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Патент USA US2120874

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June 14, 1938.
B_ H_ STONE
2,120,874 '
THROTTLI-NG CALORIME TE R
- Filed 001'- . 14,
1935
li’Zéir
Stone;
WW
Patented June 14, 1938
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFECE
2,120,874
-
' THROTTLING‘ C‘ALORIMETER
Blair H. Stone, El Reno, Okla.
Application October 14, 1935, Serial No. 44,995
5 Claims. (Cl. 73-.-192)
The invention relates to improvements: in
steam measuring devices generally and more
particularly to a throttling calorimeter thereof.
An object of the invention is to provide a
throttling calorimeter with means to indicate, by
direct reading and/or visual and/or audible sig
nals, the quality of steam in percent of moisture
content.
~
Another object has to do with the provision
of the modi?ed throttling calorimeter as afore
said ,and which is adapted to indicate the per
cent of moisture content of steam at a point
remote from the source of steam generation.
7
Still another object resides in the provision of
a measuring device of this class which will oper
ate for either continuous or intermittent indi
cation of the percent of moisture content of
steam, the operation thereof being based on the
principle of the throttling calorimeter.
Yet another object lies in the provision of a
20
throttling calorimeter wherein a steam sample
within the same is surrounded by steam at vessel
pressure until it reaches the throttling ori?ce.
A further object of the invention is to pro
25 vide a means or device of the class mentioned
and wherein the indications of percent of mois
ture content of steam are obtained through the
medium of a temperature gage of the Bourdon,
' tube type which is ‘actuated either by the vapor
,30 tension of a liquid or by the expansion of a
gas.
.
V
_
.
a With these and other equally important ob
from a source or vessel (not shown); a gage ‘3
having connection with the calorimeter A and
its dial calibrated to give readings in percent of
moisture content of steam; electrical circuits C
leading from controlling contacts within the gage
B to audible and visual signal instrumentalities
which operate at predetermined settings of the
gage to indicate certain percentages of the mois
ture content of the steam under test; and an
automatic boiler blow-down valve D which is
cooperative with one of the said signal circuits.
The throttling calorimeter A is comprised in an
outer casing or jacket Ill which is substantially
cylindrical in form and has its ends closed by
plates II and I2. The plate II is preferably
screw threaded into the ‘casing or jacket end and
has an oppositely nippled openingat its center,‘
with the outer nipple portion I 3 externallyscrew
threaded, as at I30, for its attachment to the
steam source or vessel from which samples are 20
to ‘be taken for test. The inner nipple portion
I4 is in connection with the end plate I5 of a
throttling chamber or barrel I6 which is posi
tioned within the casing or jacket ID at the ap
proximate center thereof.
'
‘
,
‘
25
The casing or jacket Ill is provided with an
opening in its top side ‘for the packing of its
interior, about the throttling chamber or barrel
I6, with a heat insulating material H; the said
opening being normally closed, by a removable
cover I8 which is held in place ‘by screws or the
like I8a.
Extending inwardly of the bore of the nipple
portions I3—II-‘l is a sampling nozzle I9 which is
inv the form of a length of metal tubing or pipe 35
35 and arrangements as will be hereinafter more
fully described, set forth in the appended claims, I having its outer end closed and its inner end
and illustrated in the accompanying drawing,~ open and internally ‘screw threaded for attach
ment to an ori?ce plug 29; the latter, in‘ turn,
in which:
a
_
Figure 1 is a side elevation of the device, in being screw threaded outwardly of an opening in
the center of the end plate I5 of the throttling
40 accordance with the instant invention,
Figure 2 is a right hand end elevation thereof, chamber or barrel I 6. The outer end portion
with the indicator gage and. electric-a1 circuits of the nozzle'lll is provided with side perfora
tions I9aI for the intake of steam there-through
removed,
1
.
v
jects in view, the invention resides in the cer
tain new and useful combinations, constructions
Figure 3 is a vertical longitudinal'section taken
45 on the line 3--3 of Figure 2, and ‘°'
and its subsequent passage through the nozzle
to- the ori?ce in the plug 20.
