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Патент USA US2121158

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June 2-1, 1938.
N, E, UNDENBLAb
2,121,158
050 ILLAT ION GENERATOR
Original Filed Feb. 21, ‘1955
.
INVENTOR.
'
NILS E. LINDENBLAD
ATTORNEY.
I‘
Patented June 21, 1938
2,121,158 .
.‘UNITED ‘STATES
PATENT OFFICE }
2,121,158
OSOIILATION GENERATOR
Nils E. Lindenblad, Port Jefferson, N. Y., minor
to Radio Corporation ‘of America, a corpora
tion of Delaware
ApplioationFebruary 21, 1935, Serial No. 7.413 ,
Renewed March 8, 1937
24 Claims.
'
(Cl. 250-36)
,
My present invention relates to short wave‘ Kroger, Serial No. 1,489, filed January 12, 1935
oscillation generation and deals particularly with and in F. H.‘ Kroger United States Patent No.
2,077,800, granted ‘April 20, 1037. In addition,
a push-pull line controlled oscillator.
'
Transmission lines consisting of copper tubes
‘5 one half wave length long at a desired operating
frequency have been found admirably suited for
frequency controlling push-pull oscillation gen
erators.
These lines are made linear, as de
scribed in my United States Patent N0.'2,095,990, ,
l0 granted October 19, 1937, or, to conserve space,
have been made U-shaped, as described more
fully in United States Patent _No. 2,095,980,
granted to C. W. Hansell, October 19, 1937. It
is desirable, however, in order to conserve space,
15 to use a shorter line such as a quarter wave length
line for frequency controlling a push-pull oscilla
tion generator. Such an arrangement, without
approaching space limitation, could make use
of a line of relatively larger diameter resulting in
20 an improved power factor of operation which, for
high frequency work, is very desirable.
the line system 2, 4 may be placed within a tem
perature controlled oven, not shown, for render- 5
ing the system still more immune from frequency
variation due to temperature‘ change.
At a suit
able coupling point P at a suitable loading dis
tance from the grounded end G of the line 2, I
place in inductive relation to the tube or line 2 10
the U-shaped loop 8 connected to the grids i0, i2
of vacuum tubes I4, iii.
These tubes are also
provided with anodes I8, 20 and ?laments or
cathodes 24, 22. The cathode circuit is shown
diagrammatically and illustrates the cathodes as ll
being connected together through a resistor 26
grounded at its midpoint by means of a ground
ing connection 28. The anodes I8, 20 are con
nected in phase opposition by means of a parallel
tuned circuit 30 feeding into an output circuit 32.
Modulating potential may be introduced in the
plate lead 34 by means of modulation trans
Accordingly, a primary object of the present
invention is to provide an arrangement wherein
former 36.
a quarter wave length resonant line may gen
' The loop 8 is supported by means of the in
erally be used with various types of push-pull
connected circuits, such as vacuum tubes, and
sulator 38 and passes through the openings 40, 42
of the outer cylinder 4 of the frequency control
more specifically for the frequency control of a
ling line.
push-pull oscillation generator“
'
Brie?y, in carrying into effect this object, I
30 provide apparatus for deriving from a quarter
wave length line voltages of opposite phase which
may be applied to controlling electrodes of a
push-pull tube system. These out of phase volt
ages are derived from the line by means of cou
35 pling circuits which will be described more fully
hereinafter.
'
‘
,
_
In the accompanying drawing, which is purely
illustrative and in no way limitative of my present
invention, Figures 1 and 2 illustrate modi?ca
40 tions wherein out of phase voltages are inductively
obtained from a quarter wave length frequency
controlling line for controlling a push-pull vac
uum tube system, and Figures 3 and 4 are modi
iications making use of serially connected re
actances for obtaining out‘ of phase controlling
voltages.
_
.
'
High, frequency current ?owing longitudinally
along‘the tube or line 2 produces a magnetic field
which cuts the loop 8 in such a way as to produce 30
opposite phase potentials on the grids l0, l2 of
vacuum tubes i4, i6.
'
In the system shown in Figure 2 out of phase
potentials are applied to the grids l0, l2 by means
of the separate loops 40, 42 coupled to the lower 35
portionP of the frequency controlling line 2.
These loops may be tuned, by means of the variable
condensers 44, if desired. By considering the
magnetic ?eld about the line 2, it will be seen that
flux building up and collapsing through the loops 40
40, 42 will cause the application of out of phase
potentials to the grids “I, I2 of the push-pull
connected tubes i4, i8.
