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` June 14, 1938.-
2,120,947
w. o. AMSLER
METHOD OF' AND APPARATUS FOR ANNEALING GLASSWARE
Filed May 18, 193s
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June 14, 1938.
2, 120,947
W. O. AMSLER
METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR ANNEALING GLASSWARE
Filed May 18, 1936
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W. O. AMSLER
METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR ANNEALING GLASSWARE
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2,120,947 -
Patented June 14, 1938
UNITED STATES PATENT oFFlcE
METHOD 0F AND APPARATUS FOR ANNEAL
z
-
ING GLA'SSWARE
Walter 0. Amsler, Toledo, Ohio, assignor to
Hartford-Empire Company, Hartford, Conn.,
a corporation of Delaware
-
Application May 18,' 1936, Serial No. 80,254
27 Claims.
meant the temperature below which permanent
' '_I‘his invention relates to a method of and ap
strains cannot beintroduced into the ware. That
paratus for annealing glassware, and more par
ticularly to such a method and apparatus where
_ in the .glassware is passed through an annealing
5 lehr of the elongate tunnel/ type and heat is
transferred longitudinallyof the tunnel by me
chanical means, such as a mass of high heat
is, ware belowthis temperature may be subjected4
to temporary strains due to temperature diiîer
ences indifferent parts of an article which may 5
and sometimes do- increase to the point of break
ing the ware. However, if ware is properly an
capacity, _moving longitudinally of and within nealed in bringing its temperature down to and
the tunnel- at a speedsubstantially independent »through the “low annealing point”, any strains
'
l0 lof the speed of movement of the glassware, in. introduced thereafter at lower temperature 10
if they do not `break the ware during the
order to control the temperature gradient in the ranges,
cooling, will disappear when the article is ñnally
tunnel and hence that in the ware passing there
cooled, to the end thatthe article as ñnally cooled
through.
o.
f
»will
have the identical strain characteristics of
. In the prior art of sometime ago, the anneal
v l5 ^ing of glassware was accomplished by passing the . that article when it has been brought down to 15
ware upon relatively solid and heavy metallic
conveyors of high heat mass through annealing
tunnels which were of heavy masonry construe/
tion. Due to .the lack of -adequate temperatiire
control and due to the high heat mass of the con- _
veyors, the results were relatively unsatisfactory
as compared with most modern lehrs.
_
-
One of the dif?culties with which such old
lehrs had to contend was the effect of the move
ment of the high heat mass conveyor longitudi
nally of the tunnel, resulting in the movement of
heat along vthe tunnel at a. speed -and in such
its low annealing point. It is usual in glassan
_healing lehrs to increase the rate oi cooling sub- .
Asequent to bringing the ware down to its low `
annealing point, to the highest rate which can
normally be maintained without subjecting the 20
articles being annealed to strains sufficient to
rupture them.
' Among the objects of my present invention is
to provide a method and an apparatus which will
enable the maintenance in a lehr of the’desired
smooth temperature gradient without abrupt
changes by the use of one or more moving masses-
of high heat' capacity, in which the movement of
t amount that it could not be controlledto produce
a desired temperature gradient independently of ` these “heat conveyors”. as they may be called is 30
not limited by the movement of the ware through
30 the speed of movement of the ware, as the move
ment of heat was accomplished .by the same con
veyor by which the ware was transported through
thetunnel. This was the case whether the re-_ turn strand of the conveyor was outside or within
35 the tunnel for all or part of its length.
'
A
More recently the art has developed along the
' lines of providing lighter and more Íflexible an
nealing apparatus or lehrs, which-may be con
trolled in steps or zones along their lengths to
40
establish substantially a desired temperature,
gradient. However, in all such modern lehrs
there may be sudden, if small, drops in the tem
perature in the tunnel at the 'points where the
speciiic temperature control is effected.
45 „ It is also known that the desired temperature
gradient in glassware passing through a tunnel
is smooth and uninterrupted by any` abrupt
changes in temperature except possibly as here
inafter pointed out. This desired smooth gradi
50 ent should start adjacent tov the> entrance end
of the lehr at a relatively high point, usuallybe
tween 1000 and l100° F. for most `-types >of gla'ss
the
tunnel.
~
`
"
'
.
'
A further object of the present invention is to
provide a novel method and apparatus as above
set forth by which heat may be drawn forwardly
of the lehr, that is, toward the ware-entering end 35
thereof to provide the desired relatively high tem
, perature at this end.
A further object of the present invention is to
provide .for the use of a heat conveyor, that is,
a movable means of high heat capacity in the 40
cooling portion of the tunnel for assisting in the
abstracting of heat from the ware in order to
accelerate the normal rate of cooling thereof,_
while at the same time maintaining a 'desired '
temperature gradient in the ware passing through 45
this «portion of the tunnel.
