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Патент USA US2121078

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June 21, 1938.
J. A. ELM E5
2,121,078
SUPPORTING MECHANISM FOR THE CROWN SHEAVE OF A DRILLING MACHINE
Filed April 16, 1937
2 Sheets-Sheet l
‘ June 21, 1938.
J, A, ELME‘s'
'
2,121,078
SUPPORTING MECHANISM FOR THE CROWN SHEAVE OF A DRILLING MACHINE
Filed April 16, 1937
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2,121,078‘
Patented June 21, 1938
UNITED v‘STATES PATENT OFFICE .
2,121,078
SUPPORTING
SHEAVE OF
MECHANISM
A DRILLING
FOR.
MACHINE
THE‘ CROWN .
John A. Elmes, Beaver Falls, Pa., assignor to
Keystone Driller Company, Beaver Falls, Pa.,
a corporation of Pennsylvania
Application April 16, 1937,“ Serial No. 137,298
10 Claims. (Cl. 254—143)
drilling machine which ‘carries the crown‘sheave
slidewhich is compact in construction and will
readily dissipate the heat generated, and will
stand up under conditions of constant use with
and over which the‘line ‘passes which carries‘ and
out impairment of e?lciency.
This invention relates to a supporting mech
anism for the slide at the top of a derrick of a
‘
5‘ reciprocates the ‘drill used in drilling operations.
It has ‘heretofore been the practice to mount
the crown sheave slide in such manner that it is
vertically slidable longitudinally of the‘der‘r'ick or
mast and supported by heavy compression springs
IO which compress "on reciprocating the drill ‘up
‘Wardly ‘and ‘reduce the amount of vibration of
the machine during drillih‘g‘operat'ion. However,
especially when a steel drill line was employed,
the ‘dropping ‘of the drill caused the ‘drill to
15
bounce, creating slack in the drill line immedi
ately ‘taken up by ‘the__ springs ‘supporting the
crown sheave slide.
Subsequent to this bounce
of "the drill the drill line was placed ‘under tension
by the spudder mechanism, this effecting "a jerk
on the ‘drill line again compressing the springs
supporting the slide. This ‘action-known as a
“double shu'iile”, ‘is highly ‘undesirable in a drill
ing ‘machine as it ‘creates excessive vibration,
‘loosening the partsbf the drilling machine and
25 impairing ‘its efficiency. Where a hemp drill line
‘was employed this ‘effect was not ‘so pronounced
‘as the ‘hemp linejwould‘streteh considerably and
avoid destructive vibrations. With the employ‘:
‘ment “of ‘steel cable as the ‘drill lines the ‘effect
‘of this double'shu?ie was intensi?ed and became
extremely destructive to‘the machine.
‘
“ ‘.[t ‘is the principal ‘object “ot the invention ‘to
‘provide a‘ means for retarding the upward move‘
ment of the crown sheave slide "by ‘its supporting
spring, particularly at the time following‘ vthe
strike of the drill, ‘thereby to ‘reduce ‘the double
Jie‘rk created by the bouncing ‘of the ‘drill.
Another object ‘of the invention is to provide
such ‘retarding means which 'is in the form of a
"hydraulic shock absorber "and is mounted at the
‘upper end of the mastv ‘or derrick‘ close to the
‘
In the accompanying drawings:
‘
‘
Fig. 1 is a fragmentary side elevation ‘of a drill
ing machine having the action of its crown sheave
slide retarded by a mechanism constructed in ac
cordance with my invention.
_
Fig. ‘2 is an enlarged fragmentary rear eleva
tion of the upper end of the telescoping derrick
shown in Fig. 1.“ ‘
‘
‘
.
a
Fig. 3 is a Vertical section, taken on line 3-3,
Fig. 1.
‘
Fig. 4 is a ‘fragmentary vertical section, taken
on line 4_—4, Fig. 2, and
‘
Fig. 5 is a View sii‘nilar to Fig. 4, showing a
modified form of myinve'ntion.
,
The retarding mechanism forming the subject
of my invention maybe used in connection with a
driller of the crawler type, as shown, or with any
other type of either ?xed or portable driller hav
ing a ‘telescoping ‘derrick or mast which carries
‘a crown sheave. The frame and reciprocating
mechanism ‘of the driller can be of any suitable ‘25
construction andis illustrated in fragmentary
'form,-reference being made'to my co-pending ap
plication $91‘. No. 120,422, ?led January 13, 1937,
entitled Tool guides for drilling machines, for a
more detailed showing of theseifeatures.
