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Патент USA US2120884

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June 14, 1938.
R, D, BROWN‘ JR
2,120,884
REGULATOR SYSTEM
Filed Jan. 6, 1936
2 Sheets-Sheet l
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June 14, 1938.
R. D. BROWN, JR
2,120,884
REGULATOR SYSTEM
Filed‘ Jan. 6, 1936
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VOL THEE
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
Patented June 14, 1938
2,120,884
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,120,884
REGULATOR SYSTEM
Reynolds 1). Brown, Jr., Philadelphia, Pa., aa
lignor to Philadelphia Storage Battery Com
panymiahiladelphla, 2a., a corporation of Penn
sy
Application January 6, 1936, Sa-lal No. 57,862
In Great Britain January 7, 1935
11 Claims. (Cl. 171-312)
This invention relates to control devices for line. Assuming, for example, that energy is
electrical systems and has for its object the pro
supplied from a direct-current source, one side
vision of a control device having a large power of the load may be connected to the negative
output, the voltage of which may be maintained side of the supply line and the other side of the
constant or may be made to vary in accurate load may be connected to the cathode or cathodes
accordance with the voltage of a lower power in
of the said tube or tubes. If there is to be more
put or control voltage regardless of variations in than one such tube, the additional tubes may be
the load or in the power supply. If the input or connected in parallel relation to the ?rst. For
control voltage is constant, the device will func
simplicity of illustration, it may be assumed that
10 tion as a regulator. Whenmeasured from the there is a single tube A, which tube is preferably,
output side, it will appear to have a low internal but not necessarily, a power tube characterized 10
resistance to unidirectional currents, but a high by having a low ampli?cation characteristic and
internal impedance with respect to even the low
high current-conducting ability. The anode of
est frequencies of alternating currents, and will this tube may be connected to the positive side
15 maintain a constant output voltage in spite of of the supply line.
15
variations in the load or in the power supply.
A control circuit may also be connected across
Moreover, the output voltage may be accurately the supply line, which control circuit may com
increased or decreased independently of the vari
ations in the load or in the power supply by vary
20 ing the input or control voltage.
The device is
also characterized by its instantaneous response,
and its ability to function as a ?lter with respect
to power supply variations.
If, however, the input voltage varies about
25 some positive value, such that the input signal
is maintained within the operable region of. the
system, the same voltage will appear in the out-_
put circuit and the device then acts as a power
ampli?er. It will be noted that the system is
30 self-?ltering as described in more detail herein
after regardless of whether it is used as a regu
lator or ampli?er. Further by so biasing the in
put signal that the instantaneous input voltage
during at least a portion of each cycle extends
35 below the control region of the system, the de
vice may be used as a power detector having a
high impedance input, low impedance output and
a substantially ideal linear characteristic.
The invention may be clearly understood from
40 the illustrated embodiments of the accompanying
drawings, wherein
Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic illustration of a simple
embodiment;
Fig. 2 illustrates a modi?cation;
Fig. 3 illustrates a further modi?cation;
Fig. 4 illustrates a system embodying the in
vention;
Fig. 5 shows the characteristic curve of the
device, enabling a clear understanding of the
several adaptations of the invention;
Fig. 6 illustrates a modi?cation of the inven
tion embodying a push-pull arrangement.
In the simple embodiment of the invention
shown in Fig. 1, the load is connected serially
65 with one or more vacuum tubes across the supply
prise a source of input or control voltage, a
vacuum tube B, and a resistor R, all connected
in series. The resistor R may be of relatively 20
high value and may have one side connected to
the positive side of the supply line, while the other
side of the resistor may be connected to the anode
of the tube B. The control voltage may be ap
plied between the cathode of tube B and the
negative side of the supply line. The tube B is
preferably one having a very high ampli?cation
factor and may be a pentode of well-known form.
