Патент USA US2120947код для вставки
` June 14, 1938.- 2,120,947 w. o. AMSLER METHOD OF' AND APPARATUS FOR ANNEALING GLASSWARE Filed May 18, 193s , 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 \ \ \\\\\\ \\\ \\\ \ \ \\\\\ \\ \\\ \§ \\\\\\ 27 55 A2. ¿9, 5 . /34_ï , ,L,z . l ff242 [n en for: Witz/L ess: ' Walíez' 0.1412135201' A Iíorlz @ya June 14, 1938. 2, 120,947 W. O. AMSLER METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR ANNEALING GLASSWARE Filed May 18, 1936 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 ¿3f/¿224 E6 _ In @en for WaltePûAmsZer Witness: www v _ A Hoz/'fz @ya `I‘une 14, 1938. 2,120 947 W. O. AMSLER METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR ANNEALING GLASSWARE iled May 18, 1936 3 Sheètslsheet :s V In @en for Walíer QAmslez , Wifi/Less Q. ú. ¿y ¿wmf? ' Á l‘íorn qqs. 2,120,947 - Patented June 14, 1938 UNITED STATES PATENT oFFlcE METHOD 0F AND APPARATUS FOR ANNEAL z - ING GLA'SSWARE Walter 0. Amsler, Toledo, Ohio, assignor to Hartford-Empire Company, Hartford, Conn., a corporation of Delaware - Application May 18,' 1936, Serial No. 80,254 27 Claims. meant the temperature below which permanent ' '_I‘his invention relates to a method of and ap strains cannot beintroduced into the ware. That paratus for annealing glassware, and more par ticularly to such a method and apparatus where _ in the .glassware is passed through an annealing 5 lehr of the elongate tunnel/ type and heat is transferred longitudinallyof the tunnel by me chanical means, such as a mass of high heat is, ware belowthis temperature may be subjected4 to temporary strains due to temperature diiîer ences indifferent parts of an article which may 5 and sometimes do- increase to the point of break ing the ware. However, if ware is properly an capacity, _moving longitudinally of and within nealed in bringing its temperature down to and the tunnel- at a speedsubstantially independent »through the “low annealing point”, any strains ' l0 lof the speed of movement of the glassware, in. introduced thereafter at lower temperature 10 if they do not `break the ware during the order to control the temperature gradient in the ranges, cooling, will disappear when the article is ñnally tunnel and hence that in the ware passing there cooled, to the end thatthe article as ñnally cooled through. o. f »will have the identical strain characteristics of . In the prior art of sometime ago, the anneal v l5 ^ing of glassware was accomplished by passing the . that article when it has been brought down to 15 ware upon relatively solid and heavy metallic conveyors of high heat mass through annealing tunnels which were of heavy masonry construe/ tion. Due to .the lack of -adequate temperatiire control and due to the high heat mass of the con- _ veyors, the results were relatively unsatisfactory as compared with most modern lehrs. _ - One of the dif?culties with which such old lehrs had to contend was the effect of the move ment of the high heat mass conveyor longitudi nally of the tunnel, resulting in the movement of heat along vthe tunnel at a. speed -and in such its low annealing point. It is usual in glassan _healing lehrs to increase the rate oi cooling sub- . Asequent to bringing the ware down to its low ` annealing point, to the highest rate which can normally be maintained without subjecting the 20 articles being annealed to strains sufficient to rupture them. ' Among the objects of my present invention is to provide a method and an apparatus which will enable the maintenance in a lehr of the’desired smooth temperature gradient without abrupt changes by the use of one or more moving masses- of high heat' capacity, in which the movement of t amount that it could not be controlledto produce a desired temperature gradient independently of ` these “heat conveyors”. as they may be called is 30 not limited by the movement of the ware through 30 the speed of movement of the ware, as the move ment of heat was accomplished .by the same con veyor by which the ware was transported through thetunnel. This was the case whether the re-_ turn strand of the conveyor was outside or within 35 the tunnel for all or part of its length. ' A More recently the art has developed along the ' lines of providing lighter and more Íflexible an nealing apparatus or lehrs, which-may be con trolled in steps or zones along their lengths to 40 establish substantially a desired temperature, gradient. However, in all such modern lehrs there may be sudden, if small, drops in the tem perature in the tunnel at the 'points where the speciiic temperature control is effected. 45 „ It is also known that the desired temperature gradient in glassware passing through a tunnel is smooth and uninterrupted by any` abrupt changes in temperature except possibly as here inafter pointed out. This desired smooth gradi 50 ent should start adjacent tov the> entrance end of the lehr at a relatively high point, usuallybe tween 1000 and l100° F. for most `-types >of gla'ss the tunnel. ~ ` " ' . ' A further object of the present invention is to provide a novel method and apparatus as above set forth by which heat may be drawn forwardly of the lehr, that is, toward the ware-entering end 35 thereof to provide the desired relatively high tem , perature at this end. A further object of the present invention is to provide .for the use of a heat conveyor, that is, a movable means of high heat capacity in the 40 cooling portion of the tunnel for assisting in the abstracting of heat from the ware in order to accelerate the normal rate of cooling thereof,_ while at the same time maintaining a 'desired ' temperature gradient in the ware passing through 45 this «portion of the tunnel. Ililurther'objects and advantages of my present invention will becoiîie apparent from the follow- ing yspecification and appended claims when ' taken in A'connection `with the accompanying drawings, in which: . -.'ilï‘igures Si and 2, when vplaced end toend, make ware, and drop at la relatively »slow ëbiitfsubstan up ya view :substantially in vertical longitudinal- y reaches its “low lannealing point?, eby ~»which ris ing‘to my invention, and .'i’or carryingpiit-the 55V tially ysmooth and continuous _rate amtil the ware ' section of aan annealing lehr constructed accord- /„. 