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Патент USA US2121209

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June 21, 1938.
w. F. MOORE
'
2,121,209
TREATMENT OF‘ HYDROCARBON OIL
Filed April 19, 1933
163
INVENTOR
'
' W/LLHM E MOORE
Btwww. 7%
128
'
-
Y
ATTORNEY
2,121,209
Patented June 21, 1938
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,121,209
'
TREATMENT‘ or nrnnoomon on.
William F. Moore, Bayside, N. Y., as‘sig-nor to
Gasoline Products Company, Inc., Newark,
'N. J., a corporation of Delaware
'
Application April 19, 1933, Serial No. 666,801
.5 Claims.“ (01. 196-49)
This inventionv relates to they treatment of
hydrocarbon oil, such as petroleum and oils de
rived from petroleum, for the recovery there
from of valuable low-boiling oils such as gaso
5 line- or motor fuel. My invention has for an
object the provisionpf a process adapted to ob
distillation under substantially non-cracking con
ditions, the products being separated and frac
tionated to recover a residual product or reduced
crude, gas oil, virgin gasoline and gas, as well as
such addition fractions, for example, lubricating
oil stocks, as may 'be ‘produced according to the
tain a maximum conversion of, a petroleum oil‘ nature of the original crude petroleum. Accord
' into valuable products more especially low-boil
ing to one method of operation of my invention
ing products such as gasoline or motor fuel, and , the virgin gas oil may then be cracked for the
10 to produce reduced amounts of \ relatively less
purpose of recovering a cracked gasoline frac 10
valuable products such as gas and fuel oil or > tion, gases, recycle gas oil, and residual oil or
tar.
pressure tar, 'The gas oil thus produced may be
My invention has for further objects such addi
tional improvements in operative advantages and
15 results as may hereinafter be found to obtain.
My invention contemplates a combined process
wherein a petroleum oil, for example, a crude
petroleum, may be distilled, with the selective
7 treatment of various products of the ‘distillation,
'20 including pyrolysis or cracking of a suitable stock
or stocks resulting from the distillation step,
and further selective treatment and combination,
under conditions favorable for inter-reaction and
the formation of valuable products, of products
0 produced in the distilling and. cracking opera
tions, as well as materials such as gas or oil
which may be drawn from outside sources. ‘
More speci?cally, in one of its aspects my in
vention contemplates the reforming of gasoline
or naphtha of relatively low anti-knock value
to produce a gasoline or naphtha product of im- H
recycled in the cracking unit. The virgin gas
oline from the initial distillation step may then
be subjected to heat treatment to effect a refor 15
mation of constituents thereof to constituents of
improved anti-knock value, while the reduced
crude resulting from the initial distillation op
eration may be subjected to a mild cracking
temperature which may promote the formation
‘of unsaturated or other reaction constituents,
and the hot reformed products together with
the products from the cracking of the reduced
crude may be discharged into a common reac
tion zone which may also receive gases drawn 2
from the distillation or cracking stages or from~
outside sources, either with or without pyrolysis
at high temperature to promote the formation
of unsaturated hydrocarbon constituents.
' v'I'he various products delivered to the common
reaction zone are- digested together under con- ,
proved anti-knock value and the combining of
the resultant products with relatively heavy pe
troleum oil, preferably a residual oil, and prefer
ably ‘a hydrocarbon oil containing reactive constit
uents, such, for example, as unsaturated hydro
'ditions favorable for inter-reaction between gas
eous and liquid unsaturated hydrocarbons or
carbons, in the presence of gaseous unsaturated
gaseous constituents to normally liquid constit
hydrocarbons such as ole?ns, resulting from the
reformation ofthe naphtha or gasoline or de
40 rived from an external'source, under conditions
other reactive constituents, and preferably with
in a range of temperature and‘pressure e?ec
35
tive to promote the polymerization of normally 4
uents. The resultant vapors may then be with
drawn and fractionated to recover ‘normally
effective to promote polymerization of normally
gaseous constituents to normally liquid constitu
ents. ,The conditions under which the combine--v
liquid and normally gaseous products therefrom, 40
more particularly, to effect the recovery of the
gasoline or naphtha fraction.
