Патент USA US2120874код для вставки
June 14, 1938. B_ H_ STONE 2,120,874 ' THROTTLI-NG CALORIME TE R - Filed 001'- . 14, 1935 li’Zéir Stone; WW Patented June 14, 1938 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFECE 2,120,874 - ' THROTTLING‘ C‘ALORIMETER Blair H. Stone, El Reno, Okla. Application October 14, 1935, Serial No. 44,995 5 Claims. (Cl. 73-.-192) The invention relates to improvements: in steam measuring devices generally and more particularly to a throttling calorimeter thereof. An object of the invention is to provide a throttling calorimeter with means to indicate, by direct reading and/or visual and/or audible sig nals, the quality of steam in percent of moisture content. ~ Another object has to do with the provision of the modi?ed throttling calorimeter as afore said ,and which is adapted to indicate the per cent of moisture content of steam at a point remote from the source of steam generation. 7 Still another object resides in the provision of a measuring device of this class which will oper ate for either continuous or intermittent indi cation of the percent of moisture content of steam, the operation thereof being based on the principle of the throttling calorimeter. Yet another object lies in the provision of a 20 throttling calorimeter wherein a steam sample within the same is surrounded by steam at vessel pressure until it reaches the throttling ori?ce. A further object of the invention is to pro 25 vide a means or device of the class mentioned and wherein the indications of percent of mois ture content of steam are obtained through the medium of a temperature gage of the Bourdon, ' tube type which is ‘actuated either by the vapor ,30 tension of a liquid or by the expansion of a gas. . V _ . a With these and other equally important ob from a source or vessel (not shown); a gage ‘3 having connection with the calorimeter A and its dial calibrated to give readings in percent of moisture content of steam; electrical circuits C leading from controlling contacts within the gage B to audible and visual signal instrumentalities which operate at predetermined settings of the gage to indicate certain percentages of the mois ture content of the steam under test; and an automatic boiler blow-down valve D which is cooperative with one of the said signal circuits. The throttling calorimeter A is comprised in an outer casing or jacket Ill which is substantially cylindrical in form and has its ends closed by plates II and I2. The plate II is preferably screw threaded into the ‘casing or jacket end and has an oppositely nippled openingat its center,‘ with the outer nipple portion I 3 externallyscrew threaded, as at I30, for its attachment to the steam source or vessel from which samples are 20 to ‘be taken for test. The inner nipple portion I4 is in connection with the end plate I5 of a throttling chamber or barrel I6 which is posi tioned within the casing or jacket ID at the ap proximate center thereof. ' ‘ , ‘ 25 The casing or jacket Ill is provided with an opening in its top side ‘for the packing of its interior, about the throttling chamber or barrel I6, with a heat insulating material H; the said opening being normally closed, by a removable cover I8 which is held in place ‘by screws or the like I8a. Extending inwardly of the bore of the nipple portions I3—II-‘l is a sampling nozzle I9 which is inv the form of a length of metal tubing or pipe 35 35 and arrangements as will be hereinafter more fully described, set forth in the appended claims, I having its outer end closed and its inner end and illustrated in the accompanying drawing,~ open and internally ‘screw threaded for attach ment to an ori?ce plug 29; the latter, in‘ turn, in which: a _ Figure 1 is a side elevation of the device, in being screw threaded outwardly of an opening in the center of the end plate I5 of the throttling 40 accordance with the instant invention, Figure 2 is a right hand end elevation thereof, chamber or barrel I 6. The outer end portion with the indicator gage and. electric-a1 circuits of the nozzle'lll is provided with side perfora tions I9aI for the intake of steam there-through removed, 1 . v jects in view, the invention resides in the cer tain new and useful combinations, constructions Figure 3 is a vertical longitudinal'section taken 45 on the line 3--3 of Figure 2, and ‘°' and its subsequent passage through the nozzle to- the ori?ce in the plug 20. ' ' Thethrottling chamber or barrel I6 is pref .erably cylindrical in form and'has one end in screw threaded connection with the end plate I5 and its other end in similar connection with'an closing casing thereof removed. end plate 