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Патент USA US2120932

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June 14, 1938.
Filed May 15, 1935
Patented June 14, 1938
' 2,120,932
Calif., assignor to Union
Lyle Dillon,
Oil Company of California, Los Angeles, Calif.,
a corporation of California
Application May 15, 1933, Serial No. 671,023
12 Claims. (01. 204-24)
This invention relates to the art of separating to this invention through treatment only by cur
rents and/or high potential gradients induced in
the phases of emulsions and particularly to an the
treated liquid by electromagnetic induction.
electrical dehydrator for petroleum emulsions.
The invention is embodied in apparatus com
- Conventional treaters usually comprise a tank
prising an elongated annular insulating conduit
through which emulsion to be treated is caused
to ?ow and around which an intense alternating
electromagnetic ?eld is induced. Said ?eld is in
duced by a current of corresponding characteris
tics applied to an electrical conductor which winds
spirally around the outside of said insulating con
duit out of contact with the emulsion being treat
5 into which, or through which, the emulsion to be
treated ?ows andin which a live electrode is dis
posed. The treating potential in the conventional
treater is set up through the emulsion to be
treated between the electrode and the tank wall
10 or between the electrode and another surface
grounded to said tank wall. The emulsion thus
undergoing treatment is in physical contact with
the electrode and the said oppositely chargedsur
face, with the emulsion acting more or less as‘ an
'electrical conductor between them, depending up
on its water content, ?neness of particles or other
characteristics. This condition of operation tends
to shortcircuit the electrical system and impair
its operation. Therefore, due to their 'shortcir
cuiting-tendencies only emulsions covering a nar
row range of characteristics can be treated in
such a treater without employing special means
to prevent the electrical system being rendered
inoperative by shortcircuits through the emul
25 sion.
ed, in the form of a solenoid. Means is provided
for supplying said solenoid with an interrupted or
intermittent high frequency high voltage. cur 15
rent. The ?eld thus induced in the emulsion in
.the annular insulating conduit in turn induces
a counter E. M. F. of high potential around the
annulus formed by the emulsion in the annular
conduit. Means is provided to introduce emul
sion to be treated into the treating zone in the
annular insulating conduit and means is provided
to withdraw treated emulsion from said conduit
and pass it to a separate settling tank where sep
aration takes place. Means is also provided for 25
The conventional dehydration apparatus also
necessitates insulated electrical connections to the
electrodes in the treating zone through the treater
shell, said connections passing through a gas tightv
lead-in insulator of high potential capacity. Due
to the unfavorable conditions under which such a
lead-in insulator is forced to operate it is a‘ source
of electrical and mechanical difficulty.
Objects of this invention are to overcome the
above enumerated and other disadvantages of the
common dehydration methods; to provide a novel
form of treater and method of treatment which
' will be efficient, economical, of high capacity, sim
ple and uniform in operation and capable of effec
AO tively treating emulsions which heretofore have
been difficult if not impossible to treat by elec
trical methods alone; and to eliminate mechani- .
cal and electrical insulating and supply difficulties.
Other objects are to provide a treater which is
inherently electrodynamically and mechanically
non-shortcircuiting in, its operation, which re
quires no electrodes in the treating zone nor lead
in insulators through the treater shell into the
treating zone, and in which electrical stresses
-0 through the insulating bodies therein are at a
minimum, and it is a further object to provide
such a treater which is capable of operating on
emulsions having wide ranges of water content
and electrical conductivity.
In general these objects are attained vaccording
introducing gas into the treating zone in the in
sulating conduit to aid treatment. An auxiliary
electrode system may optionally be embodied in
the structure of the invention, said auxiliary sys
tem comprising a solenoid and an electrode ax
ially disposed therein, which may be placed in
side, of said insulating conduit, and in which treat
ing potentials are induced by electromagnetic
induction only.
’ The invention, broadly stated, comprises a
method and apparatus for treating emulsions by
electromagnetic induction. The invention com
prises more speci?cally a process and apparatus
for dehydrating petroleum emulsions of water‘ in
oil by inducing in said emulsion by an intense al 40
ternating electromagnetic ?eld, closed electrical
currents of high potential gradient, said induced
potential gradient being su?icient to agglomerate
the water. The invention also resides in a dehy
dration method and means for producing an in
tense alternating and/ or intermittent electromag
netic inducing ?eld. The invention further re
sides in a structure adapted to such a method of
treatment in which high tension lead-in insu
lators directly into the treating zone are elimi
nated, electrical stresses across insulating bodies
minimized and electrodes rendered unnecessary.