The control grid of tube B may be connected to
the cathode of the tube A, while the control grid 30
of tube A may be connected through a battery
or other source of unidirectional potential to the
anode of tube B. The battery or source of uni
directional potential supplies a suitable bias to
the control grid of tube A and this bias is pref
erably of such magnitude and polarity as to make
the control grid of tube A negative at all times
with respect to its cathode.
As the load is connected in parallel with the
control voltage and the cathode-to-control grid
voltage of tube B, the latter two being series,
it will be obvious that the load voltage must, at
all times, be equal to the sum of these serially
connected voltages. It has been found that the
cathode-to-control grid voltage of tube Bis nearly
constant for all operating conditions due to the
high ampli?cation of tube B and the high re
sistance R in series therewith and, therefore, the
load voltage will always be equal to the control
voltage plus a small constant.
In operation, if the supply line voltage sud
denly increases, both of the above-described cir
cuits will tend to draw more current. The in
crease in current through the load circuit will
slightly increase the voltage across the load
2
2,120,884
-which will make the control grid of tube B less
lar case the input voltage is so biased that for
negative and thus further increase the current
through tube B and the resistor R. The voltage
across the resistor will, therefore, increase and
by doing so will increase the voltage between the
anode and control grid of tube A. Meanwhile,
the voltage between the cathode and anode of
tube A will have decreased due to the increase in
the load voltage. Consequently, the grid of tube
10 A will become much more negative and will,
therefore, oppose the tendency of the current
through the load to increase, to the extent that
the load voltage is maintained at substantially
the original value. If the supply line voltage were
15 to decrease rather than increase, the opposite
action would take place, thus maintaining the
When used as an ampli?er it is simply necessary
desired voltage across the load.
Assuming now that the resistance of the load
were to increase, the load voltage would then
20 tend to'increase, which would make the grid bias
of tube B less negative and thus increase the cur
rent through tube B and the resistor R. This
would cause a decrease in the load voltage to
the desired value in the manner above explained.
25 If the load resistance were to decrease rather
negative input signals the output tube is. cut-oi!
and consequently the output voltage ‘is zero.
However for positive input voltages the output
voltage will be directly proportional thereto, as
indicated by the sloping straight line. The slope
of this line is determined by the proportion of
output voltage fed back to the control tube.
that the input voltage be maintained in the posi l0.
tive region which may be accomplished by proper
circuit design and by use of proper biasing bat
teries. It will be noted that the ampli?er may
be used to amplify unidirectional as well as alter
nating voltages.
15
The device may be made to function as a de—
tector by biasing the input signal so that it ?uc
tuates about the zero point at which the output
voltage becomes zero. Of particular importance
is the fact that when the output voltage is posi 20
tive it is directly proportional to the input voltage
thus giving a linear detector characteristic.
than increase, the opposite action would take
place, returning the load voltage to normal.
If both the supply line voltage and the load
Likewise by using two such systems in push
pull fashion back-to-back an ampli?er of the
class B type may be obtained and such an ampli 25
?er may be made substantially distortionless by
so biasing the control voltages of each unit that
when the input voltage is zero the output current
resistance were to change simultaneously, a com
of each unit is zero. Thus one unit will amplify
bination of the two actions above described would
take place and would maintain the load voltage
at the desired value.
As stated above, the voltage between the oath
ode and control grid of the tube B is substantially
35 constant and the control system maintains the
load voltage at a value substantially equal to the
control voltage plus the constant bias on the con
trol grid of tube B. If desired, the constant por
tion of this grid bias may be counteracted by in
40 serting a small battery of equal voltage but op
posite polarity in the control circuit, as shown in
tlfi: push-pull system of Fig. 6 described herein
a
er.
» The negative bias on the tube A may be made
45 su?lciently large so that when the control voltage
is reduced to zero, tube A is biased to cut-off
and the load voltage is reduced to zero. Thus,
the operative range of the system may be ex
tended to zero output. As the system will func
50 tion properly as long as the grids of both tubes
are negatively biased, this increase in operating
range may be readily had.