2| carried at the inner end'of the Referring to the drawing, wherein like char 50 acters of reference designate corresponding parts inner nipple portion 24 of an opening in the end in the several views thereof, the embodiment of plate I2 of the casing or jacket Id. Steam ad mitted to the throttling chamber or barrel I6 the invention, as is shown therein by way of ex is exhausted therefrom outwardly through a ample only, is vconstituted generally in a throt nippled outlet 22, projecting from the lower side 55 -tling calorimeter A to receive a sample of steam Figure 4 is a'plan view of the Bourdon tube and its associated contacts and wires of the elec trical indicating or signal circuits, with the en 55 2 2,120,874 of. the chamber or barrel toward the end there tion in steam boiler operation upon the alternate of opposite the ori?ce plug 20, and from thence > closing and opening of the circuit with which outwardly through a nippled outlet 23 project ing through the wall of the casing or jacket Ill. The end. plate H.’ has its central opening in line with the bores of the inner nipple portion 24 and an outer nipple portion 25 and with the, it is cooperative by the switching means under ori?ce in the plug 20. Passing inwardly through the bore 26 thus pro ating Vmeans. 'This link 49 is preferably made of an insulating materiaL'such as hard ?bre or 10 vided is an ori?ce plug rod or needle valve 21, the inner end of which is tapered off or pointed, as at 21a, for cooperative engagement with the ori?ce in the plug 20. A coiled spring 28 is en gaged over the inner end of the valve rod 21 15 and is ‘compressed thereon, between the end plate 2| and a shoulder 29 on the valve rod adjacent’ the pointed or valve end thereof, tonormally the control of the gage B. The switching means is comprised in a link 49 connecting the gage tube 43, through pivot connection 50, with the index .or pointer oper the like, and is pivoted, ‘as at 50, to the free end 10 of the gage tube 43, somewhat after, the manner shown in Figure. 4, and carries a switch arm 5| in angular relation thereto for wiping coopera tion with a pair of electric contacts 52 and 53 mounted on an insulated support 54. The con tacts 52, and 53 are spaced apart from each otherand from adjacent sides of the switch arm tension the latter in closing engagement with the 5|. ' The support 54 Wis adjustably fastened in plug ori?ce. V ‘ . place to the gage casing 4| by means of a slot 20 The outer nippled portion 25 of the end plate 55 engaged by a screw 56. |2, of the casing or jacket II), is provided with a This switching means is connected to the ex depression in its end face to receive a packing ternal indicating circuits C and the automatic 30 which is held in place by a jam nut 3| and blow-down valve D,_ by conductors leading out compressed thereby about the valve rod 21. wardly ofthe gage casing 4| through a bushing 25 ' Attached to the outer side of the end plate or nipple 51; the circuits being as follows:--A I2, by means of a screw or the like .32, is an conductor .58 from the switch arm 5| to one ter angled bracket 33 which carries a cylinder 34 at minal of a current source or battery 59;v a con its free end. The cylinder 34 has its bore 34a ductor 6|! from switch contact 53 to one side of disposed in line with the bore 26 passing through the electromagnet 6| which has its other side 30. the nipple portions 24-25 and the end plate 12 connected by a conductor 62 to one side of a ‘ to receive the outer end of the valve rod 21, signal lamp 63. A conductor 64 leads from the which end is arranged in screw threaded con other terminal of the current source or battery nection with a piston 35. The inner end of the 59 and directly connects the other side. of the cylinder 34 is provided with a packing 36 which signal lamp 63 and also connects oneside of a is compressed in place about the valve rod 21 second signal lamp 65 by'a branch conductor 66. by means of a jam nut 31. An audible signal device, such as an electric bell An operating ?uid for the piston 35 is admitted to the bore 34a, of the cylinder 34, through a at a point thereon‘ between the points of connec screw threaded connection 38 and effects a move 40 ment of the piston and the valve rod in a direc tion against the tension of the spring 28 to open the ori?ce in the plug 20 for ‘admitting steam from the nozzle I9 to the interior of the throt tling chamber or barrel I6. 