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Патент USA US2121037

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June v21, 1938.
G. FQKOTRBATY
2,121,037
BUILDING CON'STRUC'I‘IOI‘Jv
Filed July 31, 1957
“lNVEN-TOR
Buy EKuhlmtyv
ATTORNEY
'
I
2,121,032
Patented June 21, 1938
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.
2,121,037
BUILDING’ CONSTRUCTION
Guy Felix Kotrbaty, Chestnut Hill, Pa.
Application July 31, 1937, Serial No. 156,758
12 Claims.
This invention relates to improvements in self
supporting building units adapted for use in walls
and ?oors, roofs, and the application relates more
particularly to such units having channel-shaped
‘5 semi-stud and beam sections, with longitudinal
keyways, as the load-supporting structural ele
ments, spaced apart and held by a single panel,
abutted semi-stud or beam elements being se
cured together as structural composites. by a
10 plurality of keying means, and the open faces of
the units being surfaced with continuous sheath
ing or other surfacing materials.
The present invention is concerned with struc
tural units in which the side members form
15 structural building members ‘when abutted and
interlocked with juxtaposed like members. The
so-formed composite structural supporting mem
bers may be spaced apart on a given modulus and
secured together by panelings or wall members
20 to form a single face or wall section of an open
I building unit, which will comprise two end struc
tural composite stud or beam elements and an
intermediate wall, ?ooring, ceiling or roo?ng
panel section. The panelings may be secured to
the side or structural supporting members as by
25 means of bolts, rivets, screws, screw nails, or
equivalent securing means. Waterproof cements,
including casein glues, synthetic resins, and the
3
attic unit, may be suitably stenciled to indicate
‘diagrams for the layout and erection of plumbing
pipes and ?xtures, piping and other ?xtures for
heating systems and air conditioning devices,
which diagrams will indicate the proper position
of various services and component parts when
the house is under erection. It will, of course, be
appreciated that a wide variety of plans, layouts
and diagrams, including catalogue designations 10
of parts and bills of materials, may be stencilled,
printed, or lithographed on either or both sides
of these panel members. Such indicia may in
clude diagrams for radio installations, television,
?re-alarm, burglar alarm, telephone wiring or 15
call bell systems, wiring diagrams or plans of a
multitude of other devices, services or wiring lay
outs, diagrams or plans. The panels may, of
course, include, nailing diagrams. In addition,
the present invention comprehends the marking 20
of the outer surfaces of such panels with dia
grams, and thelike, indicating the position of
sinks, flush tanks, lavatories, bowls, ?xtures for
telephone and lighting, including switches and
switch control boxes, as well as ‘brackets and‘ 25
hangers, and other auxiliary structural elements
associated with the services delineated on the re
verse side of the panel.
The composite structural members of the pres
like, may also be used to secure the several partsv
together. The composite structural end sections ent invention include bipartite I-beams having 30
have longitudinal keyways receiving unitary or ?at edge flanges and centrally disposed longi
split double keys to permit their proper alignment 'tudinal keyways, usually of cylindrical cross
section, and adapted to receive unitary or split
and initial securing together, and they are pro
vided further at the free edges with locking keys of like cross-section; Panel members will be
?anges adapted to receive flat keying members. secured to the ?anges on one side of the members 35
3 UK With the use of such keying members abutted
and aligned units may be permanently locked to
give a wall, flooring or roof construction having
4
(Cl. 189-—34)
outer panels of any given wall, ?oor, ceiling, or
a single face supported on composite structural
stud or beam members. The ?at locking keys
may have furring strips, sleepers or nailing mem
bers secured thereto at the open sides or faces
of the assembled units, and .nailable surfacings
may be secured to thefurring strips or sleepers.
Such a construction permits the use of the cus
45 tomary nailable surfacingssuch as sheathings
and clapboarding, plywood or. other paneling, and
the like, to structural units, including my self
supporting units generally, and the composite
50 structural stud, stanchion, and beam members of
walls and ?oorings. This provides a desired and
practicable extension of the building principles
and structures set out in my prior patents.
The use of an open-faced structural member
55 having two structural end sections lends itself
very readily to use in so-called prefabricated or
preformed houses, in which the several parts may
be designed or cut for rapid and efficient assembly
and fabrication. As an adjunct of this facility of
60 design, fabrication, and erection, the inner or
and the other edges or ?anges will receive sepa
rate keying means which common keying means
will include associated members for receiving
continuous wall, ?oor and ceiling surfacings.
