Патент USA US2121037код для вставки
June v21, 1938. G. FQKOTRBATY 2,121,037 BUILDING CON'STRUC'I‘IOI‘Jv Filed July 31, 1957 “lNVEN-TOR Buy EKuhlmtyv ATTORNEY ' I 2,121,032 Patented June 21, 1938 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE. 2,121,037 BUILDING’ CONSTRUCTION Guy Felix Kotrbaty, Chestnut Hill, Pa. Application July 31, 1937, Serial No. 156,758 12 Claims. This invention relates to improvements in self supporting building units adapted for use in walls and ?oors, roofs, and the application relates more particularly to such units having channel-shaped ‘5 semi-stud and beam sections, with longitudinal keyways, as the load-supporting structural ele ments, spaced apart and held by a single panel, abutted semi-stud or beam elements being se cured together as structural composites. by a 10 plurality of keying means, and the open faces of the units being surfaced with continuous sheath ing or other surfacing materials. The present invention is concerned with struc tural units in which the side members form 15 structural building members ‘when abutted and interlocked with juxtaposed like members. The so-formed composite structural supporting mem bers may be spaced apart on a given modulus and secured together by panelings or wall members 20 to form a single face or wall section of an open I building unit, which will comprise two end struc tural composite stud or beam elements and an intermediate wall, ?ooring, ceiling or roo?ng panel section. The panelings may be secured to the side or structural supporting members as by 25 means of bolts, rivets, screws, screw nails, or equivalent securing means. Waterproof cements, including casein glues, synthetic resins, and the 3 attic unit, may be suitably stenciled to indicate ‘diagrams for the layout and erection of plumbing pipes and ?xtures, piping and other ?xtures for heating systems and air conditioning devices, which diagrams will indicate the proper position of various services and component parts when the house is under erection. It will, of course, be appreciated that a wide variety of plans, layouts and diagrams, including catalogue designations 10 of parts and bills of materials, may be stencilled, printed, or lithographed on either or both sides of these panel members. Such indicia may in clude diagrams for radio installations, television, ?re-alarm, burglar alarm, telephone wiring or 15 call bell systems, wiring diagrams or plans of a multitude of other devices, services or wiring lay outs, diagrams or plans. The panels may, of course, include, nailing diagrams. In addition, the present invention comprehends the marking 20 of the outer surfaces of such panels with dia grams, and thelike, indicating the position of sinks, flush tanks, lavatories, bowls, ?xtures for telephone and lighting, including switches and switch control boxes, as well as ‘brackets and‘ 25 hangers, and other auxiliary structural elements associated with the services delineated on the re verse side of the panel. The composite structural members of the pres like, may also be used to secure the several partsv together. The composite structural end sections ent invention include bipartite I-beams having 30 have longitudinal keyways receiving unitary or ?at edge flanges and centrally disposed longi split double keys to permit their proper alignment 'tudinal keyways, usually of cylindrical cross section, and adapted to receive unitary or split and initial securing together, and they are pro vided further at the free edges with locking keys of like cross-section; Panel members will be ?anges adapted to receive flat keying members. secured to the ?anges on one side of the members 35 3 UK With the use of such keying members abutted and aligned units may be permanently locked to give a wall, flooring or roof construction having 4 (Cl. 189-—34) outer panels of any given wall, ?oor, ceiling, or a single face supported on composite structural stud or beam members. The ?at locking keys may have furring strips, sleepers or nailing mem bers secured thereto at the open sides or faces of the assembled units, and .nailable surfacings may be secured to thefurring strips or sleepers. Such a construction permits the use of the cus 45 tomary nailable surfacingssuch as sheathings and clapboarding, plywood or. other paneling, and the like, to structural units, including my self supporting units generally, and the composite 50 structural stud, stanchion, and beam members of walls and ?oorings. This provides a desired and practicable extension of the building principles and structures set out in my prior patents. The use of an open-faced structural member 55 having two structural end sections lends itself very readily to use in so-called prefabricated or preformed houses, in which the several parts may be designed or cut for rapid and efficient assembly and fabrication. As an adjunct of this facility of 60 design, fabrication, and erection, the inner or and the other edges or ?anges will receive sepa