As an alternative mode of ‘procedure, I may
tion is effected are so controlled as to cause
subjectthe reduced crude or residual oil result
45 inter-reaction to take place between the gaseous ing from the initial ‘distillation step, together 45
products of the reforming operation, as well‘ as, with virgin gas oil, if so desired, to a cracking
_ when-they are present, gaseous unsaturated hy
operation of more or less conventional character
drocarbons from outside sources, and relatively for the purpose of producing a cracked gasoline
heavy liquid "constituents also present, thereby
resulting in the formation of more or less inter
distillate, and the various products resulting
from the cracking operation, such, forexample,
mediate products such as motor fuel, naphtha or ' as gas and residual oil or pressure tar may be
gasoline or _oil suitable for cracking to produce
combined in a common reaction zone, either with
motor fuel or gasoline having an improved anti
or without preliminary treatment under selected
knock value.
conditions to promote the formation of reactive
_
Thus, I may subject a crude petroleum to
constituents such as unsaturated hydrocarbons.
50'
2
2,121,209
In any case, I may conduct a cracking opera
tion in such manner as to recover, in addition
to a light cracked gasoline distillate, a heavy
gasoline or naphtha fraction suitable for reform
Cl ing, and I may subject this heavy gasoline frac
tion to a reforming operation for the purpose of
increasing its anti-knock value and its content
of unsaturated hydrocarbons, the resultant re
formed products being delivered to a reaction
10 Vessel which is supplied with a ‘relatively heavy
petroleum oil of the character'indicated herein
above. The resultant vapors are withdrawn and
fractionated for the recovery of normally liquid
\ constituents therefrom.
I may also supply the gases liberated in the
distilling stage, preferably supplemented by gases.
drawn from the cracking stage or from an out
side source, to the aforesaid reaction stage, and
where such gases contain relatively small
amounts of unsaturated constituents, they may
be subjected to an initial pyrolysis for the pur
pose of producing or increasing the amount of
unsaturated
hydrocarbons
such
as
gaseous
ole?ns.
25
In order that my invention may be clearly set
forth and understood, I now describe, with ref
erence to the drawing accompanying and form
ing part of this speci?cation, various preferred
forms and manners in which my invention may
30 be practiced and embodied, but without limiting
my invention to such exempli?cations.
In this
drawing:
The single ?gure is a more or less diagram
matic view of a system for treating hydrocarbon
35 oil in accordance with my invention.
Referring to the drawing, a petroleum oil,
such, for example as a crude petroleum of Mid
continent origin, is drawn from a source (not
shown) through a conduit I, wherein is located
a pump 2, by means of which the oil may be
passed to a heat-exchange coil 3 located Within
a fractionating tower 4, before passing through a
conduit 5 to heating coils 6 and 'I located within
a furnace 8.
While in transit through the coils 6 and I, the
45
oil is heated to a su?icient temperature to effect
the desired distillation, such for example, as
from 600° to 750° F., and the heating of the oil
may with advantage be conducted without any
'50
material cracking. The heated oil then ?ows
through a line 9 having a pressure-reducing valve
In to a separating compartment II located in
the bottom of the fractionating tower 4. The
separating compartment I I may be provided with
55 suitable ba?ies I2, as well as a re?ux supply line
I3, for the purpose of preventing entrainment-of
heavy or residual constituents of the oil being
distilled. The vapors liberated in the separating
compartment; II pass upward through a trap
60 out tray I4 into the upper portion of the frac
of virgin gasoline, is withdrawn through a con
duit 21 having a valve 28.
A portion of the gas oil withdrawn from the
trap-out tray I4 may be employed as a re?ux
either in the tower 4 or elsewhere. Thus, a
portion of this gas oil may be withdrawn through
a branch conduit 3| having a, valve 32 and com7
municating with the conduit I6, to pass through
a cooler 33 and‘a conduit 34 having a valve 35,
to the re?ux line I3, by means of which this 10
oil may be reintroduced into the separating
chamber II.