The invention also resides in a structure in which
‘an auxiliary solenoid and electrode system inside I
of‘ the treating zone may be employed in which 55
the treating potentials are set up entirely by elec
connections to said solenoid I8 are made from an
The invention resides
further in such a structure where an auxiliary
external current source through lead connections
. tromagnetic induction.
solenoid is employed in stepping up the potential
in said treating zone through said auxiliary elec
trode system. The invention also resides in com
bination of the automatic stirring action of the
electromagnetic ?eld upon the emulsion being
treated to minimize short circuiting and to in
10 crease efficiency of treatment. The invention fur
ther resides in combination of the dynamic dis
rupting e?ect of the magnetic ?eld upon short-'
circuiting current paths which may form in the
emulsion undergoing treatment. The invention
15 also resides in gas injection into the emulsion
being treated in the treating zone combined with
the above enumerated steps to increase emciency
and effectiveness of electrical treatment.
Other objects, advantages and features of the
20 invention will appear hereinafter.
In the accompanying drawing 'wherein one em
bodiment of this invention is illustrated:
Figure 1 is a view partially in elevation, par
tially in vertical section and partially diagram
25 matic showing the general assembly of the appa
ratus, including a vertical section of the electrical
l1 and petticoated insulators I8, said insulators
extending through the upper cylinder head 6.
In Figure 4, there is shown an optional arrange
ment or the treating zone structure in which
the insulating cylindrical core III is replaced by
an auxiliary solenoid I 9 .and an auxiliary elec
trode 20 positioned inside of insulating conduit I.
Auxiliary solenoid l9 and electrode 20 are not 10
electrically connected to the external solenoid
I6 but are in inductive relation thereto.
An emulsion inlet is provided through a pipe 2|
into the top 1 of the treater. The emulsion out- >
let from the treater ‘is formed by T 9 which leads
into the lower portion of a settling tank 22 of
unit 13. A. gas outlet from- the treater is pro
vided at the‘ top through pipe 23. A gas injec
tion inlet 24 is provided at the bottom of the
treater through a head 25 on T 9, pipe 24 hav 20
ing an up-turned end 26 centrally positioned be;
low insulating conduit I and insulating cylindri
cal core III.
coil and central insulating core or cylinder:
To allow for expansion of oil and at the same
time maintain the annular chamber in the cyl 25
inder 4 entirely ?lled with oil under varying con
ditions of temperature, a pipe 28 connected with
cylinder head 6 leads to an expansion chamber 29,
which is partially ?lled with oil making a liquid
seal with the down-turned portion of pipe 28
therein. In the upper end of expansion chamber
Figure 3 is a view showing the spider support
attached to the cylindrical insulating 'core of the
29, an air space is_ maintained communicating
with the atmosphere through breather pipe 30
Figure 2 is a cross section of the treater unit
taken on line 2—2 of Figure 1 showing the rela
30 tive positions of the insulating conduit, solenoid
insulating conduit;
and an air drier 3|. Air drier 3I contains a
Figure 4 is a fragmentary vertical sectional de
chemical, such as calcium' chloride, which has 35
tail of the modi?ed treater showing a portion of ~' the ability to remove moisture from the air. Pipe
-the auxiliary solenoid and electrode system;
Figure 5 is a cross section through the treater
closing insulating conduit l is a metallic cylinder
The separating unit B comprises the settling
tank 22 which receives treated emulsion from 40
the treater A through the T connection 9.v For
drawing off separated water from the- settling
tank 22, a drain pipe 35 is provided in the bot
tom thereof connecting with a water leg 36, fun
nel 31 and water disposal line 33. Valve 39 in
water leg 36 serves to regulate the rate of water
drainage. Valve 36' between pipes 35 and 38
serves when opened to allow complete drainage
of settling tank 22 through pipe 38 when desired.
4, adapted to contain insulating oil, the lower
A pressure equalization and common vent line 40 50
end of which is closed liquid tight by an annular
head 5 which extends under and ~makes a liquid
tight seal with ?ange 3, and the upper end ot
which is closed liquid tight by an annular head
6 which makes a liquid tight seal with ?ange 2.