rate keying means which common keying means will include associated members for receiving continuous wall, ?oor and ceiling surfacings. These and other desirable features and advan tages of the present invention will be described hereinafter with respect to the drawing accom panying the present speci?cation and. forming a part thereof, it being understood that the ex amples set forth are given by way of illustration 45 only, for, since the underlying principles may be embodied in other speci?c structural devices, it is not intended to be limited to the structures here shown, except as such limitations are clearly imposed by the appended claims. In the drawing, like numerals refer to similar parts throughout the several views, of which Fig. 1 is an elevation of a plurality of assem bledwall units, partly in broken section, having 55 floor hanging connections and composite struc tural supports with cylindrical keyways and com mon keying means therefor; Fig. 2 is a detail, in plan view, of a joint con nection for abutted three-part units, and. 60 2 2,121,037 Fig. 3 is a detail of the key locking means show ing split keying members. Referring now to the drawing, the structural members of the present invention comprise build ing units, I00, including single panel or Wall sections, IOI, secured to and spacing composite end stud members designated generally by the I30, of the assembly thus serve as auxiliary ver tical or horizontal supporting members in the composite structural members, H0, and at the same time serve as supports for surface ?nish and supporting members such as the sheathings, I32, and associated surfacing, I33. The abutted panels, IOI, of adjacent units are desirably di numeral 300. The composite studs or structural :rectly abutted to give a line seam IOIa, particu members, 300, include symmetrical channel larly inycases where the paneling material, IOI, shaped structural elements 30I, having ?anged may be made of veneering and having a desirable 10 sides, 302, 303. The elements 30I also include surface ?nish. Any seams or joints formed may central longitudinal keyways, usually of cylindri be ?lled with ?ller putty or cement and sparkled cal cross-section, and disposed on the inside: of before painting or ?nishing of the surface. the channels formed by the edges or ?anges, 303. The units, I00, may be set in channel members 15 Separate double cylindrical edges or beaded keys, 305, have edge or bead sections, 300, conformed to the keyways, 304, and are adapted to look a pair of abutted elements 30! together to form a com posite I-beam, 300. Where desired, and as shown 20 more particularly in Fig. 3, keying members, 305, may be substituted for ‘by a pair of split keying members, 305a, each permanently associated and ?tted in its respective keyway, 304. The split key members, 305a, include the edge bead sec tions, 306a, and ?ns or key sections, 301, formed coextensive therewith. The sections, 301, are in turn provided with continuous wedge-shaped sec tions, 308, formed with detent or hook portions, 309. When a pair of elements, 30I, are moved 30 together so that the edges 308 of the split-keys, 305a, contact and slide over each other until the hook portions, 309, mutually engage, the two ele ments will be held ?rmly and a composite I-beam, 300, formed. This is in contrast to the structure 35 shown in Fig. 1 and Fig. 2 wherein the keys, 305, are slid lengthways into the keyways, 304, of the mutually abutted I-beam segments, 30I. It will be noted further that the keying members 305a, serve substantially as automatic coupling‘ mem bers when building units, I00, are moved later ally into mutual locking engagement. Panel members, IOI, of the unit are secured to side ?anges, 302, of the stud or beam sections as by means of bolts or rivets or the like, all desig 45 nated generally by the numeral I02. The web sections of elements 30I may be provided with a variety of apertures, all designated generally by the numeral IIOa. The open faces of the abutted and aligned units, I00, are held locked together by the key 50 members, I20, coacting with the hook ?anges, 303, of the rail sections of the composite stud member, 300. On and over the sleepers, I30, which are secured to the key members, I20, may be applied a continuous wall surface or covering 55 including inner sheathing-s, I32, over which may be applied any suitable plastic or other surfacing material, designated generally by the numeral I 33. Other surfacings may be applied thereto, and including metal, wood, paper-encased gyp sum panels, plaster or stucco lath, which latter may be covered with plastic materials, or brick or stone veneer. The continuous sheathing or other like structural wall surfacing completes the 65 wall structure and insures rigidity to the wall as semblies. The material used for the sheathing and surface ?nishings may vary, depending upon whether or not the'units form part'of inner sup porting or partition walls, or whether they form 