' '
Thethrottling chamber or barrel I6 is pref
.erably cylindrical in form and'has one end in
screw threaded connection with the end plate I5
and its other end in similar connection with'an
closing casing thereof removed.
end plate 2| carried at the inner end'of the
Referring to the drawing, wherein like char
50
acters of reference designate corresponding parts inner nipple portion 24 of an opening in the end
in the several views thereof, the embodiment of plate I2 of the casing or jacket Id. Steam ad
mitted to the throttling chamber or barrel I6
the invention, as is shown therein by way of ex
is exhausted therefrom outwardly through a
ample only, is vconstituted generally in a throt
nippled outlet 22, projecting from the lower side
55 -tling calorimeter A to receive a sample of steam
Figure 4 is a'plan view of the Bourdon tube
and its associated contacts and wires of the elec
trical indicating or signal circuits, with the en
55
2
2,120,874
of. the chamber or barrel toward the end there
tion in steam boiler operation upon the alternate
of opposite the ori?ce plug 20, and from thence > closing and opening of the circuit with which
outwardly through a nippled outlet 23 project
ing through the wall of the casing or jacket Ill.
The end. plate H.’ has its central opening in line
with the bores of the inner nipple portion 24
and an outer nipple portion 25 and with the,
it is cooperative by the switching means under
ori?ce in the plug 20.
Passing inwardly through the bore 26 thus pro
ating Vmeans. 'This link 49 is preferably made
of an insulating materiaL'such as hard ?bre or
10 vided is an ori?ce plug rod or needle valve 21,
the inner end of which is tapered off or pointed,
as at 21a, for cooperative engagement with the
ori?ce in the plug 20. A coiled spring 28 is en
gaged over the inner end of the valve rod 21
15 and is ‘compressed thereon, between the end plate
2| and a shoulder 29 on the valve rod adjacent’
the pointed or valve end thereof, tonormally
the control of the gage B.
The switching means is comprised in a link
49 connecting the gage tube 43, through pivot
connection 50, with the index .or pointer oper
the like, and is pivoted, ‘as at 50, to the free end 10
of the gage tube 43, somewhat after, the manner
shown in Figure. 4, and carries a switch arm 5|
in angular relation thereto for wiping coopera
tion with a pair of electric contacts 52 and 53
mounted on an insulated support 54. The con
tacts 52, and 53 are spaced apart from each
otherand from adjacent sides of the switch arm
tension the latter in closing engagement with the 5|. ' The support 54 Wis adjustably fastened in
plug ori?ce.
V
‘
. place to the gage casing 4| by means of a slot
20
The outer nippled portion 25 of the end plate 55 engaged by a screw 56.
|2, of the casing or jacket II), is provided with a
This switching means is connected to the ex
depression in its end face to receive a packing ternal indicating circuits C and the automatic
30 which is held in place by a jam nut 3| and blow-down valve D,_ by conductors leading out
compressed thereby about the valve rod 21.
wardly ofthe gage casing 4| through a bushing
25 ' Attached to the outer side of the end plate
or nipple 51; the circuits being as follows:--A
I2, by means of a screw or the like .32, is an
conductor .58 from the switch arm 5| to one ter
angled bracket 33 which carries a cylinder 34 at minal of a current source or battery 59;v a con
its free end. The cylinder 34 has its bore 34a ductor 6|! from switch contact 53 to one side of
disposed in line with the bore 26 passing through the electromagnet 6| which has its other side
30. the nipple portions 24-25 and the end plate 12
connected by a conductor 62 to one side of a ‘
to receive the outer end of the valve rod 21, signal lamp 63. A conductor 64 leads from the
which end is arranged in screw threaded con
other terminal of the current source or battery
nection with a piston 35. The inner end of the
59 and directly connects the other side. of the
cylinder 34 is provided with a packing 36 which signal lamp 63 and also connects oneside of a
is compressed in place about the valve rod 21 second signal lamp 65 by'a branch conductor 66.
by means of a jam nut 31.
An audible signal device, such as an electric bell
An operating ?uid for the piston 35 is admitted
to the bore 34a, of the cylinder 34, through a
at a point thereon‘ between the points of connec
screw threaded connection 38 and effects a move
40 ment of the piston and the valve rod in a direc
tion against the tension of the spring 28 to open
the ori?ce in the plug 20 for ‘admitting steam
from the nozzle I9 to the interior of the throt
tling chamber or barrel I6.
45
7
'
’
Positioned within'the throttling chamber or
barrel |6 is an annular bulb or chamber 39 which
is stationarily encircled about the spring 28 and
the valve rod 21 and has connection with a‘con-V
duit or tubing 40 leading outwardly ‘of the throt
50 tling chamber or barrel through the end plates
2| and I2 to a point of connection with an inlet
42 of the casing 4| of the gage B.