These and other desirable features and advan
tages of the present invention will be described
hereinafter with respect to the drawing accom
panying the present speci?cation and. forming a
part thereof, it being understood that the ex
amples set forth are given by way of illustration 45
only, for, since the underlying principles may be
embodied in other speci?c structural devices, it
is not intended to be limited to the structures
here shown, except as such limitations are clearly
imposed by the appended claims.
In the drawing, like numerals refer to similar
parts throughout the several views, of which
Fig. 1 is an elevation of a plurality of assem
bledwall units, partly in broken section, having 55
floor hanging connections and composite struc
tural supports with cylindrical keyways and com
mon keying means therefor;
Fig. 2 is a detail, in plan view, of a joint con
nection for abutted three-part units, and.
60
2
2,121,037
Fig. 3 is a detail of the key locking means show
ing split keying members.
Referring now to the drawing, the structural
members of the present invention comprise build
ing units, I00, including single panel or Wall
sections, IOI, secured to and spacing composite
end stud members designated generally by the
I30, of the assembly thus serve as auxiliary ver
tical or horizontal supporting members in the
composite structural members, H0, and at the
same time serve as supports for surface ?nish and
supporting members such as the sheathings, I32,
and associated surfacing, I33. The abutted
panels, IOI, of adjacent units are desirably di
numeral 300. The composite studs or structural :rectly abutted to give a line seam IOIa, particu
members, 300, include symmetrical channel
larly inycases where the paneling material, IOI,
shaped structural elements 30I, having ?anged may be made of veneering and having a desirable 10
sides, 302, 303. The elements 30I also include surface ?nish. Any seams or joints formed may
central longitudinal keyways, usually of cylindri
be ?lled with ?ller putty or cement and sparkled
cal cross-section, and disposed on the inside: of before painting or ?nishing of the surface.
the channels formed by the edges or ?anges, 303.
The units, I00, may be set in channel members
15 Separate double cylindrical edges or beaded keys,
305, have edge or bead sections, 300, conformed to
the keyways, 304, and are adapted to look a pair
of abutted elements 30! together to form a com
posite I-beam, 300. Where desired, and as shown
20 more particularly in Fig. 3, keying members, 305,
may be substituted for ‘by a pair of split keying
members, 305a, each permanently associated and
?tted in its respective keyway, 304. The split
key members, 305a, include the edge bead sec
tions, 306a, and ?ns or key sections, 301, formed
coextensive therewith. The sections, 301, are in
turn provided with continuous wedge-shaped sec
tions, 308, formed with detent or hook portions,
309. When a pair of elements, 30I, are moved
30 together so that the edges 308 of the split-keys,
305a, contact and slide over each other until the
hook portions, 309, mutually engage, the two ele
ments will be held ?rmly and a composite I-beam,
300, formed. This is in contrast to the structure
35 shown in Fig. 1 and Fig. 2 wherein the keys, 305,
are slid lengthways into the keyways, 304, of the
mutually abutted I-beam segments, 30I. It will
be noted further that the keying members 305a,
serve substantially as automatic coupling‘ mem
bers when building units, I00, are moved later
ally into mutual locking engagement.
Panel members, IOI, of the unit are secured to
side ?anges, 302, of the stud or beam sections as
by means of bolts or rivets or the like, all desig
45 nated generally by the numeral I02. The web
sections of elements 30I may be provided with
a variety of apertures, all designated generally
by the numeral IIOa.
The open faces of the abutted and aligned
units, I00, are held locked together by the key
50 members,
I20, coacting with the hook ?anges,
303, of the rail sections of the composite stud
member, 300. On and over the sleepers, I30,
which are secured to the key members, I20, may
be applied a continuous wall surface or covering
55 including
inner sheathing-s, I32, over which may
be applied any suitable plastic or other surfacing
material, designated generally by the numeral
I 33. Other surfacings may be applied thereto,
and including metal, wood, paper-encased gyp
sum panels, plaster or stucco lath, which latter
may be covered with plastic materials, or brick
or stone veneer.
