lower side of its
periphery approximately tangential to and in
contact with the surface of the mercury and hav
ing flights projecting fromr its periphery and eX
tending at an incline to the axis of the drum,
means for feeding ore and water to the surface
of the mercury at one side of the drum, a baffle
plate located at the other side of the drum and 10
having an upper surface located substantially
at the level of the surface of the mercury and in
clined downwardly toward said discharge, and
means for projecting water onto said upper
surface of said baille plate and also against the 15
adjacent side of the drum.
8. An amalgamator comprising a receptacle
containing a body of mercury, and a drum
mounted with the lower side of its periphery in
contact with the surface of the mercury and 20
comprising a pair of end heads'having surfaces
of yielding material applied to their inner sides
adjacent to their peripheries, and an annular
series of circumferentially spaced ñights extend
drum as the flights emerge from 'the bath of ing longitudinally of the df'rum between said heads
mercury.
and having their ends clamped and sealed against
6. An amalgamator comprising a pan contain
said surfaces of yielding material.
ing a bath of mercury and having a discharge atA
9. An amalgamator comprising a receptacle
one end located approximately on the level of the
containing a body of mercury, and a drum
30; surface of the mercury,` a drum mounted rotat
mounted with the lower sidel of its periphery in
ably with the lower side of its periphery ap
contact with the surface of the mercury and
proximately tangential to and in contact with , comprising a pair of end heads provided at their
the surface of the mercury, means for feeding inner sides and adjacent to their peripheries with
ore and water to the surface of the mercury at
coatings of rubber, a cylindrical peripheral por
35 one side of the drum, >a baille plate mounted at
tion extending between said heads and engaging
the discharge side of the drum and having an at its ends with said rubber coatings on said
upper surface substantially at theôlevel of the heads, an annular series of flights arranged in
surface of the mercury to receive ore discharged circumferentially spaced relation around the pe
from the drum, said upper surface of the bañie riphery of said cylindrical portion and engag
40 plate being inclined downwardly toward the dis
ing at their ends with said rubber coatings on
charge, and means for projecting jets of wash said heads, and means for drawing said heads
water against the upper side of the baffle plate together to embed and seal the ends of said cy
and toward the discharge.
'7. An amalgamator comprising a pan contain
45 ing a bath of mercury and water and having a
25
30.
35;
40
lindrical portion and the flights in said rubber
coatings.
_
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WINFIELD S. DE LISLE.
45
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