The top 1‘ of the treater is‘ supported by and
makes a gas tight connection with ?ange 2 and
annular head 6, and forms an enlarged upper
continuation of conduit I. The top ‘I is closed
by a bumped head 8 which makes a gas tight seal
thereon. A T connection 9 is ?anged to the
lower end of conduit _I and cylinder head 5
through the medium of the ?ange 3 and forms
a lower extension and outlet for conduit I. An
insulating cylindrical core III with rounded or
tapered ends I2 is coaxially placed within the
insulating conduit I to form an annular pas
sage I3 between said cylinder and said conduit.
Insulating cylindrical core III is supported at top
and bottom by spiders I4 which extend out be
tween member III and the ends of conduit I, being
retained in‘ the respective ?ange connections.
A solenoid I6, formed of a number of turns of
a. large electrical conductor is positioned around
the middle of insulating conduit I. Electrical
connects thetop of the treater unit A through
gas outlet line 23 with the top of the'settling
tank through a connection 4| to allow the liquid
level indicated by broken line 42 in treater unit A
unit at line 5-5 of Figure 4 showing the relative
40 positions of the solenoids, auxiliary electrodes and
insulating conduit.
The apparatus illustrated comprises two main
units, a treater unit A, and a separating unit B.
The treater unit A comprises an elongated ver
45 tical insulating conduit I of any suitable insula
tion material, the upper end of which is screwed
into a ?ange 2 and the lower end of which is
screwed into a ?ange 3. Surrounding and en
32 with valve 33 may be placed at the lower end
of cylinder 4 for draining the oil therefrom‘.
to be governed and maintained by the liquid level
42 in settling‘ tank 22.‘ Excess‘gas is discharged
from line 40 past a pressure relief valve 43 which
serves to prevent excess pressures from being built
up in the system. Water leg 36 also is ‘connected
to gas lines 40, by pipe 44 to equalize the pressure 60
therebetween and‘ eliminate the possibility of
treater tank 22 being entirely drained in event
the emulsion supply through the treater should
materially decrease or fail. Dry oil is removed 65
from settling tank 22 through line 45 located near
the top on the liquid level 42. Broken line 42 is
extended through treater unit A and indicates
the approximate liquid level also maintained
Interrupted high frequency electric current in
the form of condenser discharges is supplied to
solenoid I6 by way of electrical-conductors 50,
lead-in insulators IB-and leads IT. The electrical
supply system to the treater comprises a trans- 75
serves to relieve the pressure in the treater sys
tem if it rises to a value substantially above at
former 52, a condenser 54 connected across the
secondary of said transformer through imped
ances 55 and 56 and electrical conductors 58. Low
voltage alternating current is supplied to the
transformer primary from electrical conductors
60 through impedance 6|. A spark gap 62 is
provided across which the condenser 54 dis
charges through-the solenoid H5 in the ‘treater
?eld, by way of jconductors 50, as previously
The operation of the dehydrator is as follows:
The emulsion enters the top ‘I of the treater unit
A through emulsion inlet pipe 2|. From the top
1 the emulsion, the top surface of which is shown
at 42, ?ows down through the annular passage
between the insulating conduit l and the insu
lating cylindrical core l0. From the annular pas
sage between insulating conduit l and insulating
cylindrical core Ii) the treated emulsion passes
into T connection 9 and from there into the tank
22 of the separating and ‘settling unit B. The
emulsion while passing through that portion of
the conduit around which the solenoid I6 is
wound, is acted upon by an intense high frequency
25 electromagnetic ?eld set up by high frequency
alternating current ?owing through said solenoid.
This high frequency electromagnetic ?eld in
duces circumferential high potential gradients di
rectly in the said annular stream of emulsion
30 said potential gradients resulting in the break
ing of the emulsion and agglomeration of the
water particles. When the said circumferential
high potential gradients occur in emulsions of
moderate or high conductivity, circumferential
35 shortcircuiting currents tend to form and flow
through closed circular paths formed by the ag
glomerated water chains. When this condition
ing it against accidental breakage, and a means
of restraining or restricting the flow of emulsion
therefrom in case said conduit should fail for
any reason. The annular space within cylinder
4 around conduit l is entirely ?lled with an in
sulating ?uid, such as transformer oil. Provision
for taking care of expansion and contraction of
the said insulating ?uid is made in the expansion
drum 29 as above described.