2 2,120,947 methods thereof, the view being diagrammatic Fig. 1. These pipes both lead the gases to the in character; _ interior of a hood I6, from which the gases may ~ Fig. 3 is a view substantially in Vertical trans verse section taken on the line 3--3 of Fig. l.; Fig. 4 is a view substantially in vertical trans verse section taken on the line ß-ß of Fig. 2; and Figs. 5 and 6 when placed end to end illustrate , a modified form of annealing lehr also embody-I ing my invention, the view being in vertical longi tudinal section similar to Figs. l and 2. Referring now to Figs. l to 4 wherein I have diagrammatically illustrated a lehr embodying my invention, there is shown a tunnel I, which may be built up'in any suitable or desired man 15 ner, such as those now Well known in the art, andincludes insulated top, side and bottom walls 2, the insulation being tapered as illustrated at 3, Fig. 2, and terminating substantially at the point d in that figure, so that the remainder of 20 the tunnel indicated at 5 may be uninsulated and of any suitable construction, usually of sheet metal. The tunnel I and its insulation are shown as supported conventionally upon a plurality of legs 6, which may rest directly on the iioor, as 25 shown, or may be provided with suitable wheels or casters to permit the movement of the lehr as desired. Inasmuch as such wheels or casters'are old in the art, it is not thought necessary` to illus trate them. 30 ' . The ware may be conveyed through the lehr in any suitable manner, but I have chosen to illus trate diagrammatically by parallel broken lines at 1 an endless conveyor, which is preferably of low heat mass and may, for example, be con 35 structed in the same manner as the endless woven Wire conveyors now in common use in many com mercial glassware annealing lehrs. As shown, both strands of the conveyor 1 extend through the tunnel in the form of the invention shown in Figs. 1 to 4, the conveyor 1 passing around a suitable 40 roller 8 adjacent to the forward end of the tunnel. Suitable means (not shown) may be provided for moving the conveyor 1 in a manner which is now well known in the art, such means being illus trated for example in the patent to Mulholland Suitable 45 No. 1,560,481, granted Nov. 3, 1925. means may also be employed for Asupporting the ware bearing and return strands of the conveyor 1, but inasmuch as 'the supporting means form per se no part of the present invention, they 50 have not been lspeciñcally illustrated. d Means 7are provided for supplying heat to the tunnel, preferably from beneath the path of the ware, such means in the present instance com It will be noted that the interior of the' hood I6 also communicates through an opening I9 »with the interior of the tunnel and through this open ing some of the tunnel atmosphere may pass by the inductive action of the stack to exhaust with the gases from the ilue II'I. In practice, this may be employed by a relative adjustment of the dampers I5 and I8 to cause an inflow of atmos pheric air at the exit end of the lehr serving by its countercurrent flow through the tunnel to assist in cooling the Ware in this portion thereof. Flow through the hotter portion of the tunnel, how ever, is preferably kept at a minimum by main taining the front door 20 of the tunnel closed as far as possible while leaving an opening of 20 suflicient size for the introduction of the ware. Other means, such as one or more curtains, as shown at 2l, Fig. 5, may be employed along the hotter portion of the tunnel for minimizing the flow of air into the hotter end thereof and out 25 the exhaust opening I9 to the stack. It will be understood that if desired a suitable fan or other exhaust-impelling means, such as are now com mon in the commercial art, may be employed in conjunction with the passage or stack I1, but that 30 these means per se form no part of the present invention and hence are not illustrated.>With the structure thus far described, no means have been provided other than the normal rate of dissipation of heat from the ware and from the 35 gases passing through the flue I0 for controlling the temperature gradient in the heated portion of the tunnel, which may for practical purposes be considered as that portion extending from the entrance end thereof to a point under the hood I 6 where the heated gases are withdrawn 40 from the ñue IIJ and conducted away from the lehr. Under these circumstances, the desired gradient probably would not be obtained, except possibly where a particular rate of loading of / ware having a particular heat content and tem perature was being handled. In order to provide a control of the tempera ture gradient in the hotter zone of the lehr and at the same time to carry heat forwardly to a material extent, I propose to introduce into the 50 tunnel and preferably between the path of the ware and the flue I0 a heat conveyor, which from a broad ’point of view comprises a mass of mate prising a fire box 9 having associated therewith rial of high heat capacity movable longitudinally of the lehr. The expression, “a mass of high 55 heat capacity”, is intended to exclude all gases, nre box 9 is provided with means forvgenerating hot products of combustion therein, including a burner diagrammatically shown at II through such as air and products of combustion. The ex troduced in any suitable manner.