70 part of outside walls, which are required to be ?nished with weather resistant surfacings; In the latter instance, it will be understood that tar paper and other waterproo?ng inserts may be associated with the sheathing, I32, and the sur— 75 face ?nishing, I33. Furring strips or sleepers, adapted to receive the composite stud members, 15 300, and secured therein by concrete or other hardenable plastics, or by mechanical means such as bolts and nuts, as well as by rivets and by means of spot welding. Usually and desirably the panel members, IOI, will be cut away a sufficient dis 20 tance top and bottom to permit the composite structural members, 300, to extend therebeyond and ?t into the channels at the bottom and receive cap members at the top as well as to receive at the top and bottom ?oor hanger mem bers, I40. These hanger members comprise a generally continuous body section, I4I, secured to the stud members as by means of spot welds, Hi2, and being provided at the top and bottom thereof with an o?set ?ange, I43, and a hook v30 ?ange, I44, which are generally in vertical align ment. The flanges, I43, I44, of the hanger mem ber, I40, are adapted to be received in and be locked by like members placed in reverse position on ?oor sections and other building members which are to be hung on the wall. The hangers may be secured on and over abutted panels, IOI, being directly welded to ?anges, 302, the panels being cut away a suf?cient distance to permit direct abutment. As shown in Fig. 1, the hang e10 ers may be laid over the panels and secured by 1~ fastening means, I Ma. The hanger members and the method of forming wall and floor joints therewith are described and claimed in my co pending application, Serial No. 108,956, ?led No 45 vember 3, 1936, for Buildings and mechanical joints therefor, and will not be described further herein, except to show the general combination with the structural building units. In this con nection, it is to be noted that the hanger mem bers, I40, act as horizontal bracing members for 5.0 each unit, and, thus, for the entire structure, and will prevent weaving or lateral vibration, par ticularly at the vertical joints. The hanger members may also be used in continuous 55 lengths, overlapping or extending over a plu-‘ rality of abutted units, and providing a common, lateral bracing construction. As more particularly set forth and claimed in my companion application (D—604:1), ?led of 60 even date herewith, a desirable feature in the ~‘ designing and erection of so-called prefabricated or planned houses is the provision of stencillings on the inner surfaces of the wall panels, IOI, which stencillings indicate the exact position and layout of all plumbing, heating, air conditioning ducts, wiring'and telephone and other mainte 65 nance services required in a house. These several stencillings may vary from one unit to another, depending upon the parts which are to be secured therein or thereto and with absolute accuracy of ?t and correctness of performance. It is to be ‘noted further that all holes may be pre-drilled or pre-punched, and, where necessary, the holes receiving screw-fastening members may' be 75 3 2,121,037 tural sections, the end structural sections being thread tapped. The pre-punched or pre-drilled holes will provide for the passage of pipe ducts, wires, and other elements, through the panels, thereby cutting down the time normally required for such work to be done in the ?eld, and doing away with the botchy appearance of such work. All of this lends to uniformity of design, fabri elements of a composite I-beam construction, each section being a channel shape having a longitudinal keyway in the base thereof, a- split keying member in each said keyway and adapted to interlock with like members of juxtaposed end sections to form composite I-beam members, each channel side forming rail sections or ?at ?anges cation and erection, and, at the same time, in sures to all parties involved maximum speed in 10 erection and ?tting, while, at the same time, in suring absolute correctness in the assembly, which, from the sanitary point of View, as well as of the composite member, the ?anges of one rail section being adapted to be engaged and secured 10 by cooperating ?at keying members, and the other rail ?anges being secured to the said panel of e?iciency and safety, is of prime importance. section. Standardization of erection, consequent upon the . standardization of parts permitted by this novel method, also permits standardization of replace 15 ment members and absolute and complete accu racy in their identi?cation and replacement. The plumbing and other services may ‘have their out 6. In a building unit as claimed in claim 4, the members secured to and between spaced end sec tend through several units horizontally, passing through the apertures, IlOa, in the supporting ' tions.