The virgin gas oil not employed as a re?ux
may be delivered by the pump I8 through a con
duit 36 having a valve 31, while the residual
oil or reduced crude which separates in the bot
tom of the separating compartment II may be
withdrawn therefrom from a conduit 38 wherein
is located a pump 39.
In the drawing, I have illustrated a cracking 20
plant comprising principally a furnace M, a still
42 and a fractionating tower 43, which plant
may be employed for cracking either virgin gas
oil or reduced crude, or both. Thus, the virgin
gas oil may be delivered by the pump I8 through 25
conduits I6, 36, 44 and 45 to heating coils 46,
41 and 48 located within the furnace 4I, wherein
the gas oil is heated to any suitable cracking
temperature such, for example, as from 850° to
1050° F. under such superatmospheric pressure 30
as may be desired. When using a very clean
~stock the cracking may be carried on in the
vapor phase.
The resultant hot cracked prod
ucts are then discharged through a transfer-line
5| to the still 42, which may receive reduced 35
crude from the pump 39 and conduit 38 through
a branch conduit 52 having a valve 53 and lead
ing to-an intermediate portion of the still 42.
The still 42 may be provided, as shown, with
ba?ies 54 and may also receive cool re?ux oil, 40
preferably at a point above the point of admis
sion of the reduced crude thereto. For example,
such re?ux oil may be supplied from the pump
I8 and the cooler 33 through a conduit 55 having
a valve 56.
Within the still 42, separation of vapors and
residual oil takes place, the vapors passing
through a vapor line 51 to the fractionating
tower 43, while the residual liquid is withdrawn
from the bottom of the still 42 through a conduit
58 wherein is located a pump 59 and a valve 60.
In some instances, as for example when reduced
crude is not charged to the still 42, it may be
desirable to withdraw the residual oil or pressure
tar from the bottom of the still 42 to remove it
from‘ the system. In other instances, such re
sidual oil may be withdrawn through a branch
conduit I52 having a valve 63.
Within the fractionating tower 43, which is
preferably provided with plates or trays 64 and 60
a cooling coil 65, the vapors withdrawn from
tionating tower 4, which is provided with suitable
plates or trays I5, and under the in?uence of the ‘the still 42 are subjected to a fractional con
densation, which is carried out in such manner
heat-exchange coil 3, a dephlegmating and frac
as to effect the condensation and accumulation
tionating action takes place, resulting in the con
at the bottom of the fractionating'tower 43 of a 65
65 densation of a gas ‘oil fraction which collects at
the trap-out tray I4 and is withdrawn from the gas-oil fraction which is preferably withdrawn
from the tower 43 through a conduit 66 having
fractionating tower 4 through a conduit I6 hav
ing a valve I1 and a pump I8.
The gases and vapors reaching the top of the
70 fractionating tower 4 pass through a vapor line
2I, a condenser 22 and a condensate line 23 to
a gas separator 24, where a separation of con
densate and uncondensible gas is effected. The
gases are withdrawn through a conduit 25 hav
75 ing a valve 26 while the condensate, consisting
a valve 61 and a pump 68.
This gas oil may be
recycled through the coils 46, 4'! and 48 lo-'
cated within the furnace 4!. Gases and vapors 70
reaching the top of the fractionating tower 43
are withdrawn through a vapor line ‘II to a con
denser ‘I2 from which the condensed products
pass through a conduit ‘I3 to a gas separator ‘I4.
The condensate, consisting of light cracked dis 75
3
_ 2,121,209
tillate or gasoline, is withdrawn from the sepa
rator ‘I4 through a conduit 15 having a valve 16,
but a portion of this condensate may be re
hot reformed products then pass through the
turned, if desired, through a branch line 11 hav~
oil, preferably of residual character and prefer
ably containing unsaturated hydrocarbon or
other reactive constituents, is delivered to the
ing a valve"!!! and a pump 19 and returned to
the upper portion of the fractionating tower 43
as re?ux.
transfer line I06 to the reaction vessel I05.