'
. V
The gage B is suitably emplaced apart from
the calorimeter A and has a Bourdon tube with
.in the casing 4| and connected at oneend to the
‘inlet 42.
or buzzer 61, has one of its terminals connected
by a conductor 69 to the battery conductor 64
Cooperative with the tube 43, within
the casing 4|, is a usual operating means (not '
shown) for the shaft44 of an index or pointer
45 which overlies a dial 46 mounted onone of the
.60 outer sides of the casing.
tion of the samewith the signal lamps 63 and
65, and its other terminal by'a conductor 68 to
the conductor 60 at a point thereon between the
switch contact 53 and the electromagnet 6|. The
switch 52 is .directly'connected to the remaining
side of the second signal lamp 65 by a conduc
tor
10.
.
'
r
,
Inthe operation .of the apparatus. or device
thus provided, the calorimeter A is attached to
.the steam source or vessel (not shown) from
which ‘steam is to be sampled 'at the threaded
nipple |3, when steam will pass into the nozzle
I9 at the perforations I90. The gage B will then
be placed in a convenient position, either at the
point of temperature or at a- point remote there
from, and, if the electrical indicating circuits C
are employed,',they will also be suitably located
to meet the requirements .of the installation.
Upon the placing of the calorimeter A the
threaded connection 38' will be. coupled to a
source of ?uid pressure (not shown) for the ac
The dial 46 has its face provided with two
concentric scales of graduations 41' and 48, the
tuation of the piston 35. With the calorimeter
A installed, as stated, the nozzle I9 is projected
outer scale ,41 being calibrated to read in per
well into the steam mass and is surrounded at
cent of moisture content of the steam sampled
65 and the inner scale 48 in degrees of steam qual-.
ity.
,
all times by steamrwhich is of the same temper
ature and pressure as that of the steam sample ‘
passed through the nozzle to the throttling ori
V
Cooperative with the Bourdon tube 43, within
, the casing 4|, is an electric switching means for 1
controlling external indicating circuits C.
(ii) 7
The
indicators or signals in these circuits are for the
purpose, one to indicate satisfactory steam qual
ity and the other an unsatisfactory steam con-7
dition, as will later be apparent. Cooperative
with one of these circuits is the automatic blow
75 down valve D, which will perform its usual func
?ce.
'
'
7
Now, by admitting pressure to the cylinder 34,
thepiston 35 will be forced to the right and
thereby exert a pull on the rod 21 and withdraw 70
the valve point 21a from the ori?ce; in the'plug
20. - This movement of the piston and rod will
act to compress the spring 28 between the shoul
der 29 and the end plate 2|, so that'the spring
will function to return the rod and piston to 75
3
2,120,874
normal position, with the valve. point 2101. again
closing the ori?ce in the plug 20, when the
pressure is released from the piston 35.
Upon the opening of the ori?ce in the plug 20,
by the‘ withdrawal of the valve point 2111 there
from, steam will pass from the nozzle I9 into the
throttling chamber or barrel l6 and about and
this retained heat energy acts to superheat the
steam. The throttling calorimeter therefore
measures this superheat and from thermometer
readings the steam quality or percent moisture is
calculated. The instant device eliminates all
necessity for the use of ordinary mercury ther
through the open center of the bulb 39 to the ex
haust port nipples 22 and 23. In the passage of
10' the steam sample around the bulb 39, heat there
from will be transferred to a ?uid in the bulb and
the conduit or tubing 43 for the actuation of the
Bourdon tube 43 in the gage casing 4|; the pres
sure of this ?uid changing with temperature vari
ations of the steam sample.
In the instant disclosure of the invention, a
vapor tension type of gage has been described and
shown, but it will be obvious that other types of
dial thermometers, for instance, a gas ?lled type
thereof, may be substituted therefor, if and when
desired. The gage is adjustable for various pres
mometers and allowspercent moisture (or steam
quality’100%-—% moisture) to be readily ascer
tained by direct reading from a Bourdon type
of pressure gage, or from an electrical meter (not 10
shown), if the latter be substituted.