` There is also admitted/ to the flrebox 9 air to support com bustion and also, if desired, to dilute the products heat conveyor shown at 22 may comprise a rela 55 a flue or iiues I0 extending longitudinally beneath a portion of the tunnel as shown in Fig. 1. » 'I'he 60 which a fluid -fuel, such as gas or oil, maybe in of combustion` to substantially the temperature 65 to which it is desired to reduce such products be 70 pass to a stack or outlet pipe I1 leading to some suitable exhaust point. I_f desired, a damper I8 » may be provided in the stack I1 as shown. fore they are introduced into the iìues I0. The passage for gases from the iire box 9 to the flues I0 as defined by bailles I2 and I3, so that the gases must pass in a tortuous path in which com bustion is normally completed. Means are provided for exhausting the gases , from the flues I0, including saddle pipes I4 (Figs. 1 and 3), which may be controlled by suitable 75 dampers. as indicated diagrammatically yat I5, pression when used hereinafter in the specinca tion and in the appended claims is 'to be so in terpreted and construed. More specifically, the 60~ tively heavy pan-type conveyor, similar in some respects at least to the ware conveyors used in the lehrs of the older prior art, the pans or panels being pivotally connected together, so that Vthe 65 conveyor as a whole is an endless flexible metal lic means of high heat capacity; the sole pur pose of which in this embodiment of the inven tion is to convey heat. ` - The conveyor 22 is mounted and moved so that 70 the lower` strand 23 thereof travels forwardly of the lehr and is supported by the top of the flue Ill so as to be in good heat transferring relation therewith, both by conduction and radiation. I The conveyor 22 passes around rollers or sprocket 75 3 _ _ 2,120,154? The heat conveyor 34 passes around an idle roller or sprocket wheels 35 adjacent to the exit end driven in any suitable manner.- The upper I of the tunnel, as shown in Fig. 2, and around a strand of the heat conveyor 22 may be supported, driving roller or sprocket wheels 36, Fig. 1. The as best shown in Fig. 3, upon suitable angles 26 lower strand may be supported as shown upon secured to the sides of the lehr tunnel to move in angles 31 suitably secured to the sides of the a path immediately below the return or idle lehr and the upper strand on angles 38 secured by strand of the ware conveyor 1 and support it if suitable brackets shown best in Fig. 4 to the top ' desired., The directions of movements of the of the lehr onthe outside thereof. _ various strands of the two conveyors -'I and 22 are The two strands of the conveyor 3_4 are adapted shown, by the arrows in Fig. 1. to move in the direction of the arrows, Figs. 1 _ For driving the heat conveyor 22, the roller or and 2, that is, the lower strand within the tunnel sprocket wheels 25 is mounted upon a shaft 21, moves in the direction opposite that of the move which extends through at least one side wall of ment of the ware through the tunnel. For driv the lehr and is provided outside the lehr with a ing the heat conveyor 34, the roller or sprockets 15 suitable pulley or sprocket wheel indicated at 36- is mounted upon a transverse shaft 39, which 28, which is driven through a flexible driving carries outside the lehr a sprocket wheel or pulley means 29 from a drive roller or sprocket wheel 4l), this wheel or pulley being connected by a' 30 of a speed changing device 3l, which may be suitable endless flexible driving means 4| with the of any suitable commercial type now available driving roller or sprocket 42 of an adjustable 20' for purchase in the openl market, such, for ,ex speed-changing device 43,- which may be similar ample, as the “Reeves Drive”. The speed chang-` to the speed-changing device 3ly above referred ing device 3| may be driven through an endless to. The speed changing device 43 may in turn -Wheels 24 and 25, the latter of which may be flexible driving means 32 from a suitable source of power, such, forexample, as an electric motor 25 33. Thus, if it be assumed that the motor 33 or other driving means employed is operated at a constant speed, the speed ofthe movement of the be driven by a 'suitable ñexible driving means 44 by any suitable source of power, which in the 25 present instance is also illustrated as the motor 33. - ' ' The lower strand of the heat conveyor 34, heat conveyor 22 may still be varied as desired which is in heat transferring relation with the by the speed changing device 3l. Also this speed ware passing through the cooling portion of the 30 may be and in practice is controlled independ -lehr, will accumulate a material amount of heat ently of the speed of movement of the ware con from the ware due to its large heat mass and will veyor 1, i. e., equal to or different from the speed carry this heat outside the lehr where it may be) of the ware conveyor, in order to attain the de dissipated from the upper or return strand of the sired results- from the point of view_of the temper heat conveyor tfo the surrounding atmosphere. 