At the same time relatively heavy hydrocarbon
The tower 43 is preferably provided at an in
reaction vessel I05. Pressure tar withdrawn from
the bottom of the still 42 may be delivered
termediate point with a ‘trap-out tray 8I ‘so
located as to make possible the‘ withdrawal of
conduit 58 and a branch conduit I20 having a
directly to the reaction vessel I05 through the
‘a side stream consisting of a heavy gasoline _ valve I2I.
fraction suitable for reforming purposes. This
side streamis withdrawn from the trap—out tray
BI through a conduit 82 having a valved branch
conduit 83 leading to: a lower point in the tower
43 and a branch conduit 84 having a valve 85
and a pump 80.
Reduced crude withdrawn'from the
separating compartment II of the fractionation
tower 4 may be forced by the pump 39 through
the conduit 38 and through a line I22 having
valves I23 and I24 to the convection heating coil
I03.
-
'
While in transit through the coil I03 the oil is
Gases withdrawn from the separator 14 may be ' preferably heated to a mild cracking temperature
of for example 800 to 850° F. under a pressure
delivered to a fuel gas main or elsewhere through
a pipe 80 having a valve 00, or may be diverted
through a branch conduit 9i having a valve 92
and a gas pump 93.
From the foregoing it will be apparent that I
have provided a combined stripping and cracking
system which may variously be operated to pro
duce virgin gas, gasoline and residual‘ oil or
reduced crude, as well as cracked gases, cracked
gasoline, and pressure tar or residual oil result
sufficient to permit the flow of the products
through the transfer line I08 to the reaction
vessel I05.
By means of a conduit‘ I20 having a
valve I21 and a pump I28, heavy hydrocarbon
oil of suitable character for treatment in the coil
I03 may be introduced through the conduit I22 25
to the coil I03. Residual oil withdrawn from
the still 42 may also be delivered by means of
the pump 59 to the conduit 58, a conduit I30 '
ing from the cracking operation, and, also if . having a valve I3I and a ‘conduit I22 to the coil
desired a relatively heavy gasoline fraction of I03. The aforesaid stocks may be used either 30
such character as to be well adapted to be sub
ljected to a reforming operation.
As stated hereinabove, my invention contem
plates, the selective treatment of a desired num
ber of such products, together with the ultimate
combination of such stocks or the products re
sulting fromthe treatment of such stocks, under
conditions favorable for polymerization and re
action to produce valuable low-boiling petroleum
'oils,
While it will be apparent that I may va
riously accomplish the selective treatment of the
stocks, in the present instance I have illustrated
separately or in any desired combination.
If desired, gasoline or' naphtha from the sen
arator 24 or the trap-out tray ‘BI or both may
be withdrawn from the conduit II'3 through a
branch conduit I32 having a valve I33 and com
municating with the conduit I 22, for the pur
pose of commingling with and diluting the heavy
hydrocarbon oil introduced into the coil I03 and
for the further‘ purpose of making it possible to
carry somewhat‘higher temperatures in the coil 40
I03 than would otherwise be possible.
The oil while in transit through the coil I03
a preferred system which includes a furnace
is, as aforesaid, heated to a mild cracking tem
I00 provided with separate radiant heating coils
perature to reduce the viscosity of the oil and to
I M and I02 and convection heating coil I03,
the products from which are delivered to a com
mon reaction chamber I05, through transfer
lines I00, I07 and I08, respectively.
.
effect a mild cracking with the result that the
content of unsaturated hydrocarbon or other re
active constituents in the oil may be increased
and the products from the coil I03 are rendered
more suitable for reaction and combination with
other constituents under the conditions which
obtain in the reaction vessel I05.