Ililurther'objects and advantages of my present
invention will becoiîie apparent from the follow- ing yspecification and appended claims when '
taken in A'connection `with the accompanying
drawings, in which: .
-.'ilï‘igures Si and 2, when vplaced end toend, make
ware, and drop at la relatively »slow ëbiitfsubstan
up ya view :substantially in vertical longitudinal- y
reaches its “low lannealing point?, eby ~»which ris
ing‘to my invention, and .'i’or carryingpiit-the 55V
tially ysmooth and continuous _rate amtil the ware ' section of aan annealing lehr constructed accord- /„.
2
2,120,947
methods thereof, the view being diagrammatic Fig. 1. These pipes both lead the gases to the
in character;
_
interior of a hood I6, from which the gases may
~
Fig. 3 is a view substantially in Vertical trans
verse section taken on the line 3--3 of Fig. l.;
Fig. 4 is a view substantially in vertical trans
verse section taken on the line ß-ß of Fig. 2; and
Figs. 5 and 6 when placed end to end illustrate
, a modified form of annealing lehr also embody-I
ing my invention, the view being in vertical longi
tudinal section similar to Figs. l and 2.
Referring now to Figs. l to 4 wherein I have
diagrammatically illustrated a lehr embodying
my invention, there is shown a tunnel I, which
may be built up'in any suitable or desired man
15 ner, such as those now Well known in the art,
andincludes insulated top, side and bottom walls
2, the insulation being tapered as illustrated at
3, Fig. 2, and terminating substantially at the
point d in that figure, so that the remainder of
20 the tunnel indicated at 5 may be uninsulated and
of any suitable construction, usually of sheet
metal. The tunnel I and its insulation are shown
as supported conventionally upon a plurality of
legs 6, which may rest directly on the iioor, as
25 shown, or may be provided with suitable wheels
or casters to permit the movement of the lehr as
desired. Inasmuch as such wheels or casters'are
old in the art, it is not thought necessary` to illus
trate them.
30
'
.
The ware may be conveyed through the lehr in
any suitable manner, but I have chosen to illus
trate diagrammatically by parallel broken lines
at 1 an endless conveyor, which is preferably of
low heat mass and may, for example, be con
35 structed in the same manner as the endless woven
Wire conveyors now in common use in many com
mercial glassware annealing lehrs.
As shown,
both strands of the conveyor 1 extend through the
tunnel in the form of the invention shown in Figs.
1 to 4, the conveyor 1 passing around a suitable
40 roller 8 adjacent to the forward end of the tunnel.
Suitable means (not shown) may be provided for
moving the conveyor 1 in a manner which is now
well known in the art, such means being illus
trated for example in the patent to Mulholland
Suitable
45 No. 1,560,481, granted Nov. 3, 1925.
means may also be employed for Asupporting the
ware bearing and return strands of the conveyor
1, but inasmuch as 'the supporting means form
per se no part of the present invention, they
50 have not been lspeciñcally illustrated. d
Means 7are provided for supplying heat to the
tunnel, preferably from beneath the path of the
ware, such means in the present instance com
It will be noted that the interior of the' hood
I6 also communicates through an opening I9 »with
the interior of the tunnel and through this open
ing some of the tunnel atmosphere may pass by
the inductive action of the stack to exhaust with
the gases from the ilue II'I. In practice, this may
be employed by a relative adjustment of the
dampers I5 and I8 to cause an inflow of atmos
pheric air at the exit end of the lehr serving by its
countercurrent flow through the tunnel to assist
in cooling the Ware in this portion thereof. Flow
through the hotter portion of the tunnel, how
ever, is preferably kept at a minimum by main
taining the front door 20 of the tunnel closed
as far as possible while leaving an opening of 20
suflicient size for the introduction of the ware.
Other means, such as one or more curtains, as
shown at 2l, Fig. 5, may be employed along the
hotter portion of the tunnel for minimizing the
flow of air into the hotter end thereof and out 25
the exhaust opening I9 to the stack. It will be
understood that if desired a suitable fan or other
exhaust-impelling means, such as are now com
mon in the commercial art, may be employed in
conjunction with the passage or stack I1, but that 30
these means per se form no part of the present
invention and hence are not illustrated.>With the structure thus far described, no means
have been provided other than the normal rate of
dissipation of heat from the ware and from the 35
gases passing through the flue I0 for controlling
the temperature gradient in the heated portion
of the tunnel, which may for practical purposes
be considered as that portion extending from
the entrance end thereof to a point under the
hood I 6 where the heated gases are withdrawn 40
from the ñue IIJ and conducted away from the
lehr.
Under these circumstances, the desired
gradient probably would not be obtained, except
possibly where a particular rate of loading of /
ware having a particular heat content and tem
perature was being handled.