35 ature gradient in the lehr. In practice, the speed 03 Cl Also, due to the ~countercurrent movements of the is selected in accordance with the requirements glassware and the lower strand of the heat con for heat of the ware in passing through the hotter veyor, this strand will become gradually heated vzone of the lehr. it~ moves toward the entrance end of the tun The lov/er strand 23 of the heat conveyor in as nel, so that the Ware at any given part of the 40 moving over the top of the flue i0 will accumulate tunnel will not be in heat transferring relation 40 heat and move it mechanically toward the for with a portion of the conveyor diüering too great ward end of the lehr, this elîect in practice being ly in temperature from the ware. In this way, much greater than the opposing eñect of the I am _enabled to augment the rate of abstraction upper strand of the heat conveyor 22 moving of heat and heat ,dissipation from the ware toward the rear of the lehr and the two strands 45 having a joint effect of maintaining an uninter rupted smooth temperature gradient throughout the zone in which the heat conveyor 22 is located. At the same time the lower strand 23 of the heat conveyor 22 is accumulating heat, the upper 50 strandof the conveyor 22 is giving oñ its heat to the ware and to the sides andÍ top of the tunnel, so that elements of the heat conveyor arrive at the roller or sprockets 25 at a temperature lower than their temperature at the roller or sprockets through the cooler zone thereof and accelerate the cooling to establish a desired temperature ' gradient in the ware. Turning now to the form of the invention shown in Figs. 5 and 6, the same reference char acters have been used for correspondmg parts, as far as possible, and where the parts have been ybut slightly changed the same reference char acters plus an exponent are used. Ill‘he tunnel of .the lehr may be constructed in substantially the same way as previously described, or in any \ 24, thus controlling by the large mass of -high ` other suitable or equivalent manner, and may be heat capacity moving along the lehr the tempera supported also in the same way as described for ture gradient in the tunnel and in the ware. It the previous form of the invention. will be seen by varying the speed of movement of The ware is carried through the tunnel of this 60 60 the heat conveyor, the temperature gradient may form upon a conveyor 1a which‘may be of the be adjusted to the desired point to compensate same construction per se as that previously de to a material extent at least for variations in the scribed, the `difference here> being that in this vheat input into the tunnel in the‘glassware, due form of the invention the return strand of the principally to variations in the weight of glass ware conveyor is brought back to the entrance 65 being loaded into the lehr and to a relatively end of the lehr beneath the tunnel .and passes lesser extent to variations in the temperature at through a suitable aperture 45, as shown in Fig. 5, which the glass is introduced into the lehr. to the roller 8 at -the entrance end of the lehr, Associated with the cooling portion _of the tun this return strand being supported and guided nel, which is shown in Fig. 2 and overlapping to by suitable spaced rollers 4_6, y41 and 48 as shown. 70 a slight extent the longitudinal extent of the heat 70 conveyor 22 (Fig. 1) is a second heat conveyor 34, this conveyor being disposed above the path of the ware and having its lower strand only within the tunnel, the upper strand returning to ward the exit end of the lehr above the tunnel. It will be understood that the driving means for the ware conveyor 1a of this form of the inven tion may be the same as or similar to that con~-Í templated for use with the form of the invention previously described. 75 4 2,120,947 The heat supplying means shown in Fig. 5 asso ciated with the hotter portion of the lehr tunnel may be substantially the same as those previously described and are referred to by the same refer ence characters, with the exception that the practice undesirable to operatev the heat con-, veyor faster than the ware conveyor, due to the fact that the ware-bearing strand of the latter is normally under tension, being drawn through the lehr by the driving means associated there hood IGa is of slightly different form than the with. hood i6, due to the fact that the heat conveyors associated with this form of the invention, as hereinafter to be described, do not overlap one another longitudinally of the lehr. In this case, the heat conveyor 22 is essentially than the ware conveyor, it would tend to buckle the same as the correspondingly numbered heat conveyor, shown in Fig. 1 and is similarly mounted for movement upon rollers or sprocket same speed. ~This limitation, however, is not present in the form of the invention shown in Fig. l, as the adjacent strands of the two con veyors are traveling in opposite directions, as is indicated by the arrows in that figure. The heat conveyor 3d' shown in Figs. 5- and 6 may be constructed, mounted .and operated in' substantially the same way as the corresponding means previously described, the principal differ. 