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June 2-1, 1938. N, E, UNDENBLAb 2,121,158 050 ILLAT ION GENERATOR Original Filed Feb. 21, ‘1955 . INVENTOR. ' NILS E. LINDENBLAD ATTORNEY. I‘ Patented June 21, 1938 2,121,158 . .‘UNITED ‘STATES PATENT OFFICE } 2,121,158 OSOIILATION GENERATOR Nils E. Lindenblad, Port Jefferson, N. Y., minor to Radio Corporation ‘of America, a corpora tion of Delaware ApplioationFebruary 21, 1935, Serial No. 7.413 , Renewed March 8, 1937 24 Claims. ' (Cl. 250-36) , My present invention relates to short wave‘ Kroger, Serial No. 1,489, filed January 12, 1935 oscillation generation and deals particularly with and in F. H.‘ Kroger United States Patent No. 2,077,800, granted ‘April 20, 1037. In addition, a push-pull line controlled oscillator. ' Transmission lines consisting of copper tubes ‘5 one half wave length long at a desired operating frequency have been found admirably suited for frequency controlling push-pull oscillation gen erators. These lines are made linear, as de scribed in my United States Patent N0.'2,095,990, , l0 granted October 19, 1937, or, to conserve space, have been made U-shaped, as described more fully in United States Patent _No. 2,095,980, granted to C. W. Hansell, October 19, 1937. It is desirable, however, in order to conserve space, 15 to use a shorter line such as a quarter wave length line for frequency controlling a push-pull oscilla tion generator. Such an arrangement, without approaching space limitation, could make use of a line of relatively larger diameter resulting in 20 an improved power factor of operation which, for high frequency work, is very desirable. the line system 2, 4 may be placed within a tem perature controlled oven, not shown, for render- 5 ing the system still more immune from frequency variation due to temperature‘ change. At a suit able coupling point P at a suitable loading dis tance from the grounded end G of the line 2, I place in inductive relation to the tube or line 2 10 the U-shaped loop 8 connected to the grids i0, i2 of vacuum tubes I4, iii. These tubes are also provided with anodes I8, 20 and ?laments or cathodes 24, 22. The cathode circuit is shown diagrammatically and illustrates the cathodes as ll being connected together through a resistor 26 grounded at its midpoint by means of a ground ing connection 28. The anodes I8, 20 are con nected in phase opposition by means of a parallel tuned circuit 30 feeding into an output circuit 32. Modulating potential may be introduced in the plate lead 34 by means of modulation trans Accordingly, a primary object of the present invention is to provide an arrangement wherein former 36. a quarter wave length resonant line may gen ' The loop 8 is supported by means of the in erally be used with various types of push-pull connected circuits, such as vacuum tubes, and sulator 38 and passes through the openings 40, 42 of the outer cylinder 4 of the frequency control more specifically for the frequency control of a ling line. push-pull oscillation generator“ ' Brie?y, in carrying into effect this object, I 30 provide apparatus for deriving from a quarter wave length line voltages of opposite phase which may be applied to controlling electrodes of a push-pull tube system. These out of phase volt ages are derived from the line by means of cou 35 pling circuits which will be described more fully hereinafter. ' ‘ , _ In the accompanying drawing, which is purely illustrative and in no way limitative of my present invention, Figures 1 and 2 illustrate modi?ca 40 tions wherein out of phase voltages are inductively obtained from a quarter wave length frequency controlling line for controlling a push-pull vac uum tube system, and Figures 3 and 4 are modi iications making use of serially connected re actances for obtaining out‘ of phase controlling voltages. _ . ' High, frequency current ?owing longitudinally along‘the tube or line 2 produces a magnetic field which cuts the loop 8 in such a way as to produce 30 opposite phase potentials on the grids l0, l2 of vacuum tubes i4, i6. ' In the system shown in Figure 2 out of phase potentials are applied to the grids l0, l2 by means of the separate loops 40, 42 coupled to the lower 35 portionP of the frequency controlling line 2. These loops may be tuned, by means of the variable condensers 44, if desired. By considering the magnetic ?eld about the line 2, it will be seen that flux building up and collapsing through the loops 40 40, 42 will cause the application of out of phase potentials to the grids “I, I2 of the push-pull connected tubes i4, i8. ‘ As shown in Figure 2, the cathodes 22, 24 are directly, grounded and energized byv separate 45 sources 50, 52. Grid bias is supplied by means of Turning to Figure l, the frequency controlling a grid biasing battery 54. The biasing potential line 2 consists of a metallic, preferably copper, tube one quarter wave length long and is housed 50 within the metallic cylinder 4 grounded at 6. The concentric tubes 2, 4 form a resonant fre quency controlling line and may be provided with from the source 54 is fed through the outer me tallic cylinder 6 which is now above ground D. C. ' means for preventing variations in tuning despite changes in ambient temperature, as described more fully in the copending application of F._ H. potential, but maintained at ground radio fre quency potential by means‘of bypassing condenser 56, and loops 40, 42 to the grids l0, l2. The anode circuit of the tubes i4, i6 of Figure 2 includes the inductive loop 58 which may be provided, if de sired, with a parallel tuning condenser 80. As 2 2,181,158 the plate potential lead 34 by ‘means of a modula tion transformer 30 which may introduce waves of audio frequency, super-audible frequency, or By the term "odd multiple" as used in the appended claims, it is to be distinctly understood, is meant any odd multiple including one. Simi larly, the term "ground” used in the speci?ca of a low radio frequency, as found desirable or tion and claims is intended to mean a surface or useful. point of zero or relatively ?xed radio frequency potential. Also the term “one-quarter of a. wave before, modulating potentials may be fed through ,3 A further modi?cation for obtaining out of ‘phase potentia for controlling a pair of tubes from a qua [I wave length line, which by the way may be ,i/nade an odd multiple of a quarter wave length/ long when operating at some har monically related frequency, is‘ shown in Figure 3. conductively connected to the line 2 at point P are three serially connected reactances, the in 15 ductance coil ‘I0, the condenser 12, and induct ance coil 14. The far end of coil 14 is grounded as at ‘I6. The circuit including the section of line G, P and the reactors 10, 12, ‘I4 is series tuned at the operating frequency. The grids of the tubes ll, I6 are connected across the capacitive velement ‘I2 and hence receive out of phase con trolling voltages. In addition, as shown in Figure 3, output en ergy is taken inductively from the plate circuit 25 50 by means of the inductively associated loop 00. The ?lament circuit consists of a pair of con ductors 02, 00 supplied with heating potential by means of the source 00 at voltage nodal points as shown. This ?lament or cathode circuit may 30 be tuned or adjusted in impedance by adjust ment of length or by' adjustment of condenser 01 and/or condensers 00, 00.’ Moreover, the ?la ment circuit of any of the modi?cations shown herein may take the form such as described in 35 my copending applications Serial No. 603,310, lengt " is intended to mean a length which is “electrically” of this length, although it will be appreciated that in many cases both the physical 10 and electrical length may be the same. Having thus described my invention, what I claim is: 1. In combination, a linear element substan tially one quarter of a wave length long, a pair 15 of vacuum tubes, and means coupling an elec trode of one tube and a corresponding electrode of the other tube in phase opposition to one end 'of said element. - 2'. In combination, a linear element substan 20 tially one-quarter of a wavelength long, a metal lic tube surrounding said element, a connection from said metallicv tube to ground, a pair of vacuum tubes, and means coupling an electrode of one tube and a corresponding electrode of the 25 other tube in phase opposition to one end of said element. 3. In combination, a linear element substan tially one-quarter of a wavelength long, a pair of vacuum tubes each having a grid, and means 80 coupling said grids in phase opposition to one end of said element. 4. In combination, a linear element substan tially one-quarter of a. wavelength long, a metal lic tube surrounding said element, a connection from said metallic tube to ground, a pair of vac ?led April‘ 5, 1932, Patent No. 2,052,576, granted Sept. 1, 1936, and Serial No. 651,809, ?led Janu uum tubes each having a. grid, and means cou ary 14, 1933, Patent No. 2,052,888, granted Sep 'pling said grids in phase opposition to one end tember 1, 1936. Grid bias is provided by means 40 of the leak resistors I00 and a bypassing con denser I02 may be connected in shunt with the ?lament heating source," as well as across the ?lament ends of the ?lament conductors 02, 84 which act in parallel for high frequency cur rents, but in series for ?lament heating currents. In the‘ system shown in Figure 4, the line 2 is conductively connected at point P to the con denser I04. Condenser I0‘ is serially connected to ground 16 through the inductance coil I06 and condenser I00. The circuit including the sec tion of line G, ‘P, condenser I04, inductance I00, and condenser I08 is series resonant or adjusted to be series resonant at the desired operating fre quency. Across the grid coil I06, through which is fed grid biasing potential by means of lead I I0, out of phase potentials at the operating fre quency arise and these are fed, as shown, in phase opposition to the grids i0, I2. The anode circuit 30 may be of the type shown in Figure 1 and the cathode circuit may include the choke coils H2 and adjusted in impedance as described in connection with the cathode circuit of Figure‘ 3 by means of condensers 00 and 80. While my present invention has been described 65 in connection with oscillation generators, it should be clearly understood that it is not limited thereto. For example, this method of connecting a quarter wave length line in phase of said element. 5. In oscillatory apparatus, a metallic tube 40 substantially one quarter wave length long, means grounding one end of said tube, a cylinder about said tube and connected thereto, a pair of vacu um tubes each having a grid, and means induc tively coupling said grids to a portion of said 45 metallic tube near its grounded end whereby said metallic tube produces on said grids potentials of opposite phase. 6. In oscillatory apparatus, a metallic tube grounded at one end, a cylinder about and con nected to said tube. a connection including a capacitance reactance, and an inductance re actance connected between a point on said metal lic tube near its grounded end and ground, a. pair of vacuum tubes, and means connecting cor 55 responding electrodes of said vacuum tubes across one of said reactances. 7. Apparatus in accordance with claim 6, char acterized by the fact that said connection in cludes, in the order named, the series circuit of said inductance, said capacitance and another inductance, and being further characterized by the fact that grids of said tubes are connected across said condenser. 8. Apparatus in accordance with claim 6, char 65 acterized by the fact that said connection in cludes, in the order named, the series circuit of said capacitance, said inductance and another opposition to a pair of terminals, represented by 70 the grids in this case, maybe used in other in stances as, for example, where such a quarter capacitance, and being further characterized by wave length line is to be connected to a pair of terminals acting in phase opposition in a ?lter circuit, or, for example, in a frequency selective 9. In combination, a. substantially straight, low loss, frequency determining element in the form 70 ampli?er circuit. at the fact that grids of said tubes are connected 70 across said coil. of a single conductor, a pair of vacuum tubes, and means coupling an electrode of each of said 75 9,121,168 ' 3 . ~ tubes in phase opposition ,to substantially one cluding a connection from ground to one of end of said element. 10. In combination, a low loss frequency de termining element having a relatively large cur rent conducting surface, a pair of vacuum tubes, said concentric conductors, and connections from ground to each of said cathodes, and a tunable condenser connected across each loop circuit. and means coupling an electrode of each of said tially one-quarter of a wavelength long, a metal tubes in phase opposition to substantially one _ 17. In combination, a linear element substan :11 lic tube surrounding said element and. coupled at one end to said element, a connection from ' end of said surface. 11. In combination, inner and outer concentric 10 conductors conductively coupled together at one of their adjacent ends, said inner conductor hav ing a length substantially equal to an odd mul tiple of one quarter the length of the funda mental wave, a pair of electron discharge de 15 vices each having an anode, a cathode and a control electrode, connections coupling corre sponding electrodes of said devices together, said said metallic tube to ground, a circuit adapted tohave instantaneous currents of opposite po 10 larity in two portions thereof, and means coupling . said two portions of said circuit in phase oppo sition to said element near said one end. 18. In combination, a resonant concentric line having an effective length substantially one quarter of the operating wave, said line consist ing of an inner conductor and an outer conductor connection between said control electrodes being . directly connected together at one end, a circuit so constructed and arranged with respect to said having two conductors adapted to have instan 20 inner conductor that potentials on said inner taneous currents of opposite polarity ?owing conductor are applied to the control electrode of one device out of phase with respect to the po tentials applied to the control electrode of the other device. 25 ' _ 12. In combination, an oscillatory circuit com . prising inner and outer concentric conductors, said inner conductor having a length substan tially equal to one quarter of the length of the fundamental wave, a connection from groundnto 30 both of said conductors, a pair of electron dis charge devices_ each having an anode, cathode and control electrode, connections coupling cor responding electrodes of said devices together, said connection between said control electrodes 35 including a reactance having one terminal con ductively connected to said inner conductor and the other terminal conductively connected to ground. 13. A system in accordance with claim 12, 40 characterized in this that the connection be tween said cathodes is a tuned circuit to whose nodal points are connected a source of heating energy. 14. In combination, an, oscillatory circuit com 45 prising inner and outer concentric‘ conductors, said inner conductor having a length substan tially equal to one quarter of the length of the fundamental wave, a connection from ground to both of said conductors, a pair of electron dis charge devices each having an anode, cathode and control electrode, connections coupling cor responding electrodes of said devices together, said connection between said control electrodes including a reactance having one terminal capaci— tively coupled to said inner conductor and the other terminal capacitively coupled to ground. 15. An oscillation generator circuitcomprising in combination a frequency controlling element in the form of inner and outer concentric con 60 ductorsconductively coupled together at one of their adjacent ends, said inner conductor hav ing a length substantially equal to one quarter of the length of the fundamental wave, a pair of electron discharge devices connected in push pull relation, each having a control electrode, a loop circuit coupling the control electrode of each tube with said inner conductor in such man ner as to induce potentials on said electrodes which are out of phase with respect to each other, said loop circuits each having a straight linear portion located adjacent to ‘and extending parallel to the length of said inner conductor, whereby the magnetic ?eld around the inner co'n ductor induces potentials in said loops. 16. A system in accordance with claim 15, in therein, and means comprising a pair of loops coupled to said inner conductor in opposite senses near said one end thereof for coupling said two conductors in phase opposition to said [3 Gil line. 19. In combination, a tuned high frequency circuit comprising a pair of concentric conductors coupled together at one of their ends more closely than at their other ends, a circuit adapted to have instantaneous currents of opposite polarity in two 30 portions thereof, and means coupling said two portions in phase opposition to said tuned circuit near said one end. - 20. In combination, a tuned high frequency . circuit comprising a pair of conductors con 35 centrically arranged for at least a portion of their lengths, said conductors being coupled to gether at one of their adjacent ends more closely than at their other ends, a circuit adapted to have instantaneous currents of opposite polarity 40 in two portions thereof, and means in the space between said pair of conductors and located nearer said more closely coupled ends than said other ends with respect to the centers of said conductors for coupling said two portions in phase opposition to said tuned high frequency , circuit. 21. In combination, a tuned high frequency cir cuit comprising a pair of conductors concentri-' cally arranged for at least a portion of their lengths, said conductors being coupled together at one part more closely than at another part, a circuit adapted to have instantaneous currents of opposite polarity in two portions thereof, and means located between said pair of conductors 55 coupling said two portions in phase opposition to said tuned high frequency circuit, said means comprising two loops of wire coupled in reverse phase to the inner conductor of said pair. 22. In combination, a tuned high frequency 60 circuit comprising a pair of conductors con centrically arranged for at least a portion of their lengths, said conductors being coupled together at one part more closely than at another part, a circuit adapted to have instantaneous currents 65 of opposite polarity in two portions thereof, and means located between said pair of conductors coupling said two portions in phase opposition to said tuned high frequency circuit, said means comprising a single loop of wire coupled to the 70 inner conductor of said pair near said more closely coupled part of said tuned high frequency circuit. 23. In combination, a linear element substan— tially one-quarter of a wavelength long, a metallic 75 4-v 2,121,1sa tube surrounding said element and coupled at one end to said element, a circuit adapted to have mining circuit comprising outer and inner rela tively large current conducting surfaces, a pair instantaneous currents of opposite polarity in two of vacuum tubes, and means coupling an electrode portions thereof, and means coupling said . two of each of said tubes in phase opposition to sub stantially one end 0! said inner surface. 5 portions of said circuit in phase opposition to said element near said one end. a 24. In combination, a low loss frequency deter NILE E. IJNDENBLAD.