In the instance illustrated in the drawing th
radiant heating coil IOI is employed for the
purpose of effecting the reformation or conver
The coil I02 is preferably employed for the
purpose of ,eifecting- a preliminary pyrolysis of
gaseous hydrocarbons to promote the formation
I] in delivered to the coil IOI through a conduit IIO > of gaseous unsaturated hydrocarbons, such as
having a valve III and a pump II2, a conduit gaseous ole?ns, which are then delivered to the
II3, and a conduit II4 having ‘a valve H5. The reaction vessel I05 through the transfer line ‘I01.
heavy gasoline fraction withdrawn as a side
Thus gas liberated in the separator 24 may be
stream from the trap-out tray BI in the frac
withdrawn through a conduit I40 having a valve
00 tionating tower 43 may also be delivered to the
MI and a gas pump I42, bymeans of which the
coil IIlI through a conduit 84 by means of the gas is forced through the coil I02. _ Communi
pump 80, and the conduits II3 and-I I4. Naphtha cating with the conduit I40, I provide a gas
sion. of constituents of gasoline or naphtha to
constituents of increased anti-knock value.
Virgin gasoline from the separator 24 may be
or gasoline from an outside source may also be
delivered to the coil I0! by means of a conduit
IIii, wherein is located a pump Ill and a valve
IIO. Any of the aforesaid gasolines or naphthas
‘may be employed alone or in any desired com
bination.
I
'
While in transit through the coil IOI, the
naphtha or gasoline is heated to a temperature
of for example, from 850° F. to 1000" F’; or even
higher, under'a suitable elevated pressure of, for
example, from 200 to r750 pounds per square
inch. Higher pressures of the order of 1000
75 1200 pounds may be usedwith advantage. The
conduit I43 having a valve I44 which may re
ceive hydrocarbon gas from_ an outside source
through a conduit I45, wherein is located a gas
pump I46. By means of the conduits I45, I43
and I40 any hydrocarbon gas suitable for pyroly
sis to effect formation of unsaturated hydrocar
bon constituents may be introduced into the coil
I02. Thus I may employ natural gas or other ” O
gas containing such constituents as ethane, pro
pane, butane, pentane, ethylene, propylene and
the like. While in transit through the coil I02,
such gases are heated to a high cracking tem
perature' of, for example, from 1100° to 1700” F.,
2,121,209
under a suitably elevated pressure of, for ex
ample, from 200 to 750 pounds per square inch
or even higher, and the resultant pyrolized gases
are then delivered through the transfer line I01
to the reaction vessel I05.
Where the hydrocarbon gases to be delivered to
I62 through a conduit I68 or by means of cooling
effected in any other suitable manner, the va
pors passing upward through the fractionating
tower I62 are subjected to a fractional condensa
tion to such an extent as to make possible the
the reaction vessel I05 already contain su?i
separation therefrom in liquid form of normally
liquid products heavier than gasoline, that is to
cient quantities of gaseous ole?ns or the like,
they may be delivered directly to the reaction
withdrawn from the trap-out tray I66 through
10 vessel I05 without-preliminary pyrolysis in the
coil I02. Thus, cracked hydrocarbon gases from
the gas separator 14 may be withdrawn through
the conduit 9| and delivered by means of the
gas pump 93 directly to the reaction vessel I05.
15 Furthermore, gases introduced into the system
by means of the gas pump I46 may pass through
the conduit I45 and a branch conduit I5I having
a valve I52 directly into the reaction vessel I05.
While various types of reaction vessels may be
20 employed, the reaction vessel I05 illustrated in
the drawing represents the preferred type. This
vessel comprises a more or less elongated vertical
shell having an interiorly disposed annular ba?le
I55 which separates the interior of the vessel
25 I05 into an annular compartment I56 and an
inner compartment I51, which compartments
say, an intermediate or gas oil fraction, which is
a conduit I10 having a valved branch conduit 10
HI and a valved branch conduit I12 wherein is
located a pump I13.
This gas oil may be removed from the system
through the conduit IN or, under the in?uence
of the pump I13, may be‘ recycled, either through 15
a line I14 having valves I15 and I16 to the con
duit 45 and thence into the coils 46, 41, and 48,
or through a line I11 having valves I18 and I19
to the conduit I22 and thence into the coil I03.
In the latter instance, the gas oil is employed 20
as a diluent for the relatively heavy oil passing
through the coil I03.