'
The driller shown comprises a frame indicated
‘generally at H) suitably supported on ‘crawlers in
dicated generally at IIv and ‘carrying an internal
combustion motor (not shown) which propels
the “driller and also furnishes power for the op‘er- T35
ation of the tools. The frame H) includes the
“usual main sills I3, front posts. l4 carrying walk
ing beam guides l5, and braces f6.
‘
i
The telescoping derrick‘ or mast, indicated gene
erally at H, is composed of ‘a loW‘er‘section l8 into ~40
which the upper section I9 is adapted to tele-
‘
scope. The lower section I8 is supported on the
Another object 'of the invention is “to provide carriage ll] of the driller and is preferably ca
such a retarding device which is adapted to be pable of ‘being laid back for convenience in trans
porting the driller, being supported ‘for this pur- :45
45 mounted on the upper section of a telescopic der
rick, the invention including one form in which pose by a ‘pivot shaft 20 suitably secured to the
'derri'c'k and braced by braces 2| and journaled
the shock ‘absorber islocate'd outside of the der
rick and above that portion of the upper section in bearings 22 at the upper ends of the front
telescoping into the lower section and including ipOsts'l-‘l ‘of the frame. The vlower section l8 of
the derrick is preferably of the latticed ladder (50
50 another form in which the shock absorbing de
vice is housed within the ‘derrick itself. By ‘this type, being composed of spaced steel channels 23
connected by welded horizontal and diagonal‘
means the shock absorber does not interfere with
braces‘ (not shown), the upper ends of thechan
the ‘telescoping ‘of the derrick.
Other, objects of ‘the invention are to provide -ne1s 23 being connected by cross ‘bars '24. The
"as such a retarding mechanism for the crown sheave upper telescoping section ‘I 9 of the derrick‘is like 555
‘crown sheave slide.
'
2
2,121,078
wise shown as being made of the latticed ladder
type, having two spaced channels 26, 21 con
nected by welded horizontal and diagonal braces
28 and connected at their upper and lower ends,
respectively, by channels 29 and 36. The upper
section I9 is telescopically received in the lower
section l8 of the derrick and an elevating mech
anism for the upper section I!) is provided. This
elevating mechanism can be of any suitable form
10 and is shown as comprising a series of sheaves
carried by the upper end of the lower section l8
and the lower end of ‘the upper section l9 and
around which a‘ cable 3| passes, the arrangement
of sheaves being such that upon drawing the
15 cable 3| downwardly the upper section 19 is ex
tended. The derrick is shown as being braced by
means of tubular braces, indicated at 32.
At its upper end the derrick carries the usual
crown sheave 35 which is supported by a slide
20 indicated generally at 36. The slide 36 can be
of any suitable construction and is shown as in
cluding lateral extensions 31, 38 at its front and
rear sides which engage and slide along the outer
faces of the ?anges of the channels 26 and 2'!
25 of the upper derrick section. This slide carries a
shaft 39 and the crown sheave 35 is preferably
supported on the shaft 39 by means of an anti
friction bearing 40.
-
The upper section of the derrick is also shown
as carrying at its upper end the usual sand line
sheave 45 which supports the sand line 46 used
for lowering sand pumps or the like into the drill
hole, the other end of this sand line being wound
upon the usual sand reel (not shown).
35
The spudder mechanism for the driller in
cludes a pair of walking beams 50 supported at
their rear ends on the usual rear spudding shaft
(not shown) and carrying at their front ends a
front spudding shaft 5|. The walking beams are
40 guided at their front ends by the walking beam
guides I 5 and each end of the front spudding
shaft 5| is connected by a pitman 52 with a
crank 53, this crank being driven, under suitable
control, to oscillate the walking beam assembly
45 during the spudding operation. The line 54,
usually a steel cable, from the crown sheave 35
lower derrick section when the upper derrick sec
tion I9 is telescoped therein to the maximum
extent; A vertical spring rod 65 is screwed into
the lower end of the slide 36 and extends through
a slideway 66 provided in the supporting plate
63. On the lower end of this rod 65 a nut 61 is
provided, this nut supporting a washer 68 and
a rubber cushioning disk 69.
It will be seen that
the rod 65 limits the upward movement of the
slide 36 and that the rubber disk 69 cushions the
impact of the rod 65.