In order to provide a control of the tempera
ture gradient in the hotter zone of the lehr and
at the same time to carry heat forwardly to a
material extent, I propose to introduce into the 50
tunnel and preferably between the path of the
ware and the flue I0 a heat conveyor, which from
a broad ’point of view comprises a mass of mate
prising a fire box 9 having associated therewith
rial of high heat capacity movable longitudinally
of the lehr. The expression, “a mass of high 55
heat capacity”, is intended to exclude all gases,
nre box 9 is provided with means forvgenerating
hot products of combustion therein, including a
burner diagrammatically shown at II through
such as air and products of combustion. The ex
troduced in any suitable manner.` There is also
admitted/ to the flrebox 9 air to support com
bustion and also, if desired, to dilute the products
heat conveyor shown at 22 may comprise a rela
55 a flue or iiues I0 extending longitudinally beneath
a portion of the tunnel as shown in Fig. 1. » 'I'he
60 which a fluid -fuel, such as gas or oil, maybe in
of combustion` to substantially the temperature
65 to which it is desired to reduce such products be
70
pass to a stack or outlet pipe I1 leading to some
suitable exhaust point. I_f desired, a damper I8 »
may be provided in the stack I1 as shown.
fore they are introduced into the iìues I0. The
passage for gases from the iire box 9 to the
flues I0 as defined by bailles I2 and I3, so that the
gases must pass in a tortuous path in which com
bustion is normally completed.
Means are provided for exhausting the gases
, from the flues I0, including saddle pipes I4 (Figs.
1 and 3), which may be controlled by suitable
75 dampers. as indicated diagrammatically yat I5,
pression when used hereinafter in the specinca
tion and in the appended claims is 'to be so in
terpreted and construed. More specifically, the 60~
tively heavy pan-type conveyor, similar in some
respects at least to the ware conveyors used in
the lehrs of the older prior art, the pans or panels
being pivotally connected together, so that Vthe 65
conveyor as a whole is an endless flexible metal
lic means of high heat capacity; the sole pur
pose of which in this embodiment of the inven
tion is to convey heat.
`
-
The conveyor 22 is mounted and moved so that 70
the lower` strand 23 thereof travels forwardly of
the lehr and is supported by the top of the flue
Ill so as to be in good heat transferring relation
therewith, both by conduction and radiation. I
The conveyor 22 passes around rollers or sprocket 75
3
_
_
2,120,154?
The heat conveyor 34 passes around an idle roller
or sprocket wheels 35 adjacent to the exit end
driven in any suitable manner.- The upper I of the tunnel, as shown in Fig. 2, and around a
strand of the heat conveyor 22 may be supported, driving roller or sprocket wheels 36, Fig. 1. The
as best shown in Fig. 3, upon suitable angles 26 lower strand may be supported as shown upon
secured to the sides of the lehr tunnel to move in angles 31 suitably secured to the sides of the
a path immediately below the return or idle lehr and the upper strand on angles 38 secured by
strand of the ware conveyor 1 and support it if suitable brackets shown best in Fig. 4 to the top '
desired., The directions of movements of the of the lehr onthe outside thereof. _
various strands of the two conveyors -'I and 22 are
The two strands of the conveyor 3_4 are adapted
shown, by the arrows in Fig. 1.
to move in the direction of the arrows, Figs. 1
_ For driving the heat conveyor 22, the roller or
and 2, that is, the lower strand within the tunnel
sprocket wheels 25 is mounted upon a shaft 21, moves in the direction opposite that of the move
which extends through at least one side wall of ment of the ware through the tunnel. For driv
the lehr and is provided outside the lehr with a ing the heat conveyor 34, the roller or sprockets 15
suitable pulley or sprocket wheel indicated at 36- is mounted upon a transverse shaft 39, which
28, which is driven through a flexible driving carries outside the lehr a sprocket wheel or pulley
means 29 from a drive roller or sprocket wheel 4l), this wheel or pulley being connected by a'
30 of a speed changing device 3l, which may be suitable endless flexible driving means 4| with the
of any suitable commercial type now available driving roller or sprocket 42 of an adjustable 20'
for purchase in the openl market, such, for ,ex
speed-changing device 43,- which may be similar
ample, as the “Reeves Drive”. The speed chang-` to the speed-changing device 3ly above referred
ing device 3| may be driven through an endless to. The speed changing device 43 may in turn
-Wheels 24 and 25, the latter of which may be
flexible driving means 32 from a suitable source
of power, such, forexample, as an electric motor
25 33. Thus, if it be assumed that the motor 33 or
other driving means employed is operated at a
constant speed, the speed ofthe movement of the
be driven by a 'suitable ñexible driving means 44
by any suitable source of power, which in the 25
present instance is also illustrated as the motor
33.