In the operation of the electrical equipment,
the primary of the high voltage transformer 53 20
is supplied with low voltage current through sup
ply lines 60 and impedance Bl. The condenser
54 is charged to a high voltage by the high volt
age output of the transformer secondary through
impedances 55 and 56 and electrical conductors lo L1
58. Condenser 54 is shunted by the solenoid in
ductance I6, the circuit thereto being completed
through leads l1, lead-in insulators l8, electrical
conductors 50 and series spark gap 62. The cir
cuit just outlined comprising condenser 54, in so
ductance l6 and spark gap 62,‘with the enu
connections ‘ therebetween,
constitutes an electrical oscillatory circuit, the
. frequency of oscillation of which depends upon
tends to occur, an electrodynamic force incident
ally comes into play between the initial shortcir
The enclosing cylinder 4 around insulating
conduit l is provided to relieve, partially, the
stress imposed upon it by the pressure of the
emulsion passing therethrough. Cylinder 4 also
provides a mechanical protection to insulating
conduit I which may be of fragile material, guard
the values of ‘said inductance and said condenser :
capacity. The width of gap 62 is adjusted so that
when the charge in condenser 54 is at or near
the maximum value, the air dielectric therebe
tween will break down allowing a high frequency
oscillatory discharge of said condenser through
cuiting current and the electromagnetic ?eld solenoid l6. In some cases where the energy
which induces it, tending to expand the diame- - ‘transfer to a highly conductive emulsion is great
ter of said closed circumferential paths and thus
to disrupt them immediately. Settling and sep
aration of the thus treated emulsion takes place
settling tank 22 of the separating and settling
unit B. The dry oil rises to the top and is with
drawn through outlet pipe 45, and the water
settles to the bottom and is withdrawn through
water drain 35, water leg 36, funnel 39, and water
50 disposal line 38.
In some cases it has been found that injection
of gas into the emulsion undergoing treatment
in the treating zone is advantageous in increasing
its efficiency and effectiveness. Pipe 24-26 serves
as a means for such introduction of gas into the
55 lower end of insulating conduit I from where it
' rises in ?nely divided bubbles countercurrent to
the downward ?owing emulsion stream through
the treating zone.
The gas thus injected con
60 tinues upward through the emulsion into the
treater top 'I_ where it disengages from the liquid
therein at liquid surface 42, passes into the gas
, space thereabove and is vented from the treater
through vent pipes 23 and 40.
Gas which is
65 evolved by the oil in the top of settling tank 22
is vented therefrom through pipes 4| and 40, all
these gases being passed to any suitable gas dis
posal system. Gas vent pipes 23, 40 and 4|, in
addition to the above, serve to equalize the pres
in the treater unit and settling tank so that
70 sures
the liquid level in each will be approximately the
same height. The liquid level in the treater unit
indicated byline 42 will thus be regulated and
maintained by the liquid level in the settling tank.
Pressure relief valve 43 on gas disposal line 40
the high frequency oscillations are suppressed
thereby, and the condenser discharge under such
conditions occurs in ‘a single impulse of steep
fronted wave form. Gap 62 as shown in the
drawing is of the ?xed spherical type, but other
types may be used, such as the rotary or the
synchronously interrupted type. Since the con
denser charging current is of a low frequency -
alternating characteristic, the condenser 54, will
be intermittently charged and discharged at a
corresponding frequency and thus the condenser
discharge through solenoid IE will be intermittent.
With this type of electrical supply it is possible .
to apply extremely high peaks of energy to the
emulsion undergoing treatment.
In some cases where it is desired to apply a
much higher voltage to the emulsion than can be ' ‘
induced therein in an emulsion stream of an an
nular form, which comprises in effect a one-turn
electrical circuit, the insulating cylindrical core
I0 is removed and an auxiliary solenoid l9 and
electrode .20 is substituted therefor (Figure 4).
