Патент USA US2120932код для вставки
June 14, 1938. L. DILLON 2,120,932 HIGH FREQUENCY INDUCTION DEHYDRATOR Filed May 15, 1935 ATTORNEY. Patented June 14, 1938 ' 2,120,932 ; UNITED 'STATES' PATENT OFFICE 2,120,932 , HIGH FREQUENCY INDUCTION DEHYDRATOR Los Angeles, Calif., assignor to Union Lyle Dillon, Oil Company of California, Los Angeles, Calif., a corporation of California _ Application May 15, 1933, Serial No. 671,023 12 Claims. (01. 204-24) This invention relates to the art of separating to this invention through treatment only by cur rents and/or high potential gradients induced in the phases of emulsions and particularly to an the treated liquid by electromagnetic induction. electrical dehydrator for petroleum emulsions. The invention is embodied in apparatus com - Conventional treaters usually comprise a tank prising an elongated annular insulating conduit through which emulsion to be treated is caused to ?ow and around which an intense alternating electromagnetic ?eld is induced. Said ?eld is in duced by a current of corresponding characteris tics applied to an electrical conductor which winds spirally around the outside of said insulating con duit out of contact with the emulsion being treat 5 into which, or through which, the emulsion to be treated ?ows andin which a live electrode is dis posed. The treating potential in the conventional treater is set up through the emulsion to be treated between the electrode and the tank wall 10 or between the electrode and another surface grounded to said tank wall. The emulsion thus undergoing treatment is in physical contact with the electrode and the said oppositely chargedsur face, with the emulsion acting more or less as‘ an 'electrical conductor between them, depending up on its water content, ?neness of particles or other characteristics. This condition of operation tends to shortcircuit the electrical system and impair its operation. Therefore, due to their 'shortcir cuiting-tendencies only emulsions covering a nar row range of characteristics can be treated in such a treater without employing special means to prevent the electrical system being rendered inoperative by shortcircuits through the emul 25 sion. ed, in the form of a solenoid. Means is provided for supplying said solenoid with an interrupted or intermittent high frequency high voltage. cur 15 rent. The ?eld thus induced in the emulsion in .the annular insulating conduit in turn induces a counter E. M. F. of high potential around the annulus formed by the emulsion in the annular conduit. Means is provided to introduce emul sion to be treated into the treating zone in the annular insulating conduit and means is provided to withdraw treated emulsion from said conduit and pass it to a separate settling tank where sep aration takes place. Means is also provided for 25 The conventional dehydration apparatus also necessitates insulated electrical connections to the electrodes in the treating zone through the treater shell, said connections passing through a gas tightv 30 lead-in insulator of high potential capacity. Due to the unfavorable conditions under which such a lead-in insulator is forced to operate it is a‘ source of electrical and mechanical difficulty. Objects of this invention are to overcome the above enumerated and other disadvantages of the common dehydration methods; to provide a novel form of treater and method of treatment which ' will be efficient, economical, of high capacity, sim ple and uniform in operation and capable of effec AO tively treating emulsions which heretofore have been difficult if not impossible to treat by elec trical methods alone; and to eliminate mechani- . cal and electrical insulating and supply difficulties. Other objects are to provide a treater which is inherently electrodynamically and mechanically non-shortcircuiting in, its operation, which re quires no electrodes in the treating zone nor lead in insulators through the treater shell into the treating zone, and in which electrical stresses -0 through the insulating bodies therein are at a minimum, and it is a further object to provide such a treater which is capable of operating on emulsions having wide ranges of water content and electrical conductivity. 