Without the use of a device retarding the re
turn movement of the springs BI and 62 a double
jerk is imparted to the tool line 54 following the
impact of the tool on the bottom of the drill hole. 15
This double jerk is transmitted to the derrick and
main frame of the driller and is extremely de
structive in its effect. This double jerk is created
by the bounce of the drill. When the drill
bounces the resulting slack created in the tool 20
line 54 is immediately taken up by the compres
sion springs 6| and 62, these springs reacting
to lift the slide 36 and crown sheave 35. Before
load of the tool is again taken by the spudding
mechanism the crank shaft 53 has passed beyond 2.5
dead center and therefore the load of the tool is
picked up by the spudding mechanism with a
jerk which again compresses the springs BI and
62. It will be appreciated that this jerky effect
due to the high speed of reaction of the springs 30
GI and 62 sets up a pronounced vibration in the
machine when the tool is being operated at a
normal rate of, say, 60 reciprocations a minute.
To avoid such destructive vibration the pres
ent invention proposes to employ a shock ab
sorber to retard the rebound of the springs 6|
and 62. In the form of the invention shown in
Figs. 1-4 an outboard shock absorber is provided
and is mounted above the rests 59 so as not to
interfere with the maximum telescoping of the 40
section l9 into the section 23. For this purpose
a bracket 10 is mounted on and projects later
ally from the channel member 26 of the upper
section l9 of the derrick above the rests 59 and
hence on the non-telescoping portion of the der 45
rick section IS. The shock absorber is mounted
passes under a sheave 55 slidingly mounted on
on this bracket 16 and is shown as comprising a
the front spudding shaft 5| and is wound upon
a drum 56 which is used to pay off the line 54
50 as the drilling progresses and is also used to hoist
the drill. The drill 51 is carried at the free end
of the line 54 and is shown as passing through a
cylinder 1| bolted thereto and having a cover 12.
tool guide 58 forming the subject of‘ my said
copending application.
56
The piston of the shock absorber includes two
vanes or wings 13 journaled to rotate about an 50
axis concentric with the cylinder ‘H in cham
bers 15 formed by radial partitions 16 in the
cylinder. The cylinder ‘Il may be grooved or cut
away as indicated at 11 so as to provide a re
The downward movement of the slide 36 is
limited by a pair of rests or stop plates 60 bolted
to the front and rear sides of the channels of
the upper derrick section and the slide is sup
stricted tapering by-‘pass from one side of each 55
piston vane ‘I3 to the other and in addition by
pass ports 18 under control of an adjusting screw
or valve 19 extend from one side of each piston
ported by an outer helical compression spring 6|
to the other, these by-passes and the adjusting
60 and an inner helical compression spring 62.‘ The
lower ends of these springs are supported by a
plate 63 which is mounted on a plurality of ears
64 welded to and projecting outwardly from the
?anges of each of the side channels 26 and 21.
65 These ears 64 are near the dividing line between
the portion of the upper derrick section l9'which
telescopes into the lower derrick section l8 and
that portion of the upper derrick section l9
which does not telescope into the lower derrick
70 section I8 and which carries the crown sheave
and its spring support and retarding mechanism.
This division of the upper section l9 into tele
scoping and non-telescoping sections is obtained
by the provision of a pair of rests 59 which en
75 gage the upper ends of the channels, Z3 01? the
screw providing an adjustment for the effect of 00
the shock absorber. The shaft 80 of the piston
may be formed integrally therewith and is shown
as journaled in the cylinder ‘H and cover 12 and
to the outer end thereof is secured an arm 8|
connected by a drag link 82 to the slide 36, the 65
slide being provided with a boss 83 to which the
upper end of the drag link 82 is pivotally se
cured, as indicated at 84. When the shock ab
sorber is ?lled with a liquid the movement of the
piston in either direction is resisted by the re 70
stricted by-passes 11 and 18, the shock absorber
being of the double acting type.
With the provision of the shock absorber it will
be seen that when the tool 51 bounces on strik
ing the rock at the bottom of the hole the springs 75
31
2,121,078
61 and 62 are not permitted to rebound violently
in taking up this slack but the rebound move
carrying the line which extends from said spud
ment of these springs is cushioned by the shock
the drill, a spring interposed between said crown
sheave slide and derrick and yieldingly support
absorber. By so cushioning the action of these
springs the drill is thereafter picked up by the
spudding mechanism without violence and in
particular the double jerk created by the violent
rebound of the unchecked springs BI and 62 is
in
avoided.
Instead of the outboard shock absorber shown
in Figs. 1-4 it is apparent that the shock absorber
could be housed within the derrick and construct
ed of such form as not to interfere with the tele
scoping of the upper section it). Such'a shock
absorber is illustrated in Fig. 5 in which the rod
65a, corresponding to the rod 65 in the preferred
form, is extended downwardly to provide a pis
ton rod moving axially in a vertical cylinder
Bil. Suitable glands or stu?ing boxes 9! and
92 are provided at each end of the cylinder
around the piston rod 650. and a piston 93 is weld
ed or otherwise suitably secured to the piston rod.