-
'
'
The lower strand of the heat conveyor 34,
heat conveyor 22 may still be varied as desired which is in heat transferring relation with the
by the speed changing device 3l. Also this speed ware passing through the cooling portion of the
30 may be and in practice is controlled independ
-lehr, will accumulate a material amount of heat
ently of the speed of movement of the ware con
from the ware due to its large heat mass and will
veyor 1, i. e., equal to or different from the speed carry this heat outside the lehr where it may be)
of the ware conveyor, in order to attain the de
dissipated from the upper or return strand of the
sired results- from the point of view_of the temper
heat conveyor tfo the surrounding atmosphere. 35
ature
gradient
in
the
lehr.
In
practice,
the
speed
03 Cl
Also,
due to the ~countercurrent movements of the
is selected in accordance with the requirements glassware
and the lower strand of the heat con
for heat of the ware in passing through the hotter veyor, this strand will become gradually heated
vzone of the lehr.
it~ moves toward the entrance end of the tun
The lov/er strand 23 of the heat conveyor in as
nel, so that the Ware at any given part of the 40
moving over the top of the flue i0 will accumulate tunnel will not be in heat transferring relation
40
heat and move it mechanically toward the for
with a portion of the conveyor diüering too great
ward end of the lehr, this elîect in practice being ly in temperature from the ware. In this way,
much greater than the opposing eñect of the I am _enabled to augment the rate of abstraction
upper strand of the heat conveyor 22 moving of heat and heat ,dissipation from the ware
toward the rear of the lehr and the two strands
45 having a joint effect of maintaining an uninter
rupted smooth temperature gradient throughout
the zone in which the heat conveyor 22 is located.
At the same time the lower strand 23 of the heat
conveyor 22 is accumulating heat, the upper
50 strandof the conveyor 22 is giving oñ its heat to
the ware and to the sides andÍ top of the tunnel,
so that elements of the heat conveyor arrive at
the roller or sprockets 25 at a temperature lower
than their temperature at the roller or sprockets
through the cooler zone thereof and accelerate
the cooling to establish a desired temperature '
gradient in the ware.
Turning now to the form of the invention
shown in Figs. 5 and 6, the same reference char
acters have been used for correspondmg parts, as
far as possible, and where the parts have been
ybut slightly changed the same reference char
acters plus an exponent are used. Ill‘he tunnel
of .the lehr may be constructed in substantially
the same way as previously described, or in any \
24, thus controlling by the large mass of -high ` other suitable or equivalent manner, and may be
heat capacity moving along the lehr the tempera
supported also in the same way as described for
ture gradient in the tunnel and in the ware. It the previous form of the invention.
will be seen by varying the speed of movement of
The ware is carried through the tunnel of this 60
60 the heat conveyor, the temperature gradient may form upon a conveyor 1a which‘may be of the
be adjusted to the desired point to compensate same construction per se as that previously de
to a material extent at least for variations in the scribed, the `difference here> being that in this
vheat input into the tunnel in the‘glassware, due form of the invention the return strand of the
principally to variations in the weight of glass ware conveyor is brought back to the entrance 65
being loaded into the lehr and to a relatively end of the lehr beneath the tunnel .and passes
lesser extent to variations in the temperature at through a suitable aperture 45, as shown in Fig. 5,
which the glass is introduced into the lehr.
to the roller 8 at -the entrance end of the lehr,
Associated with the cooling portion _of the tun
this return strand being supported and guided
nel, which is shown in Fig. 2 and overlapping to
by suitable spaced rollers 4_6, y41 and 48 as shown. 70
a
slight
extent
the
longitudinal
extent
of
the
heat
70
conveyor 22 (Fig. 1) is a second heat conveyor
34, this conveyor being disposed above the path
of the ware and having its lower strand only
within the tunnel, the upper strand returning to
ward the exit end of the lehr above the tunnel.
It will be understood that the driving means for
the ware conveyor 1a of this form of the inven
tion may be the same as or similar to that con~-Í
templated for use with the form of the invention
previously described.
75
4
2,120,947
The heat supplying means shown in Fig. 5 asso
ciated with the hotter portion of the lehr tunnel
may be substantially the same as those previously
described and are referred to by the same refer
ence characters, with the exception that the
practice undesirable to operatev the heat con-,
veyor faster than the ware conveyor, due to the
fact that the ware-bearing strand of the latter
is normally under tension, being drawn through
the lehr by the driving means associated there
hood IGa is of slightly different form than the
with.
hood i6, due to the fact that the heat conveyors
associated with this form of the invention, as
hereinafter to be described, do not overlap one
another longitudinally of the lehr.
In this case, the heat conveyor 22 is essentially
than the ware conveyor, it would tend to buckle
the same as the correspondingly numbered heat
conveyor, shown in Fig. 1 and is similarly
mounted for movement upon rollers or sprocket
same speed. ~This limitation, however, is not
present in the form of the invention shown in
Fig. l, as the adjacent strands of the two con
veyors are traveling in opposite directions, as
is indicated by the arrows in that figure.