55 ‘ In general these objects are attained vaccording introducing gas into the treating zone in the in sulating conduit to aid treatment. An auxiliary electrode system may optionally be embodied in the structure of the invention, said auxiliary sys tem comprising a solenoid and an electrode ax ially disposed therein, which may be placed in side, of said insulating conduit, and in which treat ing potentials are induced by electromagnetic induction only. , - ’ The invention, broadly stated, comprises a method and apparatus for treating emulsions by electromagnetic induction. The invention com prises more speci?cally a process and apparatus for dehydrating petroleum emulsions of water‘ in oil by inducing in said emulsion by an intense al 40 ternating electromagnetic ?eld, closed electrical currents of high potential gradient, said induced potential gradient being su?icient to agglomerate the water. The invention also resides in a dehy dration method and means for producing an in tense alternating and/ or intermittent electromag netic inducing ?eld. The invention further re sides in a structure adapted to such a method of treatment in which high tension lead-in insu lators directly into the treating zone are elimi nated, electrical stresses across insulating bodies minimized and electrodes rendered unnecessary. The invention also resides in a structure in which ‘an auxiliary solenoid and electrode system inside I of‘ the treating zone may be employed in which 55 2,120,933 2 the treating potentials are set up entirely by elec connections to said solenoid I8 are made from an The invention resides further in such a structure where an auxiliary external current source through lead connections . tromagnetic induction. solenoid is employed in stepping up the potential in said treating zone through said auxiliary elec trode system. The invention also resides in com bination of the automatic stirring action of the electromagnetic ?eld upon the emulsion being treated to minimize short circuiting and to in 10 crease efficiency of treatment. The invention fur ther resides in combination of the dynamic dis rupting e?ect of the magnetic ?eld upon short-' circuiting current paths which may form in the emulsion undergoing treatment. The invention 15 also resides in gas injection into the emulsion being treated in the treating zone combined with the above enumerated steps to increase emciency and effectiveness of electrical treatment. Other objects, advantages and features of the 20 invention will appear hereinafter. In the accompanying drawing 'wherein one em bodiment of this invention is illustrated: Figure 1 is a view partially in elevation, par tially in vertical section and partially diagram 25 matic showing the general assembly of the appa ratus, including a vertical section of the electrical l1 and petticoated insulators I8, said insulators extending through the upper cylinder head 6. In Figure 4, there is shown an optional arrange ment or the treating zone structure in which the insulating cylindrical core III is replaced by an auxiliary solenoid I 9 .and an auxiliary elec trode 20 positioned inside of insulating conduit I. Auxiliary solenoid l9 and electrode 20 are not 10 electrically connected to the external solenoid I6 but are in inductive relation thereto. An emulsion inlet is provided through a pipe 2| into the top 1 of the treater. The emulsion out- > let from the treater ‘is formed by T 9 which leads into the lower portion of a settling tank 22 of unit 13. A. gas outlet from- the treater is pro vided at the‘ top through pipe 23. A gas injec tion inlet 24 is provided at the bottom of the treater through a head 25 on T 9, pipe 24 hav 20 ing an up-turned end 26 centrally positioned be; low insulating conduit I and insulating cylindri cal core III. coil and central insulating core or cylinder: To allow for expansion of oil and at the same time maintain the annular chamber in the cyl 25 inder 4 entirely ?lled with oil under varying con ditions of temperature, a pipe 28 connected with cylinder head 6 leads to an expansion chamber 29, which is partially ?lled with oil making a liquid seal with the down-turned portion of pipe 28 therein. In the upper end of expansion chamber Figure 3 is a view showing the spider support attached to the cylindrical insulating 'core of the 29, an air space is_ maintained communicating with the atmosphere through breather pipe 30 treater; ' Figure 2 is a cross section of the treater unit taken on line 2—2 of Figure 1 showing the rela 30 tive positions of the insulating conduit, solenoid insulating conduit; and an air drier 3|. Air drier 3I contains a Figure 4 is a fragmentary vertical sectional de chemical, such as calcium' chloride, which has 35 tail of the modi?ed treater showing a portion of ~' the ability to remove moisture from the air. Pipe 35 -the auxiliary solenoid and electrode system; Figure 5 is a cross section through the treater closing insulating conduit l is a metallic cylinder The separating unit B comprises the settling tank 22 which receives treated emulsion from 40 the treater A through the T connection 9.v For drawing off separated water from the- settling tank 22, a drain pipe 35 is provided in the bot tom thereof connecting with a water leg 36, fun nel 31 and water disposal line 33. Valve 39 in water leg 36 serves to regulate the rate of water drainage. Valve 36' between pipes 35 and 38 serves when opened to allow complete drainage of settling tank 22 through pipe 38 when desired. 