An illustrative problem in the use of the ap
paratus or device, in accordance with the present
invention and by reference to the Marks 8t Davis
Steam Tables which show that} steam at 250# 15
gage has 1202.4 B. t. u., per pound and steam at
, sures at its linkage, for instance, from an initially
set pressure indication, the linkage will be short
ened or lengthened respectively for an increase
, or a decrease in indicated pressure, each adjust
ment being for a temperature change representa
tive of a one percent change of the pointer on the
dial of the gage.
Further in the operation of the apparatus or
~ device, if and when the switching means and
the electrical indicating circuits C, together with
the automatic blow-down valve D, are employed,
upon movement of the Bourdon tube 43, to swing
the link 49 on the pivot 50’, for instance to cause
1 the switch arm 5! to wipe over the contact 53,
the circuit will be closed on the current source or
battery 55, the electromagnet 5|, the signal lamp
atmospheric pressure (14.7# gage) has 1150.4
B. t. u., per pound and a temperature of 212 de
grees F., is stated as follows:--250# gage steam
through throttling calorimeter to atmospheric 20
pressure. Solution:
Item 1.—Heat per pound in B. t. u., available
for super-heating (sample dry, without mois
ture) :—-1202.4 B. t. u., at 250# gage minus 1150.4
B. t. u., steam at 0#, or atmosphere gives 52.0 25
B. t. u., per pound, available for superheating.
Item 2.-Speci?c heat of steam at atmospheric
pressure (from tables) :—-.47 B. t. u., required per
pound per degree F.
,
Item 3.-—Maximum possible superheat in calo 30
rimeter, with initial steam 250# gage:-—-Item.(1)
52.0 B. t. u., divided by Item (2) .470 B. t. u.,
equals 110.5 degrees F.
Item 4.—-Maximum possible temperature in
calorimeter, with initial steam 250# gage:-at~ 357
mospheric temperature of steam plus superheat
equals total calorimeter temperature, hence 212
degrees F., plus Item (3) 110.5 degrees F., equals
5%, and the bell or buzzer 51; the current passing
from the positive terminal of the current source
40 or battery 59 by way of conductor 58, switch arm
steam (Marks 8: Davis Tables) is 821.5 B. t. u.,
signal lamp 63, and conductor 54 to the negative
and equivalent to 100% moisture.
Item 6.-1% moisture in steam at 25011 gage
51, contact 53, conductor 60, electromagnet 6|,
terminal or" the current source or battery 59.
Also, current will flow from conductor 60 by Way
of conductor 68,‘the bell or buzzer 61, and con
ductor 69 to the current source or battery return
conductor 54. In the other or reverse move
ment of the Bourdon tube43 and the link 49, the
switch arm 5! will wipe over contact 52 and close
the circuit on the current source or battery 59
and the signal lamp 65 only; the current now
passing from the positive terminal of the current
source or battery 59 by way of conductor 58,
switch arm 5!, contact 52, conductor 10, signal
lamp 55, and conductors 56 and 64 to the nega
tive terminal of the current source or battery
58. The signal lamps 53 and 65 will be colored
and preferably one different from the other.
Thus, both visual and audible signals or indica
00 tions will be given to the operator making a test
on a given steam source.
7
With the alternate closing and opening of the
circuit at switch contact 53, the electromagnet 5|
will actuate the blow-down valve D correspond~
ingly to open and close positions, and the opera
tion of the valve will be adjustable to percent
moisture desired, according to the setting of the
switch contacts 52 and 53 with respect to the
switch arm 5|.
Considering for the moment the principle of
operation of a throttling calorimeter, steam pass
ing through an ori?ce into ?n enlarged space,
i. e., a space large enough that the resultant
velocity is low, retains practically all the heat
energy that would make up velocity energy, and
322.5 degrees F.
‘
Item 5.-Latent heat of evaporation 250# gage 40.
is therefore Item. (5) 821.5 B. t. u., divided by
45
100, which equals 8.215 B. t. u.
Item 7 .-—Steam at 250# gage with 1% moisture
has a B, t. u., content of 1194.18 B. t. u., (1202.4
B. t. 11., minus, Item (6) or 8.215 B. t. 11.).
Item 8.-1% moisture in steam lowers super
heat temperature equivalent to Item (6) 8.215 50
B. t. u., divided by Item (2) V .47 B. t u., which
equals 17.45 degrees F.
Item 9.-—Maximum operating range of calorim
eter in percent moisture equals Item (3) 110.5
degrees F., divided by Item (8) 17.45 degrees F., 55
or 6.34 percent moisture.
