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Патент USA US2121204

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Pasta time at, 1938
' 2,121,204
Edward! P. Lans'worthy, Rochester, N. K, assign
or to Ecariiim Metals 'Corporationr Rochester,
M. ‘iii, a coration at New Yon-la
No Drawing. Application Novenaher lit, i936,
gestalt No. lllhtlill
l ?laiml WE. ‘is-ass)
This invention relates to an antiiriction metal, termlnecl in accordance with the physical char- _
proposing an alloy suitable for suhstantiallv uni
acteristics of the parts which contact with, and
, versal application as a hearing metal and having which are movable relatively to, the said metal.
components which will readily unite in ‘such pro?
A still further object is to provide a hearing
5 portions as may be most suitable for each par
which will prevent excessive wearing or 5
ticular use.
scoring oi’ the shaft or other associated part in
Heretofore, tin has been considered as one oi’ the event that there is a failure in the supply of
the essential components of alloys of the, char-' the lubricating medium to the‘ cooperating sur
acter generally described, When'emplovecl in
it) relatively small quantities, i. e. less than 1?%,
this metal will, if other factors (which are vari
able and olimcult of control) are favorable, unite
with the other components to form a solid solu-'»
tion. However, if a percentage of tin greater
‘ than the order of 10% be employed,‘ the tin ‘will
he thrown out of solution as the mixture cools
and will unite with one of the components to form
‘a substance 'whlch‘in many respects is similar to
'a eutectold alloy; For example, when copper is
20 one of the components the excess tin combines
.with it, the substance thus produced heme so
much harderthan the matrix metal that it is
unsuitable for the purpose in view. The meal
_ mum percentage of tin which can he employed
N) or'= without the formation’ oi‘ such- a substance is
variable, depending, anions other factors, upon
the elements which form the alloy, the tempera
ture at which the molten metal is poured and the
- rate at which it is permitted to cool.
The per~
30 centaae of tin necessary to impart the olesired
properties to the alloy may he, however, and in
many instances is, substantially areatee than
ttiotwhich will remain in solution. in such cases.
‘oi course, a lower percentage oi tin than is cle»
35 sirahie must be employed. Un the other hand,
the percentage of tin requireol may he within ‘a
.. tense in which it is impossible, without perform
ins tests,‘ to detene whether all oi’ it will re—
main in solution. Tin, therefore, is satisfactory
to only when the proportion which is necesisarp in
impart the tiesirecl. properties to the alloy is less
The invention contemplates a hearing metal 10
consisting of copper, lead and nickel in the fol
lowing proportions: copper from 45% to 77%;.
leaa from 20% to 35%; and nickel from 3% to
The specific percentage selected in each of the 15
ranses noted is determined by the environment
in which the metal is to he used, it being pre
terreo that the hearing metal in each case be
slightly softer than the metal of the shaft or
other part which is to be associated with it in 20
order that if the friction between the parts he
comes excessive, owing to a failure in the supply
or theluhricatine medium to the cooperating sur
faces, or for any other reason, the hearing metal
will take up the increased wear, thereby prevent- 25
inc illgawy to the said shaft or other part. llfhe
alloy is rendered softer by increasing‘ the per
centage of lead or lay decreasing the percentage
of nickel, or both, and is rendered‘. harder by de
creasing the percentage of lead or increasing the 30.
percentage of nickel, or both. assuming, for en:
ample, that the alloy which is to he produced is
to he formed into hearings for shaits of relatively
soft eteeLthe percentage of lead which is selecteol
will he near the upper limit of the range indié 35
sated. The percentage oi nickel, although rela—
tively low, will he as high as is permissible, the
greater part oi the desired degree of softness“
preferably helm; attained, when this is possible,
by the use oi‘ a high percentage of leati rather to
than by a low percentage of niche} in ‘order that
than that at, or shove, which the tiny will he > the adhesive characteristic of the copper will he
7 counteracted while the antifrictional properties‘
The principal object oi’ the invention is to over~ of the alloy will he substantially increased. a v
45 come the above objections, this ohiect content» . relatively high percentage oi nickel has the ad» to
plating an alloy of the character generally ole~ vantase that the compression and tensile strength
scribed which :loes not involve the use of tin and of the alloy are correspondingly high. On the
wherein each component will reaoiip term a other ha'ncl, if the alloy which is to be produced
union with the remaining components through -' is to he formeol into hearings for shafts of rela
50 out the entire range of proportions which may he tively hard steel the percentages oi the alloy com- so
necessary to modify the cacterlsitic properties ponents are selected so that the metal of the hear
of the alloy in new]:
with the particular inns will be relatively hard, although slightlyr
environment under which it is to he employed.
softer than that of said shafts, it being preferred
it. further object is to proviile a. hep metal that, it possible, the greater part oi.’ the increase
to whose comments, as to proportio, are
c» in hardness oi the alloy be attained; in such case so
thrown out of solution.
by increasing the nickel content rather than be
decreasing the lead content in order‘ to retain in
as large a degree as possible the high anti-fric
tional properties inherent in the lead.
It will be apparent from the foregoing that the
invention contemplates a bearing metal having
components which may be used in such propor
tions as will insure an alloy which will be rela
tively softer than the shaft or other part with
10 which it is to be employed. It is preferred, how
ever, that in each case the bearing metal be only
marred, if any are scored or marred, will be those }
provided by the bearing metal.
The alloy may be produced in any suitable
maner. The preferred practice is to heat in a
crucible, or otherwise, ingots having a copper
content of 50% and a nickel content of 50% to
gether with copper which is added in an amount
which will bring the total copper content of the
mixture up to the desired percentage. After the
ingots and added copper have melted they form 10
a solution, the copper being the solvent and the
nickel the solute. The lead, preferably molten
and substantially pure, is then introduced into
lected so that the softness, or hardness, of the the crucible, it being understood that the lead
bearing metal is correlated to that of the said may, if desired, be introduced in a solid state. 15
shaft or other part. As each component of the The lead is not in solution but is in suspension,
bearing metal described will readily unite with the particles thereof being uniformly dispersed
throughout the molten solution and being as
the others in amounts which will enable the at
tainment of this end, maximum compression and sisted incidentally by the nickel in maintaining
their positions in the solution.
20 tensile strength and high antifrictional proper
I claim as my invention:
slightly softer than such shaft or other part, the
proportions of the alloy components being se-_
ties are insured for each environment of use,
The bearing metal has‘ the further advantage
vthat scoring or marring ‘of the shaft or other as
sociated part will be prevented even though there
25 may be a failure in the supply of the medium
which is utilized to lubricate the cooperating sur
» faces. If for this reason, or for any other reason,
the friction between the cooperating surfaces be
comes excessive the only surfaces scored or
An alloy for providing a bearing which is capa
ble of preventing excessive wearing or scoring of
the shaft or other associated part in the absence
of a lubricating medium, said alloy containing 25
45% to ‘77% copper, 20% to 35% lead and 3%
to 15% nickel, the sum of the percentages of cop
per, ieadgand nickel equaling substantially 100%.
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