The heat conveyor 3d' shown in Figs. 5- and 6
may be constructed, mounted .and operated in'
substantially the same way as the corresponding
means previously described, the principal differ. 20
ence being that the driving roller or sprockets 36
are disposed further along the lehr than the
correspondingly numbered means of Fig. 1. The
drive for the shaft 39 through the flexible driv
ing means di and speed changing Ódevice 43 is 25
effected by a separate motor 33h, which has its
own individual power line supply 49h and switch
58h. In this lway the two heat conveyors may be
operated .not only at independent speeds but
either may be stoppe-d entirely without interfering 30
with the operation of the other.
In addition in Fig. 6, I have shown a means for
accelerating the cooling or rate of heat dissipa
tion from the upper strand of the heat conveyor
3&3 above the lehr, such means in the present
instance comprising a blower 53 arranged to
wheels 2li and 25, the latter being driven by being
mounted upon a shaft 2l to which is secured a
driving sprocket or pulley 2S driven by a ñexible
driving means or belt 29 from the speed chang
ing device 3l, and that device similarly receiving
20 its power from a motor 33a. In this case, how
over, the motor êißais employed solely for driv
ing the heat conveyor in the hotter end of the lehr
and a separate motor hereinafter to be described
is employed for driving the other heat conveyor.
This modification may be resorted to if desired.
As shown, the motor 33a has connected there
with line wires Q9 having a suitable switch con
ventionally illustrated at 5@ interposed therein,
so that the motor 33a may be stopped if desired,
30 in order that the heat conveyor 22 be completely
stopped while the heat conveyor in the cooler
portion of the lehr later to be described may be
continued in operation. It is contemplated that
this manner of operation may be employed should
it be desired.
.
Intermediate the upper and lower strands of
the heat conveyor 22 as shown in Fig. 5, I provide
a means for retarding the passage of. heat between
the strands of the heat conveyor, such means
40 being generally indicated as a wall 5l.
This wall
may also be of varying thickness or of heat trans
ferring ability from end to end thereof, and as
shown is` relatively thinner toward the hotter
end of the lehr and relatively thicker toward the
45 cooler end thereof. In practice, this wall may be
made up of a plurality of independently adjust
able louvres 52 which, when all are closed, form
the wall as shown. Any suitable means may be
employed outside the lehr for effecting an _ad
justment of the individual louvres 52, such for
example as hand cranks associated with each of
the louvres. Also, if desired, any suitable means
such as are known in the art foreffecting pro
gressive adjustments in bank of a plurality of
the louvres 52 may be employed, but inasmuch as
such means per se form no part of the present
If the heat conveyor ’should move faster v
up portions of. the latter and upset the ware
thereon. Within those limits, however, the heat
conveyor may be moved at any desired speed 10
slower than that of the ware conveyor, or at the
direct a stream of air through a nozzle 55 onto
the upper strand of the heat conveyor 34 and
thus accelerate the cooling thereof prior to the
entrance of portions of the conveyor into the lehr. 40
The blowe‘r 53 may be driven by any suitable
source of power, here diagrammatically illus
'trated as an electric motor 55. It Will be under
stood that any suitable means vmay be used for
accelerating the cooling of the heat conveyor as 45
'may be desired in order to meet actual conditions
in the .use of the device.
l
By the use of means such for example as those
herein disclosed, and by the practice of the
method as herein taught, I am enabled’ to obtain
a desired temperature gradient in a lehr and sub
stantially to eliminate any sharp breaks or varia
tions in this gradient, except perhaps at some
point adjacent to the` boundary between the
heated zone of the lehr andthe cooling zone
thereof, and even here especially by the use of
invention they have not been illustrated. By the V overlapping heat conveyors as shown in Fig. 1,
provisions shown and hereinbefore described, I this variation in the rate of cooling or heat dis
am enabled to control with substantial accuracy
60 the temperature gradient in the hotter portion
70.
_ sipation from the ware during its annealing may
be made a relatively smooth curve. Also, by the 60
of. the lehr, these adjustments including the ad- ' several means hereinabove described, I am en
justment of the rate of heat supply tothe ñre abledï to control accurately the temperature
box 9 and -the draft therefrom, the adjustment gradient in the lehr and to obtain the desired
of the speed of movement of the heat conveyor gradient Within relatively narrow limits. It will
22 and the adjustment of the several louvres.
.be understood that the temperature gradient will 65
Also in Fig. 5, in the hotter zone of the lehr, normally be so disposed longitudinally of the lehr
I have illustrated a further modification of the in coordination with the speed of movement of
Fig. 1 form of tne invention, in which a ma
the ware that the transition point or zone be
t-erial portion at least of the Ware conveyor 'la tween the heated portion of the lehr and the cool
is supported directly upon the upper strand of the ing portion thereof will be made to approximate 70
heat conveyor 22. This arrangement may be the point Where the glassware passing there
resorted to if desired. It will be understood, how
ever, that under these circumstances, ,the speed
of the heat conveyor is only partially independent
75 of the speed 'of the ware conveyor, as it is in
through is cooled through its low annealing tem
perature or point as .above defined, so that the
rate'of cooling of the ware through its anneal
ing range, that is, the range above the low an 75
5
.