Auxiliary solenoid l9 may have any number of 65
turns but where it is desired, as stated above,
to increase the applied potential it may have a
greater number of turns than solenoid l6 and‘
being in inductive relation with solenoid IE will,
therefore,‘when it has a greater number of turns, 70
have a higher voltage induced in it than that
which is applied by the electrical supply system
across the said solenoid l6. Since electrode 20
is connected to one end of said solenoid I9 and
extends axially therethrough, electrical poten 75
tials will exist between it and each turn of said generating high intensity electrical surges having
steep wave forms, passing said electrical surges
solenoid, said potentials being progressively
greater towards the open end of said solenoid and
said electrode.- The maximum potential will ex
Ch ist between the open end of solenoid I9 and elec
trode 20, and will bear a ratio to the voltage sup
ply to the solenoid l6 equal to the ratio of the
number of turns on the respective solenoids.
‘ Impedance 5| serves to cushion ‘the electrical
10 shocks which are transmitted through the trans
through a solenoid electrical circuit to form in
tense electromagnetic ?eld impulses correspond- '
ing to said electrical surges, ?owing the emulsion
to be treated through said pulsating electromag
netic ?eld whereby electrical currents are in
duced in emulsion of su?icient intensity to ag
glomerate water particles in said emulsion, in
jecting gas into :the emulsion in the zone of said in
pulsating electromagnetic ?eld and ‘settling and
supply circuit 60. Impedances 55 and 56 also , separating the emulsion constituents.
2. A process for treating emulsion comprising
serve the same purpose in addition to shielding
passing the emulsion to be treated in contact with
the transformer end turns from the high fre
former 52 from the electrical treater circuit to the
quency electrical surges in the condenser cir
cuit and‘ also to limit‘ the flow of current from
the transformer following each breakdown of
gap 62. Impedances 55, 56 and Bi may have any
ratios of inductive to ohmic resistance therein
a solenoid in inductive relation to an alternating 15
electromagnetic ?eld‘ andbsubjecting said emul
sion while in said ?eld to the potential induced in
said solenoid by said ?eld. _
3. Apparatus for treating emulsions compris
ing a solenoid, a vertically disposed annular in 20
sulating conduit forming an annular passageway
ohmic resistance practically negligible.
The transformer secondary voltage may range through said solenoid, a gas tight chamber com
from 10,000 to 30,000 volts; condenser 54 may municating with the top of said insulating con
have a capacity ranging from 0.03 mi. to 0.1; duit, an enclosing tank surrounding said insulat
solenoid I B may have any‘ suitable number of ing conduit adapted to be ?lled with insulating 25
turns but preferably, as few as possible condu~ oil, means to supply emulsion to be treated to
the upper end of said insulating conduit, means
cive to e?icient operation of the oscillatory cir
cult and e?ective distribution of the magnetic to withdraw treated emulsion from the lower end
of said conduit, means to withdraw gas from said
?eld through the emulsion.
gas tight chamber, and means to supply an alter
It is a well known principle that an electric cur
nating electric current to said solenoid.
rent in a magnetic ?eld is acted upon electrody
4. Apparatus for treating emulsions compris
namically. This principle applies bene?cially in
ing a solenoid, an insulating conduit forming a
the treater of this invention in reducing short
passageway through the ?eld of said solenoid, a
circuiting tendencies in operation with shortcir
cuiting emulsions. Thus when crcumferential second solenoid inside of said conduit in said
shortcircuiting current paths form around the an- . passageway, coaxial with said ?rst mentioned sol
nulus of emulsions undergoing treatment in the enoid and with said conduit, said solenoids being
electromagnetic ?eld, an outward radial force is in inductive relation with one another, a cylin
electrodynamically applied thereto which aids in drical electrode axially disposed within said sec
quickly disrupting said paths and preventing their ' and mentioned solenoid and electrically connected
complete formation. The electrodynamic action thereto, means to pass a high frequency alter
of the ?eld upon the emulsion thus is such as to nating current through said ?rst mentioned sol
enoid and means to ?ow emulsion tube treated
cause stirring and agitation, which is desirable.
through said conduit between and in contact with
Insulating conduit I may have internal diam
eters‘ranging from 4 to 6 inches with diameters said electrode and said second mentioned sol 45
of the central insulating cylinder l0 varying from enoid.