4, adapted to contain insulating oil, the lower A pressure equalization and common vent line 40 50 end of which is closed liquid tight by an annular head 5 which extends under and ~makes a liquid tight seal with ?ange 3, and the upper end ot which is closed liquid tight by an annular head 6 which makes a liquid tight seal with ?ange 2. The top 1‘ of the treater is‘ supported by and makes a gas tight connection with ?ange 2 and annular head 6, and forms an enlarged upper continuation of conduit I. The top ‘I is closed by a bumped head 8 which makes a gas tight seal thereon. A T connection 9 is ?anged to the lower end of conduit _I and cylinder head 5 through the medium of the ?ange 3 and forms a lower extension and outlet for conduit I. An insulating cylindrical core III with rounded or tapered ends I2 is coaxially placed within the insulating conduit I to form an annular pas sage I3 between said cylinder and said conduit. Insulating cylindrical core III is supported at top and bottom by spiders I4 which extend out be tween member III and the ends of conduit I, being retained in‘ the respective ?ange connections. A solenoid I6, formed of a number of turns of a. large electrical conductor is positioned around the middle of insulating conduit I. Electrical connects thetop of the treater unit A through gas outlet line 23 with the top of the'settling tank through a connection 4| to allow the liquid level indicated by broken line 42 in treater unit A unit at line 5-5 of Figure 4 showing the relative 40 positions of the solenoids, auxiliary electrodes and insulating conduit. The apparatus illustrated comprises two main units, a treater unit A, and a separating unit B. The treater unit A comprises an elongated ver 45 tical insulating conduit I of any suitable insula tion material, the upper end of which is screwed into a ?ange 2 and the lower end of which is screwed into a ?ange 3. Surrounding and en 50 55 .60 70 75 32 with valve 33 may be placed at the lower end of cylinder 4 for draining the oil therefrom‘. to be governed and maintained by the liquid level 42 in settling‘ tank 22.‘ Excess‘gas is discharged from line 40 past a pressure relief valve 43 which serves to prevent excess pressures from being built up in the system. Water leg 36 also is ‘connected to gas lines 40, by pipe 44 to equalize the pressure 60 therebetween and‘ eliminate the possibility of treater tank 22 being entirely drained in event the emulsion supply through the treater should materially decrease or fail. Dry oil is removed 65 from settling tank 22 through line 45 located near the top on the liquid level 42. Broken line 42 is extended through treater unit A and indicates the approximate liquid level also maintained there. - V Interrupted high frequency electric current in the form of condenser discharges is supplied to solenoid I6 by way of electrical-conductors 50, 70 lead-in insulators IB-and leads IT. The electrical supply system to the treater comprises a trans- 75 3 2,120,932 serves to relieve the pressure in the treater sys tem if it rises to a value substantially above at former 52, a condenser 54 connected across the secondary of said transformer through imped ances 55 and 56 and electrical conductors 58. Low voltage alternating current is supplied to the mospheric. transformer primary from electrical conductors 60 through impedance 6|. A spark gap 62 is provided across which the condenser 54 dis charges through-the solenoid H5 in the ‘treater ?eld, by way of jconductors 50, as previously stated. The operation of the dehydrator is as follows: The emulsion enters the top ‘I of the treater unit A through emulsion inlet pipe 2|. From the top 1 the emulsion, the top surface of which is shown at 42, ?ows down through the annular passage between the insulating conduit l and the insu lating cylindrical core l0. From the annular pas sage between insulating conduit l and insulating cylindrical core Ii) the treated emulsion passes into T connection 9 and from there into the tank 22 of the separating and ‘settling unit B. The emulsion while passing through that portion of the conduit around which the solenoid I6 is wound, is acted upon by an intense high frequency 25 electromagnetic ?eld set up by high frequency alternating current ?owing through said solenoid. This high frequency electromagnetic ?eld in duces circumferential high potential gradients di rectly in the said annular stream of emulsion 30 said potential gradients resulting in the break ing of the emulsion and agglomeration of the water particles. When the said circumferential high potential gradients occur in emulsions of moderate or high conductivity, circumferential 35 shortcircuiting currents tend to form and flow through closed circular paths formed by the ag glomerated water chains. When this condition . ing it against accidental breakage, and a means of restraining or restricting the flow of emulsion therefrom in case said conduit should