2,120,947 l
nealing temperature or point may be maintained
supplied thereto and the rate of movement- of
said mass in coordination with the amount of
. at one value, while the rate of cooling below this ' glassware passing therethrough and the rate of
point may be maintained at another and different
value.
`
.
‘
'
It will be understood that while I have illus'
trated two embodiments of my invention, various
changes may be made therein and certain of the
independent features maybe used without others;
for example, but one heat conveyor may be em
10 ployed in a portion of a lehr with advantage over
certain prior art methods or types of construc
tion. I do not wish to be limited, therefore, ex
cept by the scope of the appended claims, which
are to be construed as broadly as the state of the
15
prior art permits.
,
-
‘
its movement to establish a desired temperature
gradient insaid -portion of the tunnel.
7. The method of annealing glassware, which
comprises passing the ware through anelongate
tunnel,Í and causing a flow of heat longitudinally
of the tunnel by moving therealong a mass of
high heat capacity at a speed independent of the
speed of movement of the _Ware therethrough.
8. _The method of annealing glassware, com
prising passing the ware through an elongate
tunnel, causing a flow >oi’ heat longitudinally of
the tunnel in a hotter zone thereof by moving 15
therealong a mass of high heat capacity at a
_
i
,
of the speed of movement of
1. The method of annealing glassware, which speed‘independent
the ware therethrough, and causing a ilow of
comprises establishing and maintaining vin an
longitudinally of the tunnel -in a cooler zone
insulated tunnel a selected temperature gradient, heat
thereof by moving along said cooler zone and 20
20 by moving a mass of high heat capacity within within the tunnel another mass` of high heat
and longitudinally of said tunnel at a rate selected capacity at a speed independent of the speed of
in accordance ywith theheat characteristics >of movement of the ware therethrough.
the tunnel and of the ware to be annealed, and
9. The method of annealing glassware, which
passing the ware through the tunnel to eñect its , comprises passing the glassware through an elon 25
25 annealing..
gate tunnel, and causing a flow of heat longitu
’ 2. The method of annealing glassware, which dinally of a cooling portion in said tunnel by
comprises conveying glassware through an elon
moving therealong in such portion a mass of high
gate tunnel/, applying heat to the _tunnel beneathv heat capacityat .a speed independent of the speed
the ware, and regulatingthe temperature gradi
30
of movement of the Ware therethrough.
30 ent through a portion of the tunnel to effect a
l0. The method of annealing glassware, which
given stage of annealing by moving a body of comprises passing the Ware through an elongate
high heat capacity longitudinally of the tunnel tunnel, 'causing> a flow of heat longitudinally of
I claim:
, beneath the ware at a rate selected so as to estab
lish a desired temperature gradient in the ware.
35
`3. The method of annealing glassware, which
' comprises passing the ware through an elongate
tunnel, establishing and maintaining-in the tun
nel a selected temperature gradient, :and regulat
ing the temperature gradient longitudinally vof
the'hotter portion of said tunnel by moving there--v
along in such portion a mass of high-heat capac
35
ity, causing a flow of heat longitudinally of the
tunnel in a cooler portion thereof by moving
therealong in such cooler portion a mass of high
heat capacity, and controlling the temperature
gradient longitudinally of said tunnel by inde 40
pendently regulating the speeds of movement
the tunnel by moving therethrough a mass of high
heat >capacity at a rate selected in accordance ' of the masses of high heat capacity moving in the
with the heat characteristics of the tunnel and hotter and cooler portions of the tunnel respec
of the ware to be annealed and independent of tively in such manner that both masses will be
the rate of movement of the ware therethrough. moved at speeds independent of each other and 45
4. The method of annealing glassware, which - of the speed of movement of the ware through
‘ comprises passing the vware through an elongate
.
'
tunnel, supplying heat to the tunnel beneath the the11.tunnel.
Apparatus for annealing glassware, com
path of the ware therethrough, moving a mass prising an elongate tunnel, means -fòr conveying
of high heat capacity longitudinally of the tunnel glassware therethrough, a mass of high heat 50
in
a path intermediate the source of heat supply capacity separate and distinct from said convey
50
thereto and the path of the ware to establish ing means, and means for moving said mass in i
and maintain a smooth temperature gradient inI and longitudinally of said tunnel to convey heat
the portion of the tunnel through which the high
heat capacity mass travels, and selectively con
trolling the rate of movement of the high heat
capacity mass in accordance with the _tempera
tures in the portion of the tunnel through which
itis moved.
.
'
5. The method of annealing glassware, com
prising passing the ware through an elongate tun- '
nel, and regulating the temperature gradient in a
portion at least of said tunnel by moving a mass
of high heat capacity in said tunnel in an orbital
path having its principal dimension longitudinal
ly of said tunnel.