The system may be used as a combination ?lter
and regulator having a controllable voltage out
55 put. In such case, the control voltage may be
supplied from a potentiometer, or voltage divider
across an auxiliary source.
The output or load
voltage may then be adjusted from zero to its
maximum value by manual adjustment of the
60 potentiometer to give the desired control voltage.
Such a system is shown in Fig. 4 and will be
described hereinafter.
If the direct current power supply is taken
from a recti?er or other non-constant unidirec
65 tional source, it is" only necessary to ?lter this
supply sufficiently to obtain a voltage which at all
times has a minimum instantaneous value some~
what greater than the desired load voltage. The
system functions e?iciently to ?lter out the re
sidual ripple in the supply system, as described
above with regard to variations in the supply
voltage.
The operating characteristic in the form of a
curve showing the relation of input voltage vs.
75 output voltage is shown in Fig. 5. In the particu
one-half of each cycle of input voltage and the 30
other unit will amplify the other half, as is char
acteristic of a class B system. Such a system is
shown in Fig. 6 and will be described in detail
later.
.
In a speci?c example of the use of the device
as a regulator, six of the tubes A may be used,
these tubes being type 42 pentodes connected
as triodes and in parallel. The tube B may be a
type 77 pentode. The resistor R may have a value
of 2 megohms. The grid bias voltage applied to 46
tubes A may be 144 volts with respect to the oath
ode and the bias on the screen grid of tube B may
be 45 'volts with respect to its cathode. If the -
minimum instantaneous supply voltage is ap
proximately 700 volts D. C. and if the control 45
voltage be varied from zero to 600 volts, the out
put voltage will be varied from zero to 590 volts.
The output current may be as high as 240 milli
amperes, each of the type 42 tubes supplying
50
about 40 milliamperes.
It is sometimes desirable to insert an additional
tube C between the tubes A and B, as shown in
Fig. 2, for the purpose of supplying current to
the grid of tube A when its grid is positive with
respect to its cathode, to thus increase the range
over which regulation is effective. One effective
manner of inserting the additional tube C is il
lustrated in Fig. 2. The anode of tube C should
preferably be connected to the positive side of
the power-supply line, while the cathode of this 60
tube may be connected to the negative side of the
power-supply line through a resistor R1 which
may have a value approximating the rated inter
nal anode impedance of tube C, or a higher value.
As the effective ampli?cation due to the addi 65
tional tube C in this circuit will be somewhat less
than one, the insertion of the additional tube
is solely for the purpose of increasing the range
of regulation and not for the purpose of increas
ing the effectiveness of regulation within the
range previously obtained.
In a further modification of. the system, as
shown in Fig. 3, a glow-discharge tube C1, which
may be a type 874 voltage regulator tube, may be
used to supply a constant voltage in place of the
2,120,884
‘control voltage. In such case, the cathode of
the tube B may be connected to the anode of the
glow-discharge tube, while the cathode of this
tube may be connected to the negative side of the
supply line. A resistance R: of high value may
be connected, between the positive side of the
supply line and the cathode of tube B. The
screen grid of tube B may be connected to an
appropriate point on this resistance; in which
10 case, the screen grid is biased by the voltage drop
across a portion of the said resistance. It will
be noted that by so obtaining the screen voltage
a certain portion of the voltage ripple of the
supply voltage will appear thereon and be intro
15 duced in the system in the proper phase to bal
ance out ripple in the output circuit. Thus the
supply ripple may be further reduced by proper
design of the circuit for obtaining the screen grid
voltage. The control grid of tube A may be con
nected directly to the anode of tube B, if the grid
bias voltage above mentioned for tube A be sup
plied in another part of its grid circuit. The
control grid of tube B may be connected to the
movable contact of a potentiometer P in the load
25 circuit, the output being taken from across the
potentiometer.
The principal feature of this modi?cation is
that it is self-biasing, due to the action of the
constant voltage glow-discharge tube and this
30 eliminates the auxiliary source of control voltage.