‘
As shown in Figure 2, the cathodes 22, 24 are
directly, grounded and energized byv separate 45
sources 50, 52. Grid bias is supplied by means of
Turning to Figure l, the frequency controlling
a grid biasing battery 54. The biasing potential
line 2 consists of a metallic, preferably copper,
tube one quarter wave length long and is housed
50 within the metallic cylinder 4 grounded at 6.
The concentric tubes 2, 4 form a resonant fre
quency controlling line and may be provided with
from the source 54 is fed through the outer me
tallic cylinder 6 which is now above ground D. C.
' means for preventing variations in tuning despite
changes in ambient temperature, as described
more fully in the copending application of F._ H.
potential, but maintained at ground radio fre
quency potential by means‘of bypassing condenser
56, and loops 40, 42 to the grids l0, l2. The anode
circuit of the tubes i4, i6 of Figure 2 includes the
inductive loop 58 which may be provided, if de
sired, with a parallel tuning condenser 80. As
2
2,181,158
the plate potential lead 34 by ‘means of a modula
tion transformer 30 which may introduce waves
of audio frequency, super-audible frequency, or
By the term "odd multiple" as used in the appended claims, it is to be distinctly understood,
is meant any odd multiple including one. Simi
larly, the term "ground” used in the speci?ca
of a low radio frequency, as found desirable or
tion and claims is intended to mean a surface or
useful.
point of zero or relatively ?xed radio frequency
potential. Also the term “one-quarter of a. wave
before, modulating potentials may be fed through
,3
A further modi?cation for obtaining out of
‘phase potentia for controlling a pair of tubes
from a qua
[I wave length line, which by the
way may be ,i/nade an odd multiple of a quarter
wave length/ long when operating at some har
monically related frequency, is‘ shown in Figure
3. conductively connected to the line 2 at point
P are three serially connected reactances, the in
15 ductance coil ‘I0, the condenser 12, and induct
ance coil 14. The far end of coil 14 is grounded
as at ‘I6. The circuit including the section of
line G, P and the reactors 10, 12, ‘I4 is series tuned
at the operating frequency. The grids of the
tubes ll, I6 are connected across the capacitive
velement ‘I2 and hence receive out of phase con
trolling voltages.
In addition, as shown in Figure 3, output en
ergy is taken inductively from the plate circuit
25 50 by means of the inductively associated loop
00. The ?lament circuit consists of a pair of con
ductors 02, 00 supplied with heating potential by
means of the source 00 at voltage nodal points as
shown. This ?lament or cathode circuit may
30 be tuned or adjusted in impedance by adjust
ment of length or by' adjustment of condenser 01
and/or condensers 00, 00.’ Moreover, the ?la
ment circuit of any of the modi?cations shown
herein may take the form such as described in
35 my copending applications Serial No. 603,310,
lengt " is intended to mean a length which is
“electrically” of this length, although it will be
appreciated that in many cases both the physical 10
and electrical length may be the same.
Having thus described my invention, what I
claim is:
1. In combination, a linear element substan
tially one quarter of a wave length long, a pair 15
of vacuum tubes, and means coupling an elec
trode of one tube and a corresponding electrode
of the other tube in phase opposition to one end
'of said element.
-
2'. In combination, a linear element substan 20
tially one-quarter of a wavelength long, a metal
lic tube surrounding said element, a connection
from said metallicv tube to ground, a pair of
vacuum tubes, and means coupling an electrode
of one tube and a corresponding electrode of the 25
other tube in phase opposition to one end of said
element.
3. In combination, a linear element substan
tially one-quarter of a wavelength long, a pair
of vacuum tubes each having a grid, and means 80
coupling said grids in phase opposition to one
end of said element.
4. In combination, a linear element substan
tially one-quarter of a. wavelength long, a metal
lic tube surrounding said element, a connection
from said metallic tube to ground, a pair of vac
?led April‘ 5, 1932, Patent No. 2,052,576, granted
Sept. 1, 1936, and Serial No. 651,809, ?led Janu
uum tubes each having a. grid, and means cou
ary 14, 1933, Patent No. 2,052,888, granted Sep 'pling said grids in phase opposition to one end
tember 1, 1936. Grid bias is provided by means
40 of the leak resistors I00 and a bypassing con
denser I02 may be connected in shunt with the
?lament heating source," as well as across the
?lament ends of the ?lament conductors 02, 84
which act in parallel for high frequency cur
rents, but in series for ?lament heating currents.