fail for any reason. The annular space within cylinder 4 around conduit l is entirely ?lled with an in sulating ?uid, such as transformer oil. Provision for taking care of expansion and contraction of the said insulating ?uid is made in the expansion drum 29 as above described. In the operation of the electrical equipment, the primary of the high voltage transformer 53 20 is supplied with low voltage current through sup ply lines 60 and impedance Bl. The condenser 54 is charged to a high voltage by the high volt age output of the transformer secondary through impedances 55 and 56 and electrical conductors lo L1 58. Condenser 54 is shunted by the solenoid in ductance I6, the circuit thereto being completed through leads l1, lead-in insulators l8, electrical conductors 50 and series spark gap 62. The cir cuit just outlined comprising condenser 54, in so ductance l6 and spark gap 62,‘with the enu merated electrical connections ‘ therebetween, constitutes an electrical oscillatory circuit, the . frequency of oscillation of which depends upon tends to occur, an electrodynamic force incident ally comes into play between the initial shortcir 40 _ The enclosing cylinder 4 around insulating conduit l is provided to relieve, partially, the stress imposed upon it by the pressure of the emulsion passing therethrough. Cylinder 4 also provides a mechanical protection to insulating conduit I which may be of fragile material, guard the values of ‘said inductance and said condenser : capacity. The width of gap 62 is adjusted so that when the charge in condenser 54 is at or near the maximum value, the air dielectric therebe tween will break down allowing a high frequency oscillatory discharge of said condenser through cuiting current and the electromagnetic ?eld solenoid l6. In some cases where the energy which induces it, tending to expand the diame- - ‘transfer to a highly conductive emulsion is great ter of said closed circumferential paths and thus to disrupt them immediately. Settling and sep aration of the thus treated emulsion takes place in settling tank 22 of the separating and settling 45 unit B. The dry oil rises to the top and is with drawn through outlet pipe 45, and the water settles to the bottom and is withdrawn through water drain 35, water leg 36, funnel 39, and water 50 disposal line 38. In some cases it has been found that injection of gas into the emulsion undergoing treatment in the treating zone is advantageous in increasing its efficiency and effectiveness. Pipe 24-26 serves as a means for such introduction of gas into the 55 lower end of insulating conduit I from where it ' rises in ?nely divided bubbles countercurrent to the downward ?owing emulsion stream through the treating zone. The gas thus injected con 60 tinues upward through the emulsion into the treater top 'I_ where it disengages from the liquid therein at liquid surface 42, passes into the gas , space thereabove and is vented from the treater through vent pipes 23 and 40. Gas which is 65 evolved by the oil in the top of settling tank 22 is vented therefrom through pipes 4| and 40, all these gases being passed to any suitable gas dis posal system. Gas vent pipes 23, 40 and 4|, in addition to the above, serve to equalize the pres in the treater unit and settling tank so that 70 sures the liquid level in each will be approximately the same height. The liquid level in the treater unit indicated byline 42 will thus be regulated and maintained by the liquid level in the settling tank. Pressure relief valve 43 on gas disposal line 40 / the high frequency oscillations are suppressed thereby, and the condenser discharge under such conditions occurs in ‘a single impulse of steep fronted wave form. Gap 62 as shown in the drawing is of the ?xed spherical type, but other types may be used, such as the rotary or the synchronously interrupted type. Since the con denser charging current is of a low frequency - alternating characteristic, the condenser 54, will be intermittently charged and discharged at a corresponding frequency and thus the condenser discharge through solenoid IE will be intermittent. With this type of electrical supply it is possible . to apply extremely high peaks of energy to the emulsion undergoing treatment. In some cases where it is desired to apply a much higher voltage to the emulsion than can be ' ‘ induced therein in an emulsion stream of an an nular form, which comprises in effect a one-turn electrical circuit, the insulating cylindrical core I0 is removed and an auxiliary solenoid l9 and electrode .20 is substituted therefor (Figure 4). Auxiliary solenoid l9 may have any number of 65 turns but where it is desired, as stated above, to increase the applied potential it may have a greater number of turns than solenoid l6 and‘ being in inductive relation with solenoid IE will, therefore,‘when it has a greater number of turns, 70 have a higher voltage induced in it than that which is applied by the electrical supply system across the said solenoid l6. Since electrode 20 is connected to one end of said solenoid I9 and extends axially therethrough, electrical poten 75 4- ' 7 £420,932 tials will exist between it and each turn of said generating high intensity electrical surges having steep wave forms, passing said electrical surges solenoid, said potentials being progressively greater towards the open end of said solenoid and said electrode.