20 ence being that the driving roller or sprockets 36 are disposed further along the lehr than the correspondingly numbered means of Fig. 1. The drive for the shaft 39 through the flexible driv ing means di and speed changing Ódevice 43 is 25 effected by a separate motor 33h, which has its own individual power line supply 49h and switch 58h. In this lway the two heat conveyors may be operated .not only at independent speeds but either may be stoppe-d entirely without interfering 30 with the operation of the other. In addition in Fig. 6, I have shown a means for accelerating the cooling or rate of heat dissipa tion from the upper strand of the heat conveyor 3&3 above the lehr, such means in the present instance comprising a blower 53 arranged to wheels 2li and 25, the latter being driven by being mounted upon a shaft 2l to which is secured a driving sprocket or pulley 2S driven by a ñexible driving means or belt 29 from the speed chang ing device 3l, and that device similarly receiving 20 its power from a motor 33a. In this case, how over, the motor êißais employed solely for driv ing the heat conveyor in the hotter end of the lehr and a separate motor hereinafter to be described is employed for driving the other heat conveyor. This modification may be resorted to if desired. As shown, the motor 33a has connected there with line wires Q9 having a suitable switch con ventionally illustrated at 5@ interposed therein, so that the motor 33a may be stopped if desired, 30 in order that the heat conveyor 22 be completely stopped while the heat conveyor in the cooler portion of the lehr later to be described may be continued in operation. It is contemplated that this manner of operation may be employed should it be desired. . Intermediate the upper and lower strands of the heat conveyor 22 as shown in Fig. 5, I provide a means for retarding the passage of. heat between the strands of the heat conveyor, such means 40 being generally indicated as a wall 5l. This wall may also be of varying thickness or of heat trans ferring ability from end to end thereof, and as shown is` relatively thinner toward the hotter end of the lehr and relatively thicker toward the 45 cooler end thereof. In practice, this wall may be made up of a plurality of independently adjust able louvres 52 which, when all are closed, form the wall as shown. Any suitable means may be employed outside the lehr for effecting an _ad justment of the individual louvres 52, such for example as hand cranks associated with each of the louvres. Also, if desired, any suitable means such as are known in the art foreffecting pro gressive adjustments in bank of a plurality of the louvres 52 may be employed, but inasmuch as such means per se form no part of the present If the heat conveyor ’should move faster v up portions of. the latter and upset the ware thereon. Within those limits, however, the heat conveyor may be moved at any desired speed 10 slower than that of the ware conveyor, or at the direct a stream of air through a nozzle 55 onto the upper strand of the heat conveyor 34 and thus accelerate the cooling thereof prior to the entrance of portions of the conveyor into the lehr. 40 The blowe‘r 53 may be driven by any suitable source of power, here diagrammatically illus 'trated as an electric motor 55. It Will be under stood that any suitable means vmay be used for accelerating the cooling of the heat conveyor as 45 'may be desired in order to meet actual conditions in the .use of the device. l By the use of means such for example as those herein disclosed, and by the practice of the method as herein taught, I am enabled’ to obtain a desired temperature gradient in a lehr and sub stantially to eliminate any sharp breaks or varia tions in this gradient, except perhaps at some point adjacent to the` boundary between the heated zone of the lehr andthe cooling zone thereof, and even here especially by the use of invention they have not been illustrated. By the V overlapping heat conveyors as shown in Fig. 1, provisions shown and hereinbefore described, I this variation in the rate of cooling or heat dis am enabled to control with substantial accuracy 60 the temperature gradient in the hotter portion 70. _ sipation from the ware during its annealing may be made a relatively smooth curve. Also, by the 60 of. the lehr, these adjustments including the ad- ' several means hereinabove described, I am en justment of the rate of heat supply tothe ñre abledï to control accurately the temperature box 9 and -the draft therefrom, the adjustment gradient in the lehr and to obtain the desired of the speed of movement of the heat conveyor gradient Within relatively narrow limits. It will 22 and the adjustment of the several louvres. .be understood that the temperature gradient will 65 Also in Fig. 5, in the hotter zone of the lehr, normally be so disposed longitudinally of the lehr I have illustrated a further modification of the in coordination with the speed of movement of Fig. 1 form of tne invention, in which a ma the ware that the transition point or zone be t-erial portion at least of the Ware conveyor 'la tween the heated portion of the lehr and the cool is supported directly upon the upper strand of the ing portion thereof will be made to approximate 70 heat conveyor 22. This arrangement may be the point Where the glassware passing there resorted to if desired. It will be understood, how ever, that under these circumstances, ,the speed of the heat conveyor is only partially independent 75 of the speed 'of the ware conveyor, as it is in through is cooled through its low annealing tem perature or point as .above defined, so that the rate'of cooling of the ware through its anneal ing range, that is, the range above the low an 75 5 . 