In the‘ system shown in Figure 4, the line 2 is
conductively connected at point P to the con
denser I04. Condenser I0‘ is serially connected
to ground 16 through the inductance coil I06 and
condenser I00. The circuit including the sec
tion of line G, ‘P, condenser I04, inductance I00,
and condenser I08 is series resonant or adjusted
to be series resonant at the desired operating fre
quency. Across the grid coil I06, through which
is fed grid biasing potential by means of lead
I I0, out of phase potentials at the operating fre
quency arise and these are fed, as shown, in
phase opposition to the grids i0, I2. The anode
circuit 30 may be of the type shown in Figure 1
and the cathode circuit may include the choke
coils H2 and adjusted in impedance as described
in connection with the cathode circuit of Figure‘
3 by means of condensers 00 and 80.
While my present invention has been described
65 in connection with oscillation generators, it
should be clearly understood that it is not
limited thereto. For example, this method of
connecting a quarter wave length line in phase
of said element.
5. In oscillatory apparatus, a metallic tube 40
substantially one quarter wave length long, means
grounding one end of said tube, a cylinder about
said tube and connected thereto, a pair of vacu
um tubes each having a grid, and means induc
tively coupling said grids to a portion of said 45
metallic tube near its grounded end whereby said
metallic tube produces on said grids potentials
of opposite phase.
6. In oscillatory apparatus, a metallic tube
grounded at one end, a cylinder about and con
nected to said tube. a connection including a
capacitance reactance, and an inductance re
actance connected between a point on said metal
lic tube near its grounded end and ground, a.
pair of vacuum tubes, and means connecting cor 55
responding electrodes of said vacuum tubes across
one of said reactances.
7. Apparatus in accordance with claim 6, char
acterized by the fact that said connection in
cludes, in the order named, the series circuit of
said inductance, said capacitance and another
inductance, and being further characterized by
the fact that grids of said tubes are connected
across said condenser.
8. Apparatus in accordance with claim 6, char 65
acterized by the fact that said connection in
cludes, in the order named, the series circuit of
said capacitance, said inductance and another
opposition to a pair of terminals, represented by
70 the grids in this case, maybe used in other in
stances as, for example, where such a quarter
capacitance, and being further characterized by
wave length line is to be connected to a pair of
terminals acting in phase opposition in a ?lter
circuit, or, for example, in a frequency selective
9. In combination, a. substantially straight, low
loss, frequency determining element in the form
70 ampli?er circuit.
at
the fact that grids of said tubes are connected 70
across said coil.
of a single conductor, a pair of vacuum tubes,
and means coupling an electrode of each of said 75
9,121,168
'
3 .
~
tubes in phase opposition ,to substantially one
cluding a connection from ground to one of
end of said element.
10. In combination, a low loss frequency de
termining element having a relatively large cur
rent conducting surface, a pair of vacuum tubes,
said concentric conductors, and connections from
ground to each of said cathodes, and a tunable
condenser connected across each loop circuit.
and means coupling an electrode of each of said
tially one-quarter of a wavelength long, a metal
tubes in phase opposition to substantially one
_ 17. In combination, a linear element substan
:11
lic tube surrounding said element and. coupled
at one end to said element, a connection from
' end of said surface.
11. In combination, inner and outer concentric
10 conductors conductively coupled together at one
of their adjacent ends, said inner conductor hav
ing a length substantially equal to an odd mul
tiple of one quarter the length of the funda
mental wave, a pair of electron discharge de
15 vices each having an anode, a cathode and a
control electrode, connections coupling corre
sponding electrodes of said devices together, said
said metallic tube to ground, a circuit adapted
tohave instantaneous currents of opposite po 10
larity in two portions thereof, and means coupling
. said two portions of said circuit in phase oppo
sition to said element near said one end.
18. In combination, a resonant concentric line
having an effective length substantially one
quarter of the operating wave, said line consist
ing of an inner conductor and an outer conductor
connection between said control electrodes being . directly connected together at one end, a circuit
so constructed and arranged with respect to said having two conductors adapted to have instan
20 inner conductor that potentials on said inner taneous currents of opposite polarity ?owing
conductor are applied to the control electrode of
one device out of phase with respect to the po
tentials applied to the control electrode of the
other device.