45 7 ' ’ Positioned within'the throttling chamber or barrel |6 is an annular bulb or chamber 39 which is stationarily encircled about the spring 28 and the valve rod 21 and has connection with a‘con-V duit or tubing 40 leading outwardly ‘of the throt 50 tling chamber or barrel through the end plates 2| and I2 to a point of connection with an inlet 42 of the casing 4| of the gage B. ' . V The gage B is suitably emplaced apart from the calorimeter A and has a Bourdon tube with .in the casing 4| and connected at oneend to the ‘inlet 42. or buzzer 61, has one of its terminals connected by a conductor 69 to the battery conductor 64 Cooperative with the tube 43, within the casing 4|, is a usual operating means (not ' shown) for the shaft44 of an index or pointer 45 which overlies a dial 46 mounted onone of the .60 outer sides of the casing. tion of the samewith the signal lamps 63 and 65, and its other terminal by'a conductor 68 to the conductor 60 at a point thereon between the switch contact 53 and the electromagnet 6|. The switch 52 is .directly'connected to the remaining side of the second signal lamp 65 by a conduc tor 10. . ' r , Inthe operation .of the apparatus. or device thus provided, the calorimeter A is attached to .the steam source or vessel (not shown) from which ‘steam is to be sampled 'at the threaded nipple |3, when steam will pass into the nozzle I9 at the perforations I90. The gage B will then be placed in a convenient position, either at the point of temperature or at a- point remote there from, and, if the electrical indicating circuits C are employed,',they will also be suitably located to meet the requirements .of the installation. Upon the placing of the calorimeter A the threaded connection 38' will be. coupled to a source of ?uid pressure (not shown) for the ac The dial 46 has its face provided with two concentric scales of graduations 41' and 48, the tuation of the piston 35. With the calorimeter A installed, as stated, the nozzle I9 is projected outer scale ,41 being calibrated to read in per well into the steam mass and is surrounded at cent of moisture content of the steam sampled 65 and the inner scale 48 in degrees of steam qual-. ity. , all times by steamrwhich is of the same temper ature and pressure as that of the steam sample ‘ passed through the nozzle to the throttling ori V Cooperative with the Bourdon tube 43, within , the casing 4|, is an electric switching means for 1 controlling external indicating circuits C. (ii) 7 The indicators or signals in these circuits are for the purpose, one to indicate satisfactory steam qual ity and the other an unsatisfactory steam con-7 dition, as will later be apparent. Cooperative with one of these circuits is the automatic blow 75 down valve D, which will perform its usual func ?ce. ' ' 7 Now, by admitting pressure to the cylinder 34, thepiston 35 will be forced to the right and thereby exert a pull on the rod 21 and withdraw 70 the valve point 21a from the ori?ce; in the'plug 20. - This movement of the piston and rod will act to compress the spring 28 between the shoul der 29 and the end plate 2|, so that'the spring will function to return the rod and piston to 75 3 2,120,874 normal position, with the valve. point 2101. again closing the ori?ce in the plug 20, when the pressure is released from the piston 35. Upon the opening of the ori?ce in the plug 20, by the‘ withdrawal of the valve point 2111 there from, steam will pass from the nozzle I9 into the throttling chamber or barrel l6 and about and this retained heat energy acts to superheat the steam. The throttling calorimeter therefore measures this superheat and from thermometer readings the steam quality or percent moisture is calculated. The instant device eliminates all necessity for the use of ordinary mercury ther through the open center of the bulb 39 to the ex haust port nipples 22 and 23. In the passage of 10' the steam sample around the bulb 39, heat there from will be transferred to a ?uid in the bulb and the conduit or tubing 43 for the actuation of the Bourdon tube 43 in the gage casing 4|; the pres sure of this ?uid changing with temperature vari ations of the steam sample. In the instant disclosure of the invention, a vapor tension type of gage has been described and shown, but it will be obvious that other types of dial thermometers, for instance, a gas ?lled type thereof, may be substituted therefor, if and when desired. The gage is adjustable for various pres mometers and allowspercent moisture (or steam quality’100%-—% moisture) to be readily ascer tained by direct reading from a Bourdon type of pressure gage, or from an electrical meter (not 10 shown), if the latter be substituted. An illustrative problem in the use of the ap paratus or device, in accordance with the present invention and by reference to the Marks 8t Davis Steam Tables which show