This system is particularly adapted for use as a
self-contained ‘ regulator. The output voltage
may be controlled to a limited extent by varying
the position‘of the potentiometer contact, thus
35 varying the voltage applied to the control-grid
of tube B.
In a practical application of the above-de
scribed systems, these systems may be combined
to provide a composite system, as shown in Fig. 4,
characterized by its being divisible into units
which can be placed wherever convenient and
further characterized by having remote control
' means for adjusting the output voltage to the
desired value‘ and regulator means to maintain
45 this desired voltage in spite of. variations in either
or both the load and supply voltage. In the
illustrated embodiment of this system, the supply
current may be taken from an alternating current
source and may be supplied to a recti?er D and
50 also to an auxiliary recti?er F. These recti
fiers may be of any well-known type. Prefer
ably, the recti?er D is a full-wave gaseous recti
?er and the output of this recti?er is partially
?ltered in a ?lter E. The essential function of
55 this ?lter is to prevent the instantaneous value
of this output voltage from becoming less than
the desired voltage at any time.
It is not neces
sary that this ?lter reduce the A. C. ripple super
imposed on the D. C. output of the system, al
60 though it will, of course, do so to a limited ex
tent. Both the recti?er D and the partial ?lter E
are separate units and may be positioned in any
convenient place.
The output of the partial ?lter
is supplied by a feed line to any desired location.
This line may supply one or more regulator units
I, each of which may take the form of the device
of Fig. 1.
The recti?er F may be a half-wave or full
wave recti?er of any well-known type. The out
70 put of this recti?er is ?ltered in a ?lter G which
may be a conventional ?lter such as is well
known in the radio art. The output of this ?lter
may be fed to a self-biasing regulator H which is
preferably of the type illustrated in Fig. 3. The
75 voltage output of this regulator will be constant
3
and independent of the supply source voltage or
load on the system. This constant voltage may
be used as the control voltage for the regulator
units I, above mentioned. To this end, the nega
tive side of the auxiliary line from regulator H
may be connected to the negative side of the
main feed line. Each of the output units may
comprise a remote control panel J and one of
the above-mentioned regulator units I. The
power supply ~for each regulator unit I is taken 10
from the main feed line, as above described, and
the control voltage may be taken from a poten
t-iometer P1 at the corresponding remote control
panel J. This potentiometer may be connected
across the line of the auxiliary or control system
which is regulated by the regulator H and the
control voltage for the regulator I may be taken
from the movable contact of the potentiometer
and one side thereof. Preferably a condenser is
connected to these two points in order to maintain
the control voltage as the contact is moved along
the wire-wound potentiometer. Otherwise, the
violent voltage ?uctuations which would occur as
the potentiometer contact is moved might damage
the external load in the output circuit.
25
It will be noted that a three-conductor supply
line is provided for the regulator units I. The
conductor I is a common conductor connected to
the negative sides of the output circuits of devices
E and H. Conductor 2 is connected'to the posi 30
tive side of the output circuit of the self-biased
regulator H, while conductor 3 is connected to
the positive side of the output circuit of ?lter de
vice F.
It will be seen that a substantially con
stant potential is produced between conductors l 35
and 2 or across potentiometer P1, while another
potential is produced between conductors I and
3. This system lends itself very conveniently to
the employment of a plurality of regulator units.
It is important to note that the control voltage
source, as shown in Figs, 1 to 3, is preferably
connected to the low voltage side of the supply
line, thus maintaining the control voltage at a
minimum value above the potential of the low
voltage side of the line. This feature also lends 45
itself to the three-conductor supply system of
Fig. 4.
As will be readily apparent, each control panel
may be combined with its outlet panel, while the
corresponding regulator unit I may be separately 50
located. However, due to the fact that the equiva
lent internal impedance of the regulator I is very
small. it is desirable to keep the resistance of the
leads from the regulator to the load as low as
possible, so as not to impair the regulation.