25
'
_
12. In combination, an oscillatory circuit com
. prising inner and outer concentric conductors,
said inner conductor having a length substan
tially equal to one quarter of the length of the
fundamental wave, a connection from groundnto
30 both of said conductors, a pair of electron dis
charge devices_ each having an anode, cathode
and control electrode, connections coupling cor
responding electrodes of said devices together,
said connection between said control electrodes
35 including a reactance having one terminal con
ductively connected to said inner conductor and
the other terminal conductively connected to
ground.
13. A system in accordance with claim 12,
40 characterized in this that the connection be
tween said cathodes is a tuned circuit to whose
nodal points are connected a source of heating
energy.
14. In combination, an, oscillatory circuit com
45 prising inner and outer concentric‘ conductors,
said inner conductor having a length substan
tially equal to one quarter of the length of the
fundamental wave, a connection from ground
to both of said conductors, a pair of electron dis
charge devices each having an anode, cathode
and control electrode, connections coupling cor
responding electrodes of said devices together,
said connection between said control electrodes
including a reactance having one terminal capaci—
tively coupled to said inner conductor and the
other terminal capacitively coupled to ground.
15. An oscillation generator circuitcomprising
in combination a frequency controlling element
in the form of inner and outer concentric con
60
ductorsconductively coupled together at one of
their adjacent ends, said inner conductor hav
ing a length substantially equal to one quarter
of the length of the fundamental wave, a pair
of electron discharge devices connected in push
pull relation, each having a control electrode,
a loop circuit coupling the control electrode of
each tube with said inner conductor in such man
ner as to induce potentials on said electrodes
which are out of phase with respect to each
other, said loop circuits each having a straight
linear portion located adjacent to ‘and extending
parallel to the length of said inner conductor,
whereby the magnetic ?eld around the inner co'n
ductor induces potentials in said loops.
16. A system in accordance with claim 15, in
therein, and means comprising a pair of loops
coupled to said inner conductor in opposite
senses near said one end thereof for coupling
said two conductors in phase opposition to said
[3 Gil
line.
19. In combination, a tuned high frequency
circuit comprising a pair of concentric conductors
coupled together at one of their ends more closely
than at their other ends, a circuit adapted to have
instantaneous currents of opposite polarity in two 30
portions thereof, and means coupling said two
portions in phase opposition to said tuned circuit
near said one end.
-
20. In combination, a tuned high frequency .
circuit comprising a pair of conductors con
35
centrically arranged for at least a portion of
their lengths, said conductors being coupled to
gether at one of their adjacent ends more closely
than at their other ends, a circuit adapted to
have instantaneous currents of opposite polarity 40
in two portions thereof, and means in the space
between said pair of conductors and located
nearer said more closely coupled ends than said
other ends with respect to the centers of said
conductors for coupling said two portions in
phase opposition to said tuned high frequency ,
circuit.
21. In combination, a tuned high frequency cir
cuit comprising a pair of conductors concentri-'
cally arranged for at least a portion of their
lengths, said conductors being coupled together
at one part more closely than at another part, a
circuit adapted to have instantaneous currents
of opposite polarity in two portions thereof, and
means located between said pair of conductors 55
coupling said two portions in phase opposition
to said tuned high frequency circuit, said means
comprising two loops of wire coupled in reverse
phase to the inner conductor of said pair.
22. In combination, a tuned high frequency 60
circuit comprising a pair of conductors con
centrically arranged for at least a portion of their
lengths, said conductors being coupled together
at one part more closely than at another part,
a circuit adapted to have instantaneous currents 65
of opposite polarity in two portions thereof, and
means located between said pair of conductors
coupling said two portions in phase opposition
to said tuned high frequency circuit, said means
comprising a single loop of wire coupled to the 70
inner conductor of said pair near said more
closely coupled part of said tuned high frequency
circuit.
23. In combination, a linear element substan—
tially one-quarter of a wavelength long, a metallic 75
4-v
2,121,1sa
tube surrounding said element and coupled at one
end to said element, a circuit adapted to have
mining circuit comprising outer and inner rela
tively large current conducting surfaces, a pair
instantaneous currents of opposite polarity in two
of vacuum tubes, and means coupling an electrode
portions thereof, and means coupling said . two
of each of said tubes in phase opposition to sub
stantially one end 0! said inner surface.
5 portions of said circuit in phase opposition to said
element near said one end.
a
24. In combination, a low loss frequency deter
NILE E. IJNDENBLAD.
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