However, it has been determined that a read
able range of the calorimeter can be extended to
a maximum of about 11% by changing ‘atmos
.60
pheric pressure to a low vacuum.
In the present instance, the Bourdon tube gage
is a. thermometer actuated by superheat and it
is calibrated to read in percent moisture or steam
quality, and it is to be noted that, as shown, the
gage index or pointer 45 swings in reverse to the 65
ordinary direction of movement thereof, and that
the zero of the scale 41 is at the opposite end
from which the index or pointer comes to- rest, or,
in other words, zero percent moisture represents
the maximum possible temperature of the super 70
heat of the steam sample. As the percent mois
ture increases less superheat occurs and at 6.3%
moisture and 250# gage, just enough heat is avail
able to give the throttled sample a temperature of
212 degrees F., and the index or pointer 45 move 75
4
r
7 2,120,874.
ment Will start at the maximurnmeasuring range ‘
the variations in transfer of heat fromthe heated
?uid to the ?uid within said member, a normally
closed valve within the chamberto control in
temperatures 212 degrees
and maximum gress of the heated ?uid to be. tested, and a pres
superheat 322.5 degrees E, which represents a‘ sure operated means exteriorly of the chamber
and having connection with said valve to actuate
range of 6.3% moisture. For normal tempera
tures, say 69 degrees F., the index or pointer 45 it to open position as and when required.
'2. A throttling calorimeter comprising a heat
comes to rest off the scales, i. e., the space between
insulated casing, a throttling chamber within
10 the point of rest and that where the graduations
of the gage corresponding to atmospheric pres
sure. In other words, the calibrated part of the
swing of the index or pointer 45 is between the
begin, which space represents a temperature
range of from 60 degrees F., to 212 degrees F.
It is also to be here noted that, since each
steam pressure has di?erent heat content and
15 latent heat of evaporation, a dial calibrated for
one pressure is not entirely correct for any other
pressure. The deviation from accuracy is not
large, with reference to steam'pressure range
permitted on a boiler in operation that does not
?uctuate over 25# gage. Many boilers, however,
do not fluctuate over '10# gage and therefore,
for all practical purposes, the instant apparatus
or device will be entirely satisfactory. ' The error
said casing and having an intake ori?ce opening 10
outwardly of the casing, a sampling nozzle pro
jecting from said casing for conveying steam to
said ori?ce, a rod extending inwardly of said
casing and into said chamber and having a
tapered end to engage in said orifice, spring
means normally urging said rod to force the
tapered end thereof into closing engagement with
said ori?ce, and pressure operated means for
actuating said rod to withdraw the tapered end
thereof from said ori?ce for. admitting steam 20
therethrough from said sampling nozzle.
,
3. The calorimeter asset forth in claim '2,
in reading, when the pressure drops, for instance, wherein said pressure operated means is com
25 to l'75# gage and reading is taken from a 250# , prised in a cylinder at the outer side of the said
casing anda piston'on the outer end of said rod, 25
scale, is .66 of 1% moisture.
Without further description, it is thought that
the features and advantages of the invention
will be readily apparent to those skilled in the
30 art, and it will of course be understood that
changes in instrumentalities employed and minor
details of construction and arrangement may be
resorted'to without departing in any way from
the spirit of the invention, or its scope as claimed.
35
Having thus fully described my invention, what
I claim is:
'
l. A throttling calorimeter comprising a heat
insulated chamber having an intake ori?ce and
~ an exhaust port, a hollow member within said
40 chamber between the intake ori?ce'and the ex
haust port, said member containing a ?uid sensi
tive to variations in temperature of a heated
?uid passed through the chamber for test, means
located 'eXteriorly of the chamber for indicating
the cylinder having‘an inlet for the‘ pressure to
actuate the piston;
- V
4. The calorimeter asset forth‘ in claim 2,
wherein a thermometer bulb is emplaced within
said throttling chamber in direct contact with 30
the superheated steam therein, and a dial type
of thermometer is connected to said bulb and
located exteriorly' of the said casing to indicate
the quality of the steam.
‘
5. The calorimeter as set forth in claim 2, 35
wherein a thermometer bulb is emplaced within
said throttling chamber in direct contact with
the superheated steam therein, and a dial type of
thermometer is connected to said bulb and 10-,
cated exteriorly of and remotely from said casing
to .indicate the quality of the ‘steam, said
thermometer being calibrated in percent moisture
of the steam sample.
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BLAIR H. STONE.
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