The gases and vapors remaining uncondensed
at the top of the fractionating tower I62 are
passed through ,a vapor line I80 to a condenser 25
I8I and through a condensate line I82 to a gas
I56 and I51 intercommunicate in the upper por
separator I83. The condensate, consisting of
tion of the vessel I05. The various hydrocarbons naphtha or gasoline, is withdrawn from the sep
to be reacted together in the vessel I05 are pref» arator I83 through a conduit I84 having a valve
erably introduced into the lower portion of the
I65. A portion of this condensate may, however,
outer compartment I56 and pass upwardly
be diverted from the conduit I84 through the re
through the latter before passing downwardly ?ux line I68, wherein is located a valve I86 and
through the inner compartment I51. The prod
a re?ux pump I81, to be delivered to the top of
ucts are then withdrawn through a conduit I58 the fractionating tower I62.
35 having a valve I59 for delivery to an evaporator
The gases passing out of the ' separate I83
section I6I located within a fractionating tower may be removed from the system through a con
I62. Conduits I58’ having valves I59’ and com
duit I90 having a valve I9I, or may be diverted
municating with the conduit I58 may also be in part through a branch line I92, having a valve
provided for the purpose of limiting or prevent
I93 and a gas pump I94 to the conduit I40 to be
40 ing accumulation of liquid products in the lower recycled through the coil I02 for further pyrol
portion of the outer compartment I56.
ysis.
,
The reaction vessel I05 is preferably main
It will be apparent to those skilled in the art
tained at a temperature effective to promote that, while I'have described hereinabove various
polymerization of normally gaseous hydrocarbons preferred methods whereby a petroleum oil may
45 to normally liquid hydrocarbons and interaction
be distilled, with the selective treatment of the
between the various unsaturated hydrocarbon or‘ various products, and whereby petroleum prod
other reactive constituents which may be pres
ucts resulting from cracking of gases, reforming
ent, for example, at a temperature of 150 to 900°
of naphtha and the cracking of heavy oil may
F. and under a pressure of from 200 to 750
be digested together under conditions favorable
50 pounds 'per square inch or even higher, for ex
for the promotion of inter-reactions between re
ample from 1000 to 2000 pounds per square inch. active constituents of such materials, my process
As polymerization is favored by high pressure, it is not limited to such e'xempli?cation, but may
is, of course, desirable to maintain as high a pres
be varied in accordance with the character of
sure in the reaction vessel I05 as possible andin
the materials treated and the nature of the
55 practice this pressure is limited only by the
results desired, within the scope of the claims
pressures which it is possible to maintain in the hereinafter made.
coils IIII, I02 and I03 from which the various
I claim:
products are delivered to the reaction vessel I05.
1.
The process of treating a petroleum oil
The products leaving the reaction vessel I 05, in
passing through the conduit I58 to the evaporator which comprises introducing said oil into a dis
section I6I are preferably considerably reduced tillation zone, receiving hot cracked vapors, sep—
arately withdrawing residual oil and vapors from
in pressure by means of the valve I59 for ex
said
zone, fractionating said vapors to separate
ample, to a pressure of from 50 .to 200 pounds
ly recover therefrom normally gaseous hydro
per square inch, and upon reaching the rela
carbons, a light gasoline fraction, a heavy gas
65 tively low-pressure evaporator section I6I, a sep~
oline fraction and a heavier gas-oil fraction,
aration of liquid and vapors occurs, the liquid be
independently subjecting said gas-oil fraction to
ing withdrawn from the bottom of the evaporator a cracking temperature while in transit through
section I6I through a conduit I63 having a valve a heating zone and discharging the resultant hot
I64 while~the vapors pass upward around a plu
products into said distillation zone to supply said
rality of baf?es I65 and through a trap-out tray hot cracked vapors, subjecting said heavy gas
I66 into'the upper portion of the fractionating oline fraction to conditions of temperature and
tower I62 which is provided as shown with a plu
pressure in a separate heating zone effective to
rality of plates or trays I61.
_
‘
promote reformation of constituents of said
By means of cooled re?ux oil introduced into heavy gasoline fraction to constituents of in
75 the upper portion of