- The maximum potential will ex Ch ist between the open end of solenoid I9 and elec trode 20, and will bear a ratio to the voltage sup ply to the solenoid l6 equal to the ratio of the number of turns on the respective solenoids. ‘ Impedance 5| serves to cushion ‘the electrical 10 shocks which are transmitted through the trans through a solenoid electrical circuit to form in tense electromagnetic ?eld impulses correspond- ' ing to said electrical surges, ?owing the emulsion to be treated through said pulsating electromag netic ?eld whereby electrical currents are in duced in emulsion of su?icient intensity to ag glomerate water particles in said emulsion, in jecting gas into :the emulsion in the zone of said in pulsating electromagnetic ?eld and ‘settling and supply circuit 60. Impedances 55 and 56 also , separating the emulsion constituents. 2. A process for treating emulsion comprising serve the same purpose in addition to shielding passing the emulsion to be treated in contact with the transformer end turns from the high fre former 52 from the electrical treater circuit to the quency electrical surges in the condenser cir cuit and‘ also to limit‘ the flow of current from the transformer following each breakdown of gap 62. Impedances 55, 56 and Bi may have any ratios of inductive to ohmic resistance therein a solenoid in inductive relation to an alternating 15 electromagnetic ?eld‘ andbsubjecting said emul sion while in said ?eld to the potential induced in said solenoid by said ?eld. _ 3. Apparatus for treating emulsions compris ing a solenoid, a vertically disposed annular in 20 sulating conduit forming an annular passageway ohmic resistance practically negligible. The transformer secondary voltage may range through said solenoid, a gas tight chamber com from 10,000 to 30,000 volts; condenser 54 may municating with the top of said insulating con have a capacity ranging from 0.03 mi. to 0.1; duit, an enclosing tank surrounding said insulat solenoid I B may have any‘ suitable number of ing conduit adapted to be ?lled with insulating 25 turns but preferably, as few as possible condu~ oil, means to supply emulsion to be treated to the upper end of said insulating conduit, means cive to e?icient operation of the oscillatory cir cult and e?ective distribution of the magnetic to withdraw treated emulsion from the lower end of said conduit, means to withdraw gas from said ?eld through the emulsion. . gas tight chamber, and means to supply an alter 30 It is a well known principle that an electric cur nating electric current to said solenoid. rent in a magnetic ?eld is acted upon electrody 4. Apparatus for treating emulsions compris namically. This principle applies bene?cially in ing a solenoid, an insulating conduit forming a the treater of this invention in reducing short passageway through the ?eld of said solenoid, a circuiting tendencies in operation with shortcir cuiting emulsions. Thus when crcumferential second solenoid inside of said conduit in said shortcircuiting current paths form around the an- . passageway, coaxial with said ?rst mentioned sol nulus of emulsions undergoing treatment in the enoid and with said conduit, said solenoids being electromagnetic ?eld, an outward radial force is in inductive relation with one another, a cylin electrodynamically applied thereto which aids in drical electrode axially disposed within said sec quickly disrupting said paths and preventing their ' and mentioned solenoid and electrically connected complete formation. The electrodynamic action thereto, means to pass a high frequency alter of the ?eld upon the emulsion thus is such as to nating current through said ?rst mentioned sol enoid and means to ?ow emulsion tube treated cause stirring and agitation, which is desirable. through said conduit between and in contact with Insulating conduit I may have internal diam eters‘ranging from 4 to 6 inches with diameters said electrode and said second mentioned sol 45 _ of the central insulating cylinder l0 varying from enoid. 