In Fig. 6 there is illustrated a push-pull system
such as above mentioned. The control voltage
is supplied to two control tubes B1 and B: by
means of a transformer T1 having a center tapped
secondary. The load is connected across the sec 60
ondary of an output transformer T2 having a
center tapped primary. The output tubes are
shown at A1 and A2. The circuit connections of
the control tubes and the output tubes are the
same as shown in Fig. .1, except for the input 65
and output circuits. The control voltage for con
trol tube B1 will be the voltage across one half
of the secondary of the transformer T1 plus the
voltage of the biasing battery, whereas the con
trol voltage for control tube B2 will be the voltage
across the other half of the secondary of trans
former T1 plus the biasing voltage. The biasing
battery is so arranged that when there is no
voltage across the transformer T1, both tubes A1
and A: are biased to the point of cut off. Under
4
2,120,884
‘these conditions, each unit A131 and A1131 will
have an operating characteristic similar to that
in Fig. 5. Thus, if the cathode of tube 131 is made
positive with respect to the center tap of the
transformer T1 while that of B2 is made nega
tive, the tube A1 will transmit current in accord
ance with the input voltage supplied to B1, while
tube A: will remain non-conductive. On the
other hand, when the control voltage supplied to
10 B2 is positive, then the tube A: will conduct and
during this portion of the cycle, tube A1 will be
non-conductive. Thus the tubes A1 and A: are
alternately conductive during successive half
cycles of the control voltage, the device function
15 ing as a class B ampli?er.
The effectiveness of any of the above-described
regulators may be increased by increasing the
ampli?cation within the circuit in any well
known manner. The sources of bias necessary
20 for the operation of these devices may be in
serted at any point in the circuit as various con
siderations may dictate.
Although the invention has been described with
reference to certain speci?c embodiments, it will
25 be understood that other forms are possible with
in the scope of the invention.
I claim:
1. In an electrical system, a control space dis
charge device having an anode, a cathode and a
30 control element, an output space discharge device
having an anode, a cathode and a control ele
ment, a source of electrical energy, a source of
3. In an electrical system, a control space dis
charge device having an anode, a cathode and a
control element, an output space discharge device
having an anode, a cathode and a control element,
a source of electrical energy, a source of alternat
ing current control voltage whose amplitude var
ies within a predetermined range, impedance
means connecting said cathode of said output
device to said energy source, a connection
between said energy source and said anode 10
of said output device, whereby the space cur
rent of said output device ?ows through said
impedance means and establishes a potential
thereacross, means for supplying to said cathode
and said control element of said control device the 15
potential di?erence between said control voltage
and the potential across said impedance means,
an output circuit for said control device, means
for supplying electrical energy to said output cir
cuit, and a connection between said output circuit 20
of said control device and said control element of
said output device for controlling said potential
across said impedance means so as to minimize
said potential difference for instantaneous ampli
tudes of said control voltage within said prede 25
termined amplitude range, whereby said system
operates as an ampli?er.
4. In an electrical system, a control space dis
charge device having an anode, a cathode and a
control element, an output space discharge device 30
having an anode, a cathode and a control ele
ment, a source of electrical energy, a. source of
control voltage, said sources having one common
alternating current control voltage whose ampli
connection, impedance means connecting said
tude varies with respect to a predetermined range,
a portion of said control voltage extending out 35
side said predetermined range, impedance means
connecting said cathode of said output device to
said energy source, a connection between said
energy source and said anode of said output de
vice, whereby the space current of said output
device ?ows through said impedance means and
establishes a potential thereacross, means for sup
plying to said cathode and said control element
of said control device the potential difference be
35 common connection to said cathode of said out
put device, a connection between said energy
source and said anode of said output device,
whereby the space current of said output device
flows through said impedance means and estab
40 lishes a potential thereacross, means for supply
ing to said cathode and said control element of
said control device the potential diil’erence be
tween said control voltage and at least a portion
of the potential across said impedance means, an
45 output circuit for said control device, means for
supplying electrical energy to said output circuit,
and a connection between said output circuit of
said control device and said control element of
said output device for‘ controlling said potential
50 across said impedance so as to minimize said po
tential difference.