2,120,947 l nealing temperature or point may be maintained supplied thereto and the rate of movement- of said mass in coordination with the amount of . at one value, while the rate of cooling below this ' glassware passing therethrough and the rate of point may be maintained at another and different value. ` . ‘ ' It will be understood that while I have illus' trated two embodiments of my invention, various changes may be made therein and certain of the independent features maybe used without others; for example, but one heat conveyor may be em 10 ployed in a portion of a lehr with advantage over certain prior art methods or types of construc tion. I do not wish to be limited, therefore, ex cept by the scope of the appended claims, which are to be construed as broadly as the state of the 15 prior art permits. , - ‘ its movement to establish a desired temperature gradient insaid -portion of the tunnel. 7. The method of annealing glassware, which comprises passing the ware through anelongate tunnel,Í and causing a flow of heat longitudinally of the tunnel by moving therealong a mass of high heat capacity at a speed independent of the speed of movement of the _Ware therethrough. 8. _The method of annealing glassware, com prising passing the ware through an elongate tunnel, causing a flow >oi’ heat longitudinally of the tunnel in a hotter zone thereof by moving 15 therealong a mass of high heat capacity at a _ i , of the speed of movement of 1. The method of annealing glassware, which speed‘independent the ware therethrough, and causing a ilow of comprises establishing and maintaining vin an longitudinally of the tunnel -in a cooler zone insulated tunnel a selected temperature gradient, heat thereof by moving along said cooler zone and 20 20 by moving a mass of high heat capacity within within the tunnel another mass` of high heat and longitudinally of said tunnel at a rate selected capacity at a speed independent of the speed of in accordance ywith theheat characteristics >of movement of the ware therethrough. the tunnel and of the ware to be annealed, and 9. The method of annealing glassware, which passing the ware through the tunnel to eñect its , comprises passing the glassware through an elon 25 25 annealing.. gate tunnel, and causing a flow of heat longitu ’ 2. The method of annealing glassware, which dinally of a cooling portion in said tunnel by comprises conveying glassware through an elon moving therealong in such portion a mass of high gate tunnel/, applying heat to the _tunnel beneathv heat capacityat .a speed independent of the speed the ware, and regulatingthe temperature gradi 30 of movement of the Ware therethrough. 30 ent through a portion of the tunnel to effect a l0. The method of annealing glassware, which given stage of annealing by moving a body of comprises passing the Ware through an elongate high heat capacity longitudinally of the tunnel tunnel, 'causing> a flow of heat longitudinally of I claim: , beneath the ware at a rate selected so as to estab lish a desired temperature gradient in the ware. 35 `3. The method of annealing glassware, which ' comprises passing the ware through an elongate tunnel, establishing and maintaining-in the tun nel a selected temperature gradient, :and regulat ing the temperature gradient longitudinally vof the'hotter portion of said tunnel by moving there--v along in such portion a mass of high-heat capac 35 ity, causing a flow of heat longitudinally of the tunnel in a cooler portion thereof by moving therealong in such cooler portion a mass of high heat capacity, and controlling the temperature gradient longitudinally of said tunnel by inde 40 pendently regulating the speeds of movement the tunnel by moving therethrough a mass of high heat >capacity at a rate selected in accordance ' of the masses of high heat capacity moving in the with the heat characteristics of the tunnel and hotter and cooler portions of the tunnel respec of the ware to be annealed and independent of tively in such manner that both masses will be the rate of movement of the ware therethrough. moved at speeds independent of each other and 45 4. The method of annealing glassware, which - of the speed of movement of the ware through ‘ comprises passing the vware through an elongate . ' tunnel, supplying heat to the tunnel beneath the the11.tunnel. Apparatus for annealing glassware, com path of the ware therethrough, moving a mass prising an elongate tunnel, means -fòr conveying of high heat capacity longitudinally of the tunnel glassware therethrough, a mass of high heat 50 in a path intermediate the source of heat supply capacity separate and distinct from said convey 50 thereto and the path of the ware to establish ing means, and means for moving said mass in i and maintain a smooth temperature gradient inI and longitudinally of said tunnel to convey heat the portion of the tunnel through which the high heat capacity mass travels, and selectively con trolling the rate of movement of the high heat capacity mass in accordance with the _tempera tures in the portion of the tunnel through which itis moved. . ' 5. The method of annealing glassware, com prising passing the ware through an elongate tun- ' nel, and regulating the temperature gradient in a portion at least of said tunnel by moving a mass of high heat capacity in said tunnel in an orbital path having its principal dimension longitudinal ly of said tunnel. . 