that} steam at 250# 15 gage has 1202.4 B. t. u., per pound and steam at , sures at its linkage, for instance, from an initially set pressure indication, the linkage will be short ened or lengthened respectively for an increase , or a decrease in indicated pressure, each adjust ment being for a temperature change representa tive of a one percent change of the pointer on the dial of the gage. Further in the operation of the apparatus or ~ device, if and when the switching means and the electrical indicating circuits C, together with the automatic blow-down valve D, are employed, upon movement of the Bourdon tube 43, to swing the link 49 on the pivot 50’, for instance to cause 1 the switch arm 5! to wipe over the contact 53, the circuit will be closed on the current source or battery 55, the electromagnet 5|, the signal lamp atmospheric pressure (14.7# gage) has 1150.4 B. t. u., per pound and a temperature of 212 de grees F., is stated as follows:--250# gage steam through throttling calorimeter to atmospheric 20 pressure. Solution: Item 1.—Heat per pound in B. t. u., available for super-heating (sample dry, without mois ture) :—-1202.4 B. t. u., at 250# gage minus 1150.4 B. t. u., steam at 0#, or atmosphere gives 52.0 25 B. t. u., per pound, available for superheating. Item 2.-Speci?c heat of steam at atmospheric pressure (from tables) :—-.47 B. t. u., required per pound per degree F. , Item 3.-—Maximum possible superheat in calo 30 rimeter, with initial steam 250# gage:-—-Item.(1) 52.0 B. t. u., divided by Item (2) .470 B. t. u., equals 110.5 degrees F. Item 4.—-Maximum possible temperature in calorimeter, with initial steam 250# gage:-at~ 357 mospheric temperature of steam plus superheat equals total calorimeter temperature, hence 212 degrees F., plus Item (3) 110.5 degrees F., equals 5%, and the bell or buzzer 51; the current passing from the positive terminal of the current source 40 or battery 59 by way of conductor 58, switch arm steam (Marks 8: Davis Tables) is 821.5 B. t. u., signal lamp 63, and conductor 54 to the negative and equivalent to 100% moisture. Item 6.-1% moisture in steam at 25011 gage 51, contact 53, conductor 60, electromagnet 6|, terminal or" the current source or battery 59. Also, current will flow from conductor 60 by Way of conductor 68,‘the bell or buzzer 61, and con ductor 69 to the current source or battery return conductor 54. In the other or reverse move ment of the Bourdon tube43 and the link 49, the switch arm 5! will wipe over contact 52 and close the circuit on the current source or battery 59 and the signal lamp 65 only; the current now passing from the positive terminal of the current source or battery 59 by way of conductor 58, switch arm 5!, contact 52, conductor 10, signal lamp 55, and conductors 56 and 64 to the nega tive terminal of the current source or battery 58. The signal lamps 53 and 65 will be colored and preferably one different from the other. Thus, both visual and audible signals or indica 00 tions will be given to the operator making a test on a given steam source. 7 With the alternate closing and opening of the circuit at switch contact 53, the electromagnet 5| will actuate the blow-down valve D correspond~ ingly to open and close positions, and the opera tion of the valve will be adjustable to percent moisture desired, according to the setting of the switch contacts 52 and 53 with respect to the switch arm 5|. Considering for the moment the principle of operation of a throttling calorimeter, steam pass ing through an ori?ce into ?n enlarged space, i. e., a space large enough that the resultant velocity is low, retains practically all the heat energy that would make up velocity energy, and 322.5 degrees F. ‘ Item 5.-Latent heat of evaporation 250# gage 40. is therefore Item. (5) 821.5 B. t. u., divided by 45 100, which equals 8.215 B. t. u. Item 7 .-—Steam at 250# gage with 1% moisture has a B, t. u., content of 1194.18 B. t. u., (1202.4 B. t. 11., minus, Item (6) or 8.215 B. t. 11.). Item 8.-1% moisture in steam lowers super heat temperature equivalent to Item (6) 8.215 50 B. t. u., divided by Item (2) V .47 B. t u., which equals 17.45 degrees F. Item 9.