2. In an electrical system, a control space dis
charge device having an anode, a cathode and a
control element, an output space discharge device
C21 C11 having an anode, a cathode and a control ele
ment, a source of electrical energy, a source of
control voltage, impedance means connecting said
cathode of said output device to said energy
source, a connection between said energy source
60 and said anode of said output device, whereby the
space current of said output device ?ows through
said impedance means and establishes a potential
thereacross, means for supplying to said cathode
and said control element of said control device
the potential difference between said control volt
age and the potential across said impedance
means, an output circuit for said control device,
means for supplying electrical energy to said
output circuit, and a connection between said out
70 put circuit of said control device and said con
trol element of said output device for controlling
said potential across said impedance means so
as to minimize said potential di?‘erence when said
control voltage has an instantaneous amplitude
75 within a predetermined amplitude range.
tween said control voltage and the potential
across said impedance means, an output circuit
for said control device, means for supplying elec
trical energy to said output circuit, and a connec
tion between said output circuit of said control
device and said control element of said output de
vice for controlling said potential across said im
pedance means so as to minimize said potential
di?erence for instantaneous amplitudes of said
control voltage within said predetermined ampli
tude range, whereby said system operates as a 55
detector.
5. In an electrical system, a control space dis
charge device having an anode, a cathode and a
control element, an output space discharge de
vice having an anode, a cathode and a control
element, a source of electrical energy, a source oi’
control voltage, impedance means connecting said
cathode of said output device to said energy
source, a connection between said energy source
and said anode of said output device, whereby
the space current of said output device ?ows
through said impedance means and establishes
a potential thereacross, means for supplying to
said cathode and said control element of said
control device the potential diiference between 70
said control voltage and the potential across said
impedance means, an output circuit for said con
trol device, means for supplying electrical energy
to said output circuit, and means for extending
the range of operation of said output device.
ands“
6. In an electrical system,,a control space dis
charge device having an anode, a cathode and
a control element, an output space discharge de
vice having an anode, a cathode and a control
element, a source of electrical energy, a source
ofcontrol voltage, impedance means connecting
said cathode of said output device to said energy
source, a connection between said energy source
and said anode of said output device, whereby
10 the space current of said output device ?ows
through said impedance means and establishes a
potential thereacross, means for supplying to said
cathode and said control element of said con
trol device the potential di?erence between said
15 control voltage and the potential across said im
pedance means, an output circuit for said con
5
put circuit, and a connection between said out
put circuit of said control device and said con
trol element 01’ said output device for controlling
said potential across said impedance so as to
minimize said potential di?erence.
9. In an electrical system, a control space
discharge device having an anode, a cathode and
a control element, an output space discharge de
vice having an anode, a cathode and a control ele
ment, a source of electrical energy. a source of 10
control voltage comprising a voltage regulator
device connected to the cathode of said con
trol device and having a common connection with
said ?rst source, impedance means connecting
said common connection to said cathode of said 15
output device, a connection between said energy
source and said anode of said output device,
whereby the space current of said output device
the range or operation of said output device com
?ows
through said impedance means and
prising a third space discharge device having an
establishes a potential thereacross, means for 20
anode, a cathode and a control element, a con
supplying to said cathode and said control ele
nection between the output circuit of said con
ment of said control device the potential dif
trol device and said control element of said third ference between said control voltage and at least
space discharge device, and a connection between a portion 01’ the potential across said impedance
25 said'cathode 01. said third space discharge device
means, an output circuit for said control device,
and the control element of said output device.