This piston is provided with ports Elli which are
covered by a circular plate 95 resting on the up
per face of the piston. This plate is free to slide
relative to the piston rod and an annular shoul
der 96 is provided on the piston rod for limiting
the upward movement of the plate 95. With this
construction the downward movement of the pis
ton raises the plate 95 and permits the liquid con
tained in the cylinder to pass freely from the
lower side of the piston to the upper side thereof.
On the reverse movement, however, of the piston
der ‘mechanism and over said crown sheave to
ing said slide in an elevated position, a hydraulic
shock absorber mounted on said derrick and
means operatively connecting said hydraulic
shock absorber with said slide to retard the action
of said spring.
2. A' drilling machine, comprising a frame car 10
rying a spudder mechanism, a derrick rising from
said frame, a vertically movable crown sheave
slide at the upper end of said derrick, a crown
sheave carried by said crown sheave slide and
carrying the line which extends from said spud
der mechanism and over said crown sheave to the
drill, a spring interposed between said crown
sheave slide and derrick and yieldingly support
ing said slide in an elevated position, a hydraulic
shock absorber including a liquid ?lled cylinder 20
mounted on said derrick below said slide, a piston
in said cylinder and a connecting member ex
tending downwardly from said slide and opera
tively connected at its lower end to said piston,
said hydraulic shock absorber retarding the action
of said spring.
3. A drilling machine, comprising a frame car
rying a spudder mechanism, a telescopic derrick
including a section rising from said frame and
an upper section having its major portion tele- -
scoping into said lower derrick section, a vertical
ly movable crown sheave slide at the upper end
of said upper derrick section, a crown sheave car
the plate 95 drops down to cover the ports 94 and - ried by said crown sheave slide and carrying the
hence the only ?ow of liquid from one side of the
piston to the other is that which leaks past the
plate '95, ‘this being suf?ciently restricted to prop
"40
erly cushion the rebound action of the springs
9! and 92. It will therefore be seen that the shock
absorber shown in Fig. 5 is of the single acting
type and it will also be appreciated that an ad
justable by-pass could be provided from one side
of the piston to the other to regulate the cush
ioning effect thereof. The shock absorber shown
150
in Fig. 5 is made su?iciently small so as not to
interfere with the telescoping of the upper sec
tion I9 to the rests or ears 64.
From the foregoing it will be seen that both
forms of my invention avoid the double jerk in
herent to the use of a spring supported crown
sheave in a driller employing a steel cable for
supporting the drill and greatly reduces‘ the de
structive vibrations created by such springs in
their rebound movement. Further, by mounting
the shock absorber at the top of the derrick the
assembly is rendered extremely compact and also
by mounting the shock absorber in an outboard
position above the telescoping portion of the up
per “derrick section, as shown in Figs. 1-4, or
60 housed within the derrick, as shown in Fig. 5, the
shock absorber does not interfere with the maxi
mum telescoping of the upper derrick section.
While I have shown a speci?c embodiment of
my invention it will be appreciated that the in
vention is capable of wide modi?cation and the
invention is therefore not to be construed as lim
ited to any particular construction but is to be
iccorded the full range of equivalents compre
hended by the following claims.
70
I claim as my invention:—
line which extends from said spudder mech
anism and over said crown sheave to the drill, a
spring interposed between said crown sheave slide
and upper derrick section and yieldingly sup
porting said slide in an elevated position, a hy
draulic shock absorber mounted on said upper
derrick section and means operatively connect
ing said shock absorber with said slide to retard
the action of said spring.
.
4:. A drilling machine, comprising a frame car
rying a spudder mechanism, a telescopic derrick
including a section rising from said frame and an
upper section having its major portion telescop
ing into said lower derrick section, a vertically
movable crown sheave slide at the upper end of
said upper derrick section, a crown sheave car
ried by said crown sheave slide and carrying the
line which extends from said spudder mechanism
and over‘said crown sheave to the drill, a spring
interposed between said crown sheave slide and
upper derrick section and yieldingly supporting
said slide in an elevated position, a hydraulic
shock absorber mounted on the exterior of said
upper derrick section at a place above its tele
scoping portion and means operatively connect
ing said shock absorber with said slide to retard 00
the action of said spring.