‘ i 25 provided novel structural, building members, in cluding unitary constructions having a paneling , and structural end members secured thereto, abutted end members of adjacent sections form ing composite structural members, which, in f 30 turn, are locked in place by a plurality of keying members, one of which has means associated therewith to receive a continuous wall; wall sur facings, closing the open faces of the units and completing a wall, floor or roof assembly. In ad 35 dition, ?oor hanging and securing members are associated with the assembly of units to‘ secure ?oors thereto, and, at the same time, to provide a desirable lateral bracing to a structure made therefrom. What is claimed is: '40 1. A composite structural building member forming a generally I-beam construction, com prising a pair of half elements each being of channel shape and each including a base or web 45 portion having a longitudinal keyway therein, the said channels being juxtaposed to form a composite I-beam and stud member, keying means in the keyways locking the channels to gether; ?at rail sections or ?anges at the sides 50 of the channels, ?at keying members disposed on and over the aligned rail sections at one side of the composite member, the other ?anges of abutted members being adapted to receive panel ‘sections of building members. 55‘ 2. In a construction of the type described in claim 1, the improvements comprising split key ing members in the keyways and adapted to be mutually interlocked on lateral abutting move ment of the web section. 60 . '7. A continuous building section comprising an It will now be appreciated that there have been . the improvements comprising ?oor and wall 15 hanger members secured to and between spaced end sections. improvements comprising ?oor and wall hanger 20 iets on either surface of the units and may ex members, 300. . 5. In a building unit as claimed in claim 3, . 3. A self-supporting building unit comprising a panel section secured to and spacing end struc tural sections, the end structural sections being elements of a composite I-beam construction, each section being a channel shape having a 65 longitudinal keyway in the base thereof and adapted to abut like sections of juxtaposed ‘ele ments and be keyed thereto by common keying members, the channel sides forming rail sections or ?at ?anges of the composite 'member, the 70 ?anges of one rail section being adapted to be engaged and secured by cooperating ?at keying members, and the other rail ?anges being se cured to the said panel section. 4. A self-supporting building unit comprising a panel section secured to and spacing end struc 75 array of self-supporting building units, each unit including a single face or panel section secured to and spacing‘ end structural elements of com 25 posite I-beams, each I-beam element being a channel shape having a longitudinal keyway in the base thereof and abutting like sections of juxtaposed elements and keyed thereto by com mon keying members, the channel sides forming 30 rail sections or ?at ?anges of the composite mem ber, the ?anges of one rail section being engaged and secured by cooperating ?at keying members, and the other rail ?anges being respectively se 35 cured to unit panel sections. 8. In a building construction of the type de scribed in claim '7, the improvements comprising a common wall surfacing over the open faces of the said assembly of units and secured to and 40 on the end structural members. 9. In a building construction of the type de scribed in claim 7,the improvements comprising a common wall surfacing over the open faces of the said assembly of units and secured to and on the end structural members, and structural hang 45 er members secured to and on the panel side of the structural members at ?oor levels and forming lateral bracing elements for the building units. 10. In a building construction of the type de scribed in claim 7, the improvements comprising 50 a wall surfacing over the open faces of each unit of the. said assembly of units and secured to and on the said structural members, and structural hanger members secured to and on the structural members at ?oor levels andv forming lateral bracing elements for the building units. 11. A continuous building section comprising an array of self-supporting units, each unit in cluding a single face or panel section secured to and spacing end structural elements of compos 60 ite I-beams, each I-beam element being a chan nel shape having a longitudinal keyway in the base thereof, ‘a split keying member in each said keyway and adapted to interlock with like mem bers of juxtaposed end sections to form composite 65 I-beams, each channel side forming rail sections or ?at ?anges of the composite member, the ?anges of one rail section being engaged and se cured by cooperating ?at keying members, nail able members on the ?at keying members, and 70 floor‘ and wall hanger members secured to the panel sides of the units. ‘ 12. In the construction of claim 11, wall sur facings secured to and on the nailable members. GUY FELDI KOTRBATY.