means for supplying electrical energy to said out 25
7. In an electrical system, a control space dis
put circuit, and a connection between said out
charge device having an anode, a cathode and a put circuit of said control device and said con
control element, an output space discharge de
trol element or said output device for con
30 vice having an anode, a cathode and a control
trolling said potential across said impedance so as
element, a source of electrical energy, a source to minimize said potential di?'erence.
of substantially constant control voltage, said
10. In an electrical system, a three-conductor
sources having one common connection, im
supply line. means for establishing a substan
pedance means connecting said common connec
tially constant potential between one of said con
35
trol device, means for supplying electrical energy
to said output circuit, and means for extending
tion to said cathode of said output device, a con
ductors and a second of said conductors, means
nection between said energy source and said for producing a potential between said ?rst con
anode of said output device, whereby t‘e space ductor and the third conductor, an impedance
current of said output device ?ows through said connected between said ?rst and said second con
impedance means and establishes a potential ductors,
and a regulator unit comprising a con
40 thereacross, means for supplying to said cathode
trol space discharge device having an anode, a
and said control element of said control device cathode and a control element, an output space
the potential difference between said control discharge device having an anode, a cathode and
voltage and at least a portion 01' the potential a control element, impedance means connecting
across said impedance means, an output circuit said cathode of said output device to said ?rst
for said control device, means for supplying conductor, a connection between said third con
‘electrical energy to said output circuit, and a ductor- and said anode of said output device,
connection between said output circuit oi’ said whereby the space current of said output device
control device and said control element oi’ said ?ows through said impedance means and estab
output device for controlling said potential across
50 said impedance so as to minimize said potential lishes a potential thereacross, means for supply~
ing to said cathode and said control element of
difference.
‘
'
said control device the potential difference be
8. In an electrical system, a control space dis— tween at least a portion of the potential across
charge device having an anode, a cathode and a said ?rst impedance and the potential across
control element, an output space discharge de
said impedance means, an output circuit for said
55
vice having an anode, a cathode and a control
element, a source of, electrical energy, a control
voltage-supplying device arranged to receive the
space current of said control device and having a
non-linear voltage-current characteristic where
60 in the voltage is generally independent of cur
rent variations over a predetermined range, said
source and said voltage-supplying device having
one common connection, impedance means con
necting said common connection to said cathode
65 of said output device, a connection between said
energy source and said vanode of said output de
vice, whereby the space current of said output
device ?ows through said impedance means and
establishes a potential thereacross, means for
70 supplying to said cathode and said control ele
ment 01' said control device the potential dit
ierence between said control voltage and at least
a portion of the potential across said impedance
means, an output aircuitior said control device,
76 means for supplying electrical energy to said out
35
40
45
50
control device, means for supplying electrical
energy to said output circuit, and a connection 55
between said output circuit of said control de—
vice and said control element of said output de
vice for controlling said potential across said
impedance means so as to minimize said poten
tial difference.
11. In an electrical system, a three-conductor
supply line, means for establishing a substantially
constant potential between one of said conduc
tors and a second of said conductors, means for
producing a potential between said ?rst conduc 65
tor and the third conductor, a plurality of imped
ances each connected between said ?rst and said
second conductors, and a plurality of regulator
units associated respectively withsaidimpedances, 70
each of said units comprising a control space dis
charge device having an anode, a cathode and a
control element, an output space discharge device
having ananode, a cathode and a control element,
impedance means connecting said cathode of 75
6
2,120,884
said output device to said ?rst conductor, a con
nection between said third conductor and said
anode of said output device, whereby the space
current of said output device ?ows through
said impedance means and establishes a po
tential thereacross, means for supplying to
said cathode and said control element 0! said
control device the potential di?erence between at
least a portion of the potential across one of said
first impedances and the potential across said
impedance means, an output circuit for said con
trol device, means for supplying electrical energy
to said output circuit, and a connection between
said output circuit of said control device and said
control element of said output device for con
trolling said potential across said impedance‘
means so as to minimize said potential di?erence.
REYNOLDS D. BROWN, JR.
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