5. A drilling machine, comprising a frame
carrying a spudder mechanism, a telescopic der
rick including a section rising from said frame
and an upper section having its major portion 65
telescoping into said lower derrick section, a ver
tically movable crown sheave slide at the upper
end of said upper derrick section, a crown sheave
carried by said crown sheave slide and carrying
the line which extends from said spudder mecha 70
1. A drilling machine, comprising a frame car
rying a spudder mechanism, a derrick rising from
said frame, a vertically movable crown sheave
nism and over said crown sheave to the drill, a
slide at the upper end of said derrick, a crown
ing said slide in an elevated position, a bracket
75 sheave carried by said crown sheave slide and
spring interposed between said crown sheave slide
and upper derrick section and yieldingly support
projecting outwardly from said upper derrick 75
4
2,121,078
section at a place above its telescoping portion
and a vertical drag link pivotally connecting said
shock absorber with said slide to retard the action
axial'with the major axis of the derrick, a piston
in said cylinder and a coaxial piston rod con
of said spring.
6. A drilling machine, comprising a frame
carrying a spudder mechanism, a telescopic der
being adapted to be ?lled with a liquid to retard
the action of said spring.
9. A drilling machine, comprising a frame
rick including a section rising from said frame
and an upper section having its major portion
telescoping into said lower derrick section, a ver
carrying a spudder mechanism, a telescopic der
rick including a section rising from said frame
'
10 tically movable crown sheave slide at the upper
end of said upper derrick section, a crown sheave
carried by said crown sheave slide and carrying
the line which extends from said spudder mech
anism and over said crown sheave to the drill, a
spring interposed between said crown sheave‘ slide
and upper derrick section and yieldingly sup
porting said slide in an elevated position, a
bracket projecting outwardly from said upper
derrick section at a place above its telescoping
20 portion and below said slide and a vertical drag
link pivotally connecting said shock absorber with
said slide to retard the action of said spring.
'7. A drilling machine, comprising a frame
carrying a spudder mechanism, a derrick rising
from said frame, a vertically movable crown
sheave slide at the upperend of said derrick, a
crown sheave carried by said crown sheave slide
and carrying the line which extends from said
spudder mechanism and over said crown sheave
to the drill, a spring interposed between said
crown sheave slide and derrick and yieldingly
supporting said slide in an elevated position, an
enclosed cylinder mounted on said derrick with
its axis parallel with the line of movement of said
slide, a piston in said cylinder and a vertical pis
ton rod connecting said piston with said slide,
necting said piston with said slide, said cylinder
and an upper section of latticed ladder form
having its major portion telescoping into said 10
lower derrick section, a vertically movable crown
sheave slide at the upper end of said upper der
rick section, a crown sheave carried by said crown
sheave slide and carrying the line which extends
from said spudder mechanism and over said 15
crown sheave to the drill, a spring interposed be
tween said crown sheave slide and upper derrick
section and yieldingly supporting said slide in an
elevated position, an enclosed cylinder mounted
on and housed within said lattice work upper
derrick section below said slide and coaxial with
the major axis of the derrick, a piston in said
cylinder and a coaxial piston rod connecting said
piston with said slide, said cylinder being adapted
to be ?lled with a liquid to retard the action of
said spring.
10. A drilling machine, comprising a frame
carrying a spudder mechanism, a telescopic der
rick including a section rising from said frame
and .an upper section of latticed ladder form
having its major portion telescoping into said
lower derrick section, a vertically movable crown
sheave slide at the upper end of said upper der
rick section, a crown sheave carried by said
crown sheave slide and carrying the line which 35
extends from said spudder mechanism and over
said cylinder being adapted to be ?lled with a
liquid to retard the action of said spring.
said crown sheave to the drill, a spring interposed
8. A drilling machine, comprising a frame
carrying a spudder mechanism, a lattice Work
derrick rising from said frame, a vertically mov
rick section and yieldingly supporting said slide in
able crown sheave slide at the upper end of said
derrisk, a crown sheave carried by said crown
sheave slide and carrying the line which extends
from said spudder mechanism and over said
crown sheave to the drill, a spring interposed
between said crown sheave slide and derrick and
yieldingly supporting said slide in an elevated
position, an enclosed cylinder mounted on and
housed-within said lattice work derrick and co
between said crown sheave slide and upper der
an elevated position, an enclosed cylinder mount 40
ed on and housed within said lattice work upper
derrick section below said spring and slide and
coaxial with the major axis of the derrick, a pis
ton in said cylinder and a coaxial piston rod con
necting said piston with said slide-and extending 45
coaxially through said spring, said cylinder being
adapted to be ?lled with a liquid to retard the
action of said spring.
JOHN A. ELMES.
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