6. The method of annealing glassware, which comprises passing the ware through an elongate tunnel, passing heated gases in a path longitudi nally of said tunnel and in heat transferring longitudinally thereof. l2. Apparatus for annealing glassware, com 55 prising an elongate tunnel, means for conveying glassware therethrough, a -mass of high heat capacity separate and distinct from said convey ing means, means mounting said mass for move ment in anv orbital path at least a part of which 60 lies in and longitudinally 'of said tunnel, and means for moving said mass along said path. 13. Apparatus for annealing glassware, com prising an elongate tunnel, means for conveying glassware therethrough, an endless ñexible heat 65 conveying means separate and distinct from said glassware conveying means, means mounting said heat conveying means for movement in respect to said tunnel and with at least one strand there relation therewith but out of contact with` the `, of movable in and longitudinally 0f Said tunnel, 70 and means for moving said heat conveying means. ' glassware along a portion of said tunnel, moving , _14. Apparatus for annealing glassware,` corn a mass of high heat capacity longitudinally of prising an elongate tunnel, means for conveying said tunnel and wholly within said portion there glassware therethrough, a mass of high heat of, and controlling the temperature gradient in ‘~ distinct from said convey- 75 said tunnel by controlling the amount of heat -capacity separate and 6 2,120,947 ing means, means for moving said mass in and longitudinally of said tunnel to convey heat lon Cn gitudinally thereof, and means for adjustably varying the speed of movement of said mass for means for movement as aforesaid, means for moving said heat conveying means in such man ner that the lower strand thereof moves toward the hotter end of said tunnel, and means for ad controlling the temperature gradient in said tun justably controlling the speed of movement of nel. said heat conveying means to control the rate of abstraction of heat from the 'ware thereby and thus to control the temperature gradient in the 15. ApparatusÍ for annealing glassware, com prising an elongate tunnel, means for conveying glassware therethrough, means for supplying heat to` a portion of said tunnel, a mass of high heat capacity separate and distinct from said _conveying means, and means for moving said mass in and. longitudinally of said portion of said tunnel to convey heat longitudinally thereof. 16. Apparatus for annealing glassware, com 15 prising an elongate tunnel, means for conveying glassware therethrough, means for supplying heat to a portion of said tunnel from beneath the path of the ware therethrough, a mass of high heat 20 capacity separate and distinct from said convey ing means, and means for moving said mass in a path intermediate said heat supplying means and the path of the ware for distributing the- heat supplied to said tunnel and establishing a desired temperature gradient in the portion of the tunnel to which the heat is supplied as afore said. 17. Apparatus for annealing glassware, com prising an elongate tunnel, means for conveying 30 glassware therethrough, means for supplying heat to a portion of said tunnel' from beneath the path of the ware therethrough, an endless ilex ible heat conveying means- separate and distinct from said conveying means, means mounting said heat conveying means for movement in an orbital path in and longitudinally of said tunnel and ware in passing through the cooling portion of the tunnel. 10 _ 21. Apparatus for annealing glassware, com prising an elongate tunnel, means for conveying glassware therethrough, a mass of high heat ca pacity and separate and distinct from said glass ware conveying means disposed for movement in 15 the hotter portion of said tunnel, means for mov ing said mass in and longitudinally of the hot ter portion of said tunnel to convey heat longi tudinally thereof, a second mass of high heat capacity and separate and distinct from said 20 glassware'conveying means disposed in the'cooler portion of said tunnel, and means for moving said second mass at least partly within and longitudi nally of the cooler portion of said tunnel for con 25 veying heat longitudinally of such portion. 22. Apparatus for annealing glassware, com prising an elongate tunnel, means for conveying glassware therethrough, means for supplying heat to a portion of said tunnel from beneath the p'ath of >the ware therethrough, an endless flexible 30 heat conveying means having both strands there Hof disposed in said portion of the tunnel inter mediate the heat supplying means and the path of the ware therethrough, means for moving said heat conveying means in its path for control 35 supplied and the path of the ware, means for ling the transmission of heat from the heat sup plying means to the ware and the distribution of heat longitudinally of said tunnel portion, and moving said heat conveying means along its path, means intermediate the upper and lower strands intermediate the portion to which heat is directly 40 and means for adjustably varying the speed of movement of said heat conveying means for con-y of said heat conveying means for controlling the 40 transmission of heat between said strands. trolling the temperature gradient in `the heated portion of said tunnel. 