The continuous sheathing or
other like structural wall surfacing completes the
65 wall structure and insures rigidity to the wall as
semblies. The material used for the sheathing
and surface ?nishings may vary, depending upon
whether or not the'units form part'of inner sup
porting or partition walls, or whether they form
70 part of outside walls, which are required to be
?nished with weather resistant surfacings; In
the latter instance, it will be understood that tar
paper and other waterproo?ng inserts may be
associated with the sheathing, I32, and the sur—
75 face ?nishing, I33. Furring strips or sleepers,
adapted to receive the composite stud members, 15
300, and secured therein by concrete or other
hardenable plastics, or by mechanical means such
as bolts and nuts, as well as by rivets and by means
of spot welding. Usually and desirably the panel
members, IOI, will be cut away a sufficient dis 20
tance top and bottom to permit the composite
structural members, 300, to extend therebeyond
and ?t into the channels at the bottom and
receive cap members at the top as well as to
receive at the top and bottom ?oor hanger mem
bers, I40.
These hanger members comprise a
generally continuous body section, I4I, secured
to the stud members as by means of spot welds,
Hi2, and being provided at the top and bottom
thereof with an o?set ?ange, I43, and a hook v30
?ange, I44, which are generally in vertical align
ment. The flanges, I43, I44, of the hanger mem
ber, I40, are adapted to be received in and be
locked by like members placed in reverse position
on ?oor sections and other building members
which are to be hung on the wall. The hangers
may be secured on and over abutted panels, IOI,
being directly welded to ?anges, 302, the panels
being cut away a suf?cient distance to permit
direct abutment. As shown in Fig. 1, the hang e10
ers may be laid over the panels and secured by 1~
fastening means, I Ma. The hanger members
and the method of forming wall and floor joints
therewith are described and claimed in my co
pending application, Serial No. 108,956, ?led No 45
vember 3, 1936, for Buildings and mechanical
joints therefor, and will not be described further
herein, except to show the general combination
with the structural building units. In this con
nection, it is to be noted that the hanger mem
bers, I40, act as horizontal bracing members for 5.0
each unit, and, thus, for the entire structure, and
will prevent weaving or lateral vibration, par
ticularly at the vertical joints. The hanger
members may also be used in continuous
55
lengths, overlapping or extending over a plu-‘
rality of abutted units, and providing a common,
lateral bracing construction.
As more particularly set forth and claimed in
my companion application (D—604:1), ?led of 60
even date herewith, a desirable feature in the ~‘
designing and erection of so-called prefabricated
or planned houses is the provision of stencillings
on the inner surfaces of the wall panels, IOI,
which stencillings indicate the exact position and
layout of all plumbing, heating, air conditioning
ducts, wiring'and telephone and other mainte
65
nance services required in a house. These several
stencillings may vary from one unit to another,
depending upon the parts which are to be secured
therein or thereto and with absolute accuracy
of ?t and correctness of performance. It is to be
‘noted further that all holes may be pre-drilled
or pre-punched, and, where necessary, the holes
receiving
screw-fastening members may' be 75
3
2,121,037
tural sections, the end structural sections being
thread tapped. The pre-punched or pre-drilled
holes will provide for the passage of pipe ducts,
wires, and other elements, through the panels,
thereby cutting down the time normally required
for such work to be done in the ?eld, and doing
away with the botchy appearance of such work.
All of this lends to uniformity of design, fabri
elements of a composite I-beam construction,
each section being a channel shape having a
longitudinal keyway in the base thereof, a- split
keying member in each said keyway and adapted
to interlock with like members of juxtaposed end
sections to form composite I-beam members, each
channel side forming rail sections or ?at ?anges
cation and erection, and, at the same time, in
sures to all parties involved maximum speed in
10 erection and ?tting, while, at the same time, in
suring absolute correctness in the assembly,
which, from the sanitary point of View, as well as
of the composite member, the ?anges of one rail
section being adapted to be engaged and secured 10
by cooperating ?at keying members, and the
other rail ?anges being secured to the said panel
of e?iciency and safety, is of prime importance.
section.