.
6. The method of annealing glassware, which
comprises passing the ware through an elongate
tunnel, passing heated gases in a path longitudi
nally of said tunnel and in heat transferring
longitudinally thereof.
l2. Apparatus for annealing glassware, com 55
prising an elongate tunnel, means for conveying
glassware therethrough, a -mass of high heat
capacity separate and distinct from said convey
ing means, means mounting said mass for move
ment in anv orbital path at least a part of which 60
lies in and longitudinally 'of said tunnel, and
means for moving said mass along said path.
13. Apparatus for annealing glassware, com
prising an elongate tunnel, means for conveying
glassware therethrough, an endless ñexible heat 65
conveying means separate and distinct from said
glassware conveying means, means mounting said
heat conveying means for movement in respect
to said tunnel and with at least one strand there
relation therewith but out of contact with` the `, of movable in and longitudinally 0f Said tunnel, 70
and means for moving said heat conveying means.
' glassware along a portion of said tunnel, moving
, _14. Apparatus for annealing glassware,` corn
a mass of high heat capacity longitudinally of prising an elongate tunnel, means for conveying
said tunnel and wholly within said portion there
glassware therethrough, a mass of high heat
of, and controlling the temperature gradient in ‘~
distinct from said convey- 75
said tunnel by controlling the amount of heat -capacity separate and
6
2,120,947
ing means, means for moving said mass in and
longitudinally of said tunnel to convey heat lon
Cn
gitudinally thereof, and means for adjustably
varying the speed of movement of said mass for
means for movement as aforesaid, means for
moving said heat conveying means in such man
ner that the lower strand thereof moves toward
the hotter end of said tunnel, and means for ad
controlling the temperature gradient in said tun
justably controlling the speed of movement of
nel.
said heat conveying means to control the rate
of abstraction of heat from the 'ware thereby and
thus to control the temperature gradient in the
15. ApparatusÍ for annealing glassware, com
prising an elongate tunnel, means for conveying
glassware therethrough, means for supplying
heat to` a portion of said tunnel, a mass of high
heat capacity separate and distinct from said
_conveying means, and means for moving said
mass in and. longitudinally of said portion of said
tunnel to convey heat longitudinally thereof.
16. Apparatus for annealing glassware, com
15
prising an elongate tunnel, means for conveying
glassware therethrough, means for supplying heat
to a portion of said tunnel from beneath the path
of the ware therethrough, a mass of high heat
20 capacity separate and distinct from said convey
ing means, and means for moving said mass in
a path intermediate said heat supplying means
and the path of the ware for distributing the-
heat supplied to said tunnel and establishing a
desired temperature gradient in the portion of
the tunnel to which the heat is supplied as afore
said.
17. Apparatus for annealing glassware, com
prising an elongate tunnel, means for conveying
30 glassware therethrough, means for supplying heat
to a portion of said tunnel' from beneath the
path of the ware therethrough, an endless ilex
ible heat conveying means- separate and distinct
from said conveying means, means mounting said
heat conveying means for movement in an orbital
path in and longitudinally of said tunnel and
ware in passing through the cooling portion of
the tunnel.
10
_
21. Apparatus for annealing glassware, com
prising an elongate tunnel, means for conveying
glassware therethrough, a mass of high heat ca
pacity and separate and distinct from said glass
ware conveying means disposed for movement in 15
the hotter portion of said tunnel, means for mov
ing said mass in and longitudinally of the hot
ter portion of said tunnel to convey heat longi
tudinally thereof, a second mass of high heat
capacity and separate and distinct from said 20
glassware'conveying means disposed in the'cooler
portion of said tunnel, and means for moving said
second mass at least partly within and longitudi
nally of the cooler portion of said tunnel for con
25
veying heat longitudinally of such portion.
22. Apparatus for annealing glassware, com
prising an elongate tunnel, means for conveying
glassware therethrough, means for supplying heat
to a portion of said tunnel from beneath the p'ath
of >the ware therethrough, an endless flexible 30
heat conveying means having both strands there
Hof disposed in said portion of the tunnel inter
mediate the heat supplying means and the path
of the ware therethrough, means for moving said
heat conveying means in its path for control 35
supplied and the path of the ware, means for
ling the transmission of heat from the heat sup
plying means to the ware and the distribution
of heat longitudinally of said tunnel portion, and
moving said heat conveying means along its path,
means intermediate the upper and lower strands
intermediate the portion to which heat is directly
40 and means for adjustably varying the speed of
movement of said heat conveying means for con-y
of said heat conveying means for controlling the 40
transmission of heat between said strands.
trolling the temperature gradient in `the heated
portion of said tunnel.