18. Apparatus for 4annealing glassware, com 45 prising an elongate tunnel, means for conveyingV prising an elongate tunnel, means for conveying glassware therethrough, means for supplying heat to a portion of said tunnel from beneath the path 45 23. Apparatus for annealing glassware, com-~ glassware therethrough, a mass of high heat - of the ware therethrough, an endless flexible heat' conveying means having both strands thereof dis capacity separate and distinct from said convey ing means, means for moving said mass in heat transferring relation with the ware during its 50 passage through a cooling portion of said tunnel to absorb heat from the ware and thence for moving said mass to a place where heat absorbed, thereby from the ware may be dissipated-there from. 19. Apparatus for annealing glassware, com 60 posed in said portion of the tunnel intermediate the heat supplying means and the path of the ware , therethrough, means for moving saidheatconvey 50 ing means in its path for control-ling the trans mission of heat from the heat supplying means to the ware and the distribution> of heat longitudi f nally of said tunnel portion, and a wall of vary ing thickness longitudinally of the tunnel inter prising an'elongate tunnel, means for conveying glassware therethrough, an endless flexible heat mediate the upper and lower strand of said heat conveying means for controlling the transmission conveying means having one strand disposed within said tunnel in heat transferring relation of heat between said strands. with the glassware passing through the cooling prising an elongate tunnel, means for conveying 60 glassware therethrough, means for supplying heat to a. portion of said tunnel from beneath the path of the ware therethrough, an endless flexible heat conveying means having both strands there portion thereof and the other strand outside said tunnel, and means for mounting and moving said heat conveying means in such manner that the strand thereof within said tunnel is moved thereî along in the direction opposite that of the move ment of the ware therethrough. 20. Apparatus for annealing glassware, com-l prising an elongate tunnel, means for convey ing glassware therethrough, an endless flexible 70 heat conveying means associated with the cool ing portion of said tunnel and having its lower strand movably mounted in said tunnel above the path of the movement of the ware there through and- its .upper strand disposed above the 75 tunnel, means mounting said heat- conveying _ Y 24. Apparatus for annealing glassware, com of disposed in said portion of the tunnel inter mediate the heat supplying means and the path of the ware therethrough, means for moving said heat conveying means in its path for con trolling the transmission of heat from the heat supplying means to the Ware and the distribution of heat longitudinally of said tunnel portion, and a plurality of louvres disposed between the t upper and lower strands of said heat conveying means for controlling the transmission of. heat therebetween and thereby for controlling the 75 7 2,120,947 -,temperature gradient in said portion of the tun- ' portion thereof and the other strand outside said tunnel, meansjor moving said heat con nel. . veying means in such manner and direction that 25. Apparatus for annealing glassware, com the strand thereof within said tunnel is moved prising an elongate tunnel, means for conveying~ ' in the direction opposite that of the movement glassware therethrough, means for supplying heat , of the Ware therethrough, and means cooperat to a portion of said tunnel -from beneath the ing with the strand of said heat conveying means path of the ware therethrough, an 4endless flex outside said tunnel for increasing the rate of ible heat conveying means having both strands cooling thereof over that rate which would nor thereof disposed in said portion of the tunnel mally take place due to heat dissipation at the 10 10 intermediate the heat supplying means_and the place where the annealing apparatus is located. path of the ware therethrough, means for mov 27. Apparatus for annealing glassware, com ing said heat conveying -means in its path for prising an elongate tunnel, means for conveying controlling the transmission» of heat from the glassware therethrough, an endless flexible heat heat supplying means to the ware and the dis conveying means having one strand disposed 15 tribution of heat longitudinally of said tunnel within said tunnel in heat transferring relation portion, means for adjustably varying the speed with thè glassware passing through the cooling of `movement of said heat conveying means, and portion -thereof and the other strand outside said a plurality of independently adjustable louvres tunnel, an aperture in the‘_wa11 of said tunnel so constructed and arranged that >when all are through which said heat conveying means passes 20 closed they form a wall intermediate the up in moving from its course within the tunnel to per and lower strands of said heat conveying _its course outside the tunnel,-means for mount means, the adjustment of said louvres operating ing and moving said heat conveying means in its in conjunction with the adjusted speed of move path to control the temperature gradient in the ment of said heat conveying means to control cooling portion> of said tunnel, and means for the temperature gradient in said portion of the withdrawing from said tunnel through said open ing some of the tunnel atmosphere to prevent in 26. Apparatus for annealing glassware, com- l ñow of atmospheric air into the tunnel through tunnel. ' v » prising an elongate tunnel, 'means _for conveying glassware therethrough, an endless flexible heat conveying means having one strand disposed within said tunnel in heat transferring relation with the glassware passing through the cooling said opening and Vto cause a flow of air into at least one end of said tunnel and longitudinally ' thereof to said opening. y , WALTERl O. AMSLER.