-—Maximum operating range of calorim eter in percent moisture equals Item (3) 110.5 degrees F., divided by Item (8) 17.45 degrees F., 55 or 6.34 percent moisture. However, it has been determined that a read able range of the calorimeter can be extended to a maximum of about 11% by changing ‘atmos .60 pheric pressure to a low vacuum. In the present instance, the Bourdon tube gage is a. thermometer actuated by superheat and it is calibrated to read in percent moisture or steam quality, and it is to be noted that, as shown, the gage index or pointer 45 swings in reverse to the 65 ordinary direction of movement thereof, and that the zero of the scale 41 is at the opposite end from which the index or pointer comes to- rest, or, in other words, zero percent moisture represents the maximum possible temperature of the super 70 heat of the steam sample. As the percent mois ture increases less superheat occurs and at 6.3% moisture and 250# gage, just enough heat is avail able to give the throttled sample a temperature of 212 degrees F., and the index or pointer 45 move 75 4 r 7 2,120,874. ment Will start at the maximurnmeasuring range ‘ the variations in transfer of heat fromthe heated ?uid to the ?uid within said member, a normally closed valve within the chamberto control in temperatures 212 degrees and maximum gress of the heated ?uid to be. tested, and a pres superheat 322.5 degrees E, which represents a‘ sure operated means exteriorly of the chamber and having connection with said valve to actuate range of 6.3% moisture. For normal tempera tures, say 69 degrees F., the index or pointer 45 it to open position as and when required. '2. A throttling calorimeter comprising a heat comes to rest off the scales, i. e., the space between insulated casing, a throttling chamber within 10 the point of rest and that where the graduations of the gage corresponding to atmospheric pres sure. In other words, the calibrated part of the swing of the index or pointer 45 is between the begin, which space represents a temperature range of from 60 degrees F., to 212 degrees F. It is also to be here noted that, since each steam pressure has di?erent heat content and 15 latent heat of evaporation, a dial calibrated for one pressure is not entirely correct for any other pressure. The deviation from accuracy is not large, with reference to steam'pressure range permitted on a boiler in operation that does not ?uctuate over 25# gage. Many boilers, however, do not fluctuate over '10# gage and therefore, for all practical purposes, the instant apparatus or device will be entirely satisfactory. ' The error said casing and having an intake ori?ce opening 10 outwardly of the casing, a sampling nozzle pro jecting from said casing for conveying steam to said ori?ce, a rod extending inwardly of said casing and into said chamber and having a tapered end to engage in said orifice, spring means normally urging said rod to force the tapered end thereof into closing engagement with said ori?ce, and pressure operated means for actuating said rod to withdraw the tapered end thereof from said ori?ce for. admitting steam 20 therethrough from said sampling nozzle. , 3. The calorimeter asset forth in claim '2, in reading, when the pressure drops, for instance, wherein said pressure operated means is com 25 to l'75# gage and reading is taken from a 250# , prised in a cylinder at the outer side of the said casing anda piston'on the outer end of said rod, 25 scale, is .66 of 1% moisture. Without further description, it is thought that the features and advantages of the invention will be readily apparent to those skilled in the 30 art, and it will of course be understood that changes in instrumentalities employed and minor details of construction and arrangement may be resorted'to without departing in any way from the spirit of the invention, or its scope as claimed. 35 Having thus fully described my invention, what I claim is: ' l. A throttling calorimeter comprising a heat insulated chamber having an intake ori?ce and ~ an exhaust port, a hollow member within said 40 chamber between the intake ori?ce'and the ex haust port, said member containing a ?uid sensi tive to variations in temperature of a heated ?uid passed through the chamber for test, means located 'eXteriorly of the chamber for indicating the cylinder having‘an inlet for the‘ pressure to actuate the piston; - V 4. The calorimeter asset forth‘ in claim 2, wherein a thermometer bulb is emplaced within said throttling chamber in direct contact with 30 the superheated steam therein, and a dial type of thermometer is connected to said bulb and located exteriorly' of the said casing to indicate the quality of the steam. ‘ 5. The calorimeter as set forth in claim 2, 35 wherein a thermometer bulb is emplaced within said throttling chamber in direct contact with the superheated steam therein, and a dial type of thermometer is connected to said bulb and 10-, cated exteriorly of and remotely from said casing to .indicate the quality of the ‘steam, said thermometer being calibrated in percent moisture of the steam sample. ' ' 1 ’ ' I BLAIR H. STONE.