18. Apparatus for 4annealing glassware, com
45 prising an elongate tunnel, means for conveyingV
prising an elongate tunnel, means for conveying
glassware therethrough, means for supplying heat
to a portion of said tunnel from beneath the path 45
23. Apparatus for annealing glassware, com-~
glassware therethrough, a mass of high heat - of the ware therethrough, an endless flexible heat'
conveying means having both strands thereof dis
capacity separate and distinct from said convey
ing means, means for moving said mass in heat
transferring relation with the ware during its
50 passage through a cooling portion of said tunnel
to absorb heat from the ware and thence for
moving said mass to a place where heat absorbed,
thereby from the ware may be dissipated-there
from.
19. Apparatus for annealing glassware, com
60
posed in said portion of the tunnel intermediate
the heat supplying means and the path of the ware ,
therethrough, means for moving saidheatconvey 50
ing means in its path for control-ling the trans
mission of heat from the heat supplying means to
the ware and the distribution> of heat longitudi
f nally of said tunnel portion, and a wall of vary
ing thickness longitudinally of the tunnel inter
prising an'elongate tunnel, means for conveying
glassware therethrough, an endless flexible heat
mediate the upper and lower strand of said heat
conveying means for controlling the transmission
conveying means having one strand disposed
within said tunnel in heat transferring relation
of heat between said strands.
with the glassware passing through the cooling
prising an elongate tunnel, means for conveying 60
glassware therethrough, means for supplying heat
to a. portion of said tunnel from beneath the path
of the ware therethrough, an endless flexible
heat conveying means having both strands there
portion thereof and the other strand outside said
tunnel, and means for mounting and moving said
heat conveying means in such manner that the
strand thereof within said tunnel is moved thereî
along in the direction opposite that of the move
ment of the ware therethrough.
20. Apparatus for annealing glassware, com-l
prising an elongate tunnel, means for convey
ing glassware therethrough, an endless flexible
70 heat conveying means associated with the cool
ing portion of said tunnel and having its lower
strand movably mounted in said tunnel above
the path of the movement of the ware there
through and- its .upper strand disposed above the
75 tunnel, means mounting said heat- conveying
_
Y
24. Apparatus for annealing glassware, com
of disposed in said portion of the tunnel inter
mediate the heat supplying means and the path
of the ware therethrough, means for moving
said heat conveying means in its path for con
trolling the transmission of heat from the heat
supplying means to the Ware and the distribution
of heat longitudinally of said tunnel portion,
and a plurality of louvres disposed between the t
upper and lower strands of said heat conveying
means for controlling the transmission of. heat
therebetween and thereby for controlling the 75
7
2,120,947
-,temperature gradient in said portion of the tun- ' portion thereof and the other strand outside
said tunnel, meansjor moving said heat con
nel.
.
veying means in such manner and direction that
25. Apparatus for annealing glassware, com
the strand thereof within said tunnel is moved
prising an elongate tunnel, means for conveying~ ' in the direction opposite that of the movement
glassware therethrough, means for supplying heat , of the Ware therethrough, and means cooperat
to a portion of said tunnel -from beneath the ing with the strand of said heat conveying means
path of the ware therethrough, an 4endless flex
outside said tunnel for increasing the rate of
ible heat conveying means having both strands cooling thereof over that rate which would nor
thereof disposed in said portion of the tunnel mally take place due to heat dissipation at the 10
10 intermediate the heat supplying means_and the place where the annealing apparatus is located.
path of the ware therethrough, means for mov
27. Apparatus for annealing glassware, com
ing said heat conveying -means in its path for prising an elongate tunnel, means for conveying
controlling the transmission» of heat from the glassware therethrough, an endless flexible heat
heat supplying means to the ware and the dis
conveying means having one strand disposed
15 tribution of heat longitudinally of said tunnel within said tunnel in heat transferring relation
portion, means for adjustably varying the speed with thè glassware passing through the cooling
of `movement of said heat conveying means, and portion -thereof and the other strand outside said
a plurality of independently adjustable louvres tunnel, an aperture in the‘_wa11 of said tunnel
so constructed and arranged that >when all are through which said heat conveying means passes 20
closed they form a wall intermediate the up
in moving from its course within the tunnel to
per and lower strands of said heat conveying _its course outside the tunnel,-means for mount
means, the adjustment of said louvres operating ing and moving said heat conveying means in its
in conjunction with the adjusted speed of move
path to control the temperature gradient in the
ment of said heat conveying means to control cooling portion> of said tunnel, and means for
the temperature gradient in said portion of the withdrawing from said tunnel through said open
ing some of the tunnel atmosphere to prevent in
26. Apparatus for annealing glassware, com- l ñow of atmospheric air into the tunnel through
tunnel.
'
v
»
prising an elongate tunnel, 'means _for conveying
glassware therethrough, an endless flexible heat
conveying means having one strand disposed
within said tunnel in heat transferring relation
with the glassware passing through the cooling
said opening and Vto cause a flow of air into at
least one end of said tunnel and longitudinally
' thereof to said opening.
y
,
WALTERl O. AMSLER.
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