5. Apparatus for treating oil and water emul
21/2 inches to 41/2 inches correspondingly. Insu- I,
lating conduit l and cylindrical core l0 may be sions comprising a solenoid inductance having a
constructed of bakelite, pyrex, porcelain or other number of turns of spirally wound conductor,
means to impress a radio frequency alternating 50
50 suitable insulating material.
potential across said solenoid whereby a high volt
The insulating cylindrical core ill in the insu
lating conduit I as shown in the drawing Figu‘Pe 1 age drop per turn of said solenoid conductor is
may be omitted and the treater operated without maintained, means to pass emulsion to be treated
but preferably they are largely inductive with the
it, but it is desirable for the reason that it serves
in Q1
to reduce the cross-sectional area of the emulsion
annulus through which the induced treating cur
rents ?ow, thus increasing the unit potential
gradient throughout the emulsion to be treated,
and it serves to con?ne the emulsion to that
(if) part of the conduit I where the electromagnetic
?eld is most‘eifective.
In some cases enclosing cylinder 4 and the
insulating liquid therein may be omitted and the
treater operated without any protection around
the insulating conduit I. In this case there is
no need for lead-in insulators ‘ l9 and 20 electrical
connections being made direct to the solenoid I5.
It ' is to be understood that the foregoing is
merely illustrative of one apparatus and method
70 of operation and that'the invention is not limited
thereby but may include any method and appara
tus to accomplish the same within the scope of the
I claim:
1. A process for treating emulsions comprising
through the radio frequency electromagnetic ?eld
thus induced by said solenoid, whereby a potential
gradient su?icient to agglomerate the water
phase is induced in said emulsion and means to
separate the water from the oil.
6. Apparatus for treating oil and water emul
sions comprising a solenoid inductance, a con-, 60
denser, means -to electrically charge said con
denser, means to periodically discharge said elec
trically charged condenser through said solenoid,
coaxial non-magnetic insulating cylinders to de
?ne an annular passage through the ?eld of said
solenoid, means to pass emulsion to be treated
through said annular passage whereby the said
emulsion is subjected to the periodic magnetic
?eld thus induced by said solenoid and the water
phase is agglomerated and means to separate
the water
from the oil.
'7. Apparatus for treating oil and water emul
~ sion comprising a solenoid inductance having in
the order of two and one-half turns of spirally
wound conductor, the turns being spaced from
one another, means to impress a high frequency
electric potential upon said solenoid inductance
whereby a‘ high potential drop per turn of said
solenoid can be maintained means to pass the
is agglomerated, and settling and separating the
water from the oil.
emulsion to be treated through the high fre
quency electromagnetic field thus induced by said
10. A process for dehydrating emulsions com
prising inducing in the emulsion by an electro
magnetic ?eld of varying intensity a potential
gradient su?lcient to cause disruptive discharges
solenoid, whereby a potential gradient su?icient
to agglomerate the water phase is induced in the
within the emulsion, whereby the water phase
is agglomerated, injecting gas into the emulsion
said emulsion and means to separate the water
in the zone of said induced disruptive potentials
whereby the disruptive discharges are reduced in 10
from the oil.
8. Apparatus for treating oil and water emul
sions comprising a solenoid inductance having
in the order of two and one-half turns of spirally
wound conductor, a condenser having a capacity
in the order of 0.1 microfarad?means to charge
said condenser to a
the order of
10,000 volts, meanslizto‘vdis’charge said condenser
through said solenoid inductance, means to pass
the emulsion.,:~'t6‘be treated through the magnetic
?eld induced around said solenoid incident upon
said= condenser discharge and means whereby
the water phase of the emulsion is agglomerated
and means to separate the water from the oil.
' 9. A process for dehydrating emulsions com
prising inducing in the emulsion by an electro
magnetic ?eld of varying intensity a. potential
gradient sumcient to cause disruptive discharges
within the emulsion, whereby the water phase
frequency, and settling and separating the water
from the oil.
11. A process for dehydrating emulsions com
prising inducing in the emulsion by an electromagnetic ‘field of varying-intensity a potential 15
gradient normally sumcient to cause disruptive
discharges within the emulsion, whereby the
water phase is agglomerated and separating the
water from the oil.
12. A process for dehydrating emulsions com 20
prising inducing in the emulsion by an electro
magnetic ?eld of varying intensity a potential
gradient normally sufficient to cause disruptive
discharges within the emulsion whereby the water
phase is agglomerated, suppressing said disrup
tive discharges by movement of the current paths
thereof in the emulsion and settling and sepa
_ rating the water from the'oil.
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