Standardization of erection, consequent upon the .
standardization of parts permitted by this novel
method, also permits standardization of replace
15
ment members and absolute and complete accu
racy in their identi?cation and replacement. The
plumbing and other services may ‘have their out
6. In a building unit as claimed in claim 4, the
members secured to and between spaced end sec
tend through several units horizontally, passing
through the apertures, IlOa, in the supporting
'
tions.‘
i
25 provided novel structural, building members, in
cluding unitary constructions having a paneling
, and structural end members secured thereto,
abutted end members of adjacent sections form
ing composite structural members, which, in
f 30 turn, are locked in place by a plurality of keying
members, one of which has means associated
therewith to receive a continuous wall; wall sur
facings, closing the open faces of the units and
completing a wall, floor or roof assembly. In ad
35 dition, ?oor hanging and securing members are
associated with the assembly of units to‘ secure
?oors thereto, and, at the same time, to provide
a desirable lateral bracing to a structure made
therefrom.
What is claimed is:
'40
1. A composite structural building member
forming a generally I-beam construction, com
prising a pair of half elements each being of
channel shape and each including a base or web
45 portion having a longitudinal keyway therein,
the said channels being juxtaposed to form a
composite I-beam and stud member, keying
means in the keyways locking the channels to
gether; ?at rail sections or ?anges at the sides
50 of the channels, ?at keying members disposed on
and over the aligned rail sections at one side
of the composite member, the other ?anges of
abutted members being adapted to receive panel
‘sections of building members.
55‘
2. In a construction of the type described in
claim 1, the improvements comprising split key
ing members in the keyways and adapted to be
mutually interlocked on lateral abutting move
ment of the web section.
60
.
'7. A continuous building section comprising an
It will now be appreciated that there have been
.
the improvements comprising ?oor and wall 15
hanger members secured to and between spaced
end sections.
improvements comprising ?oor and wall hanger
20 iets on either surface of the units and may ex
members, 300.
.
5. In a building unit as claimed in claim 3,
.
3. A self-supporting building unit comprising
a panel section secured to and spacing end struc
tural sections, the end structural sections being
elements of a composite I-beam construction,
each section being a channel shape having a
65 longitudinal keyway in the base thereof and
adapted to abut like sections of juxtaposed ‘ele
ments and be keyed thereto by common keying
members, the channel sides forming rail sections
or ?at ?anges of the composite 'member, the
70 ?anges of one rail section being adapted to be
engaged and secured by cooperating ?at keying
members, and the other rail ?anges being se
cured to the said panel section.
4. A self-supporting building unit comprising a
panel
section secured to and spacing end struc
75
array of self-supporting building units, each unit
including a single face or panel section secured
to and spacing‘ end structural elements of com 25
posite I-beams, each I-beam element being a
channel shape having a longitudinal keyway in
the base thereof and abutting like sections of
juxtaposed elements and keyed thereto by com
mon keying members, the channel sides forming 30
rail sections or ?at ?anges of the composite mem
ber, the ?anges of one rail section being engaged
and secured by cooperating ?at keying members,
and the other rail ?anges being respectively se
35
cured to unit panel sections.
8. In a building construction of the type de
scribed in claim '7, the improvements comprising
a common wall surfacing over the open faces
of the said assembly of units and secured to and
40
on the end structural members.
9. In a building construction of the type de
scribed in claim 7,the improvements comprising
a common wall surfacing over the open faces of
the said assembly of units and secured to and on
the end structural members, and structural hang
45
er members secured to and on the panel side of
the structural members at ?oor levels and forming
lateral bracing elements for the building units.
10. In a building construction of the type de
scribed in claim 7, the improvements comprising 50
a wall surfacing over the open faces of each
unit of the. said assembly of units and secured
to and on the said structural members, and
structural hanger members secured to and on the
structural members at ?oor levels andv forming
lateral bracing elements for the building units.
11. A continuous building section comprising
an array of self-supporting units, each unit in
cluding a single face or panel section secured to
and spacing end structural elements of compos 60
ite I-beams, each I-beam element being a chan
nel shape having a longitudinal keyway in the
base thereof, ‘a split keying member in each said
keyway and adapted to interlock with like mem
bers of juxtaposed end sections to form composite 65
I-beams, each channel side forming rail sections
or ?at ?anges of the composite member, the
?anges of one rail section being engaged and se
cured by cooperating ?at keying members, nail
able members on the ?at keying members, and 70
floor‘ and wall hanger members secured to the
panel sides of the units.
‘
12. In the construction of claim 11, wall sur
facings secured to and on the nailable members.
GUY FELDI KOTRBATY.
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