5. Apparatus for treating oil and water emul 21/2 inches to 41/2 inches correspondingly. Insu- I, lating conduit l and cylindrical core l0 may be sions comprising a solenoid inductance having a constructed of bakelite, pyrex, porcelain or other number of turns of spirally wound conductor, means to impress a radio frequency alternating 50 50 suitable insulating material. potential across said solenoid whereby a high volt The insulating cylindrical core ill in the insu lating conduit I as shown in the drawing Figu‘Pe 1 age drop per turn of said solenoid conductor is may be omitted and the treater operated without maintained, means to pass emulsion to be treated but preferably they are largely inductive with the it, but it is desirable for the reason that it serves in Q1 to reduce the cross-sectional area of the emulsion annulus through which the induced treating cur rents ?ow, thus increasing the unit potential gradient throughout the emulsion to be treated, and it serves to con?ne the emulsion to that (if) part of the conduit I where the electromagnetic ?eld is most‘eifective. ‘ a In some cases enclosing cylinder 4 and the insulating liquid therein may be omitted and the treater operated without any protection around the insulating conduit I. In this case there is no need for lead-in insulators ‘ l9 and 20 electrical connections being made direct to the solenoid I5. It ' is to be understood that the foregoing is merely illustrative of one apparatus and method 70 of operation and that'the invention is not limited thereby but may include any method and appara tus to accomplish the same within the scope of the invention. ' 75 I claim: . . 1. A process for treating emulsions comprising through the radio frequency electromagnetic ?eld thus induced by said solenoid, whereby a potential gradient su?icient to agglomerate the water phase is induced in said emulsion and means to separate the water from the oil. 6. Apparatus for treating oil and water emul sions comprising a solenoid inductance, a con-, 60 denser, means -to electrically charge said con denser, means to periodically discharge said elec trically charged condenser through said solenoid, coaxial non-magnetic insulating cylinders to de ?ne an annular passage through the ?eld of said solenoid, means to pass emulsion to be treated through said annular passage whereby the said emulsion is subjected to the periodic magnetic ?eld thus induced by said solenoid and the water phase is agglomerated and means to separate the water from the oil. ' - ' _ ' _ '7. Apparatus for treating oil and water emul ~ sion comprising a solenoid inductance having in the order of two and one-half turns of spirally wound conductor, the turns being spaced from i I 2,120,982 one another, means to impress a high frequency electric potential upon said solenoid inductance whereby a‘ high potential drop per turn of said solenoid can be maintained means to pass the 5 is agglomerated, and settling and separating the water from the oil. emulsion to be treated through the high fre quency electromagnetic field thus induced by said 10. A process for dehydrating emulsions com prising inducing in the emulsion by an electro magnetic ?eld of varying intensity a potential gradient su?lcient to cause disruptive discharges solenoid, whereby a potential gradient su?icient to agglomerate the water phase is induced in the within the emulsion, whereby the water phase is agglomerated, injecting gas into the emulsion said emulsion and means to separate the water in the zone of said induced disruptive potentials whereby the disruptive discharges are reduced in 10 from the oil. 4 ~ 8. Apparatus for treating oil and water emul sions comprising a solenoid inductance having in the order of two and one-half turns of spirally wound conductor, a condenser having a capacity in the order of 0.1 microfarad?means to charge said condenser to a the order of 10,000 volts, meanslizto‘vdis’charge said condenser through said solenoid inductance, means to pass the emulsion.,:~'t6‘be treated through the magnetic ?eld induced around said solenoid incident upon said= condenser discharge and means whereby the water phase of the emulsion is agglomerated and means to separate the water from the oil. ' 9. A process for dehydrating emulsions com prising inducing in the emulsion by an electro magnetic ?eld of varying intensity a. potential gradient sumcient to cause disruptive discharges within the emulsion, whereby the water phase frequency, and settling and separating the water from the oil. 11. A process for dehydrating emulsions com prising inducing in the emulsion by an electromagnetic ‘field of varying-intensity a potential 15 gradient normally sumcient to cause disruptive discharges within the emulsion, whereby the water phase is agglomerated and separating the water from the oil. 12. A process for dehydrating emulsions com 20 prising inducing in the emulsion by an electro magnetic ?eld of varying intensity a potential gradient normally sufficient to cause disruptive discharges within the emulsion whereby the water phase is agglomerated, suppressing said disrup tive discharges by movement of the current paths thereof in the emulsion and settling and sepa _ rating the water from the'oil. LYLE DILLON.