Патент USA US2121204код для вставки
Pasta time at, 1938 ' 2,121,204 ,_ artiste . . all Edward! P. Lans'worthy, Rochester, N. K, assign or to Ecariiim Metals 'Corporationr Rochester, M. ‘iii, a coration at New Yon-la , No Drawing. Application Novenaher lit, i936, gestalt No. lllhtlill l ?laiml WE. ‘is-ass) This invention relates to an antiiriction metal, termlnecl in accordance with the physical char- _ proposing an alloy suitable for suhstantiallv uni acteristics of the parts which contact with, and , versal application as a hearing metal and having which are movable relatively to, the said metal. components which will readily unite in ‘such pro? A still further object is to provide a hearing 5 portions as may be most suitable for each par metal which will prevent excessive wearing or 5 ticular use. scoring oi’ the shaft or other associated part in Heretofore, tin has been considered as one oi’ the event that there is a failure in the supply of the essential components of alloys of the, char-' the lubricating medium to the‘ cooperating sur acter generally described, When'emplovecl in it) relatively small quantities, i. e. less than 1?%, this metal will, if other factors (which are vari able and olimcult of control) are favorable, unite with the other components to form a solid solu-'» tion. However, if a percentage of tin greater ‘ than the order of 10% be employed,‘ the tin ‘will he thrown out of solution as the mixture cools and will unite with one of the components to form ‘a substance 'whlch‘in many respects is similar to 'a eutectold alloy; For example, when copper is 20 one of the components the excess tin combines .with it, the substance thus produced heme so much harderthan the matrix metal that it is unsuitable for the purpose in view. The meal _ mum percentage of tin which can he employed N) or'= without the formation’ oi‘ such- a substance is variable, depending, anions other factors, upon the elements which form the alloy, the tempera ture at which the molten metal is poured and the - rate at which it is permitted to cool. The per~ 30 centaae of tin necessary to impart the olesired ‘ properties to the alloy may he, however, and in many instances is, substantially areatee than ttiotwhich will remain in solution. in such cases. ‘oi course, a lower percentage oi tin than is cle» 35 sirahie must be employed. Un the other hand, the percentage of tin requireol may he within ‘a .. tense in which it is impossible, without perform ins tests,‘ to detene whether all oi’ it will re— main in solution. Tin, therefore, is satisfactory to only when the proportion which is necesisarp in impart the tiesirecl. properties to the alloy is less faces. . The invention contemplates a hearing metal 10 consisting of copper, lead and nickel in the fol lowing proportions: copper from 45% to 77%;. leaa from 20% to 35%; and nickel from 3% to 15%. - The specific percentage selected in each of the 15 ranses noted is determined by the environment in which the metal is to he used, it being pre terreo that the hearing metal in each case be slightly softer than the metal of the shaft or other part which is to be associated with it in 20 order that if the friction between the parts he comes excessive, owing to a failure in the supply or theluhricatine medium to the cooperating sur faces, or for any other reason, the hearing metal will take up the increased wear, thereby prevent- 25 inc illgawy to the said shaft or other part. llfhe alloy is rendered softer by increasing‘ the per centage of lead or lay decreasing the percentage of nickel, or both, and is rendered‘. harder by de creasing the percentage of lead or increasing the 30. percentage of nickel, or both. assuming, for en: ample, that the alloy which is to he produced is to he formed into hearings for shaits of relatively soft eteeLthe percentage of lead which is selecteol will he near the upper limit of the range indié 35 sated. The percentage oi nickel, although rela— tively low, will he as high as is permissible, the greater part oi the desired degree of softness“ preferably helm; attained, when this is possible, by the use oi‘ a high percentage of leati rather to than by a low percentage of niche} in ‘order that than that at, or shove, which the tiny will he > the adhesive characteristic of the copper will he . , 7 counteracted while the antifrictional properties‘ The principal object oi’ the invention is to over~ of the alloy will he substantially increased. a v 45 come the above objections, this ohiect content» . relatively high percentage oi nickel has the ad» to plating an alloy of the character generally ole~ vantase that the compression and tensile strength scribed which :loes not involve the use of tin and of the alloy are correspondingly high. On the wherein each component will reaoiip term a other ha'ncl, if the alloy which is to be produced union with the remaining components through -' is to he formeol into hearings for shafts of rela 50 out the entire range of proportions which may he tively hard steel the percentages oi the alloy com- so necessary to modify the cacterlsitic properties ponents are selected so that the metal of the hear of the alloy in new]: with the particular inns will be relatively hard, although slightlyr environment under which it is to he employed. softer than that of said shafts, it being preferred it. further object is to proviile a. hep metal that, it possible, the greater part oi.’ the increase to whose comments, as to proportio, are c» in hardness oi the alloy be attained; in such case so thrown out of solution. 0 2,121,204 by increasing the nickel content rather than be decreasing the lead content in order‘ to retain in as large a degree as possible the high anti-fric tional properties inherent in the lead. It will be apparent from the foregoing that the invention contemplates a bearing metal having components which may be used in such propor tions as will insure an alloy which will be rela tively softer than the shaft or other part with 10 which it is to be employed. It is preferred, how ever, that in each case the bearing metal be only marred, if any are scored or marred, will be those } provided by the bearing metal. The alloy may be produced in any suitable maner. The preferred practice is to heat in a crucible, or otherwise, ingots having a copper content of 50% and a nickel content of 50% to gether with copper which is added in an amount which will bring the total copper content of the mixture up to the desired percentage. After the ingots and added copper have melted they form 10 a solution, the copper being the solvent and the nickel the solute. The lead, preferably molten and substantially pure, is then introduced into lected so that the softness, or hardness, of the the crucible, it being understood that the lead bearing metal is correlated to that of the said may, if desired, be introduced in a solid state. 15 shaft or other part. As each component of the The lead is not in solution but is in suspension, bearing metal described will readily unite with the particles thereof being uniformly dispersed throughout the molten solution and being as the others in amounts which will enable the at tainment of this end, maximum compression and sisted incidentally by the nickel in maintaining 20 their positions in the solution. 20 tensile strength and high antifrictional proper I claim as my invention: Y slightly softer than such shaft or other part, the proportions of the alloy components being se-_ ties are insured for each environment of use, The bearing metal has‘ the further advantage vthat scoring or marring ‘of the shaft or other as sociated part will be prevented even though there 25 may be a failure in the supply of the medium which is utilized to lubricate the cooperating sur » faces. If for this reason, or for any other reason, the friction between the cooperating surfaces be comes excessive the only surfaces scored or An alloy for providing a bearing which is capa ble of preventing excessive wearing or scoring of the shaft or other associated part in the absence of a lubricating medium, said alloy containing 25 45% to ‘77% copper, 20% to 35% lead and 3% to 15% nickel, the sum of the percentages of cop per, ieadgand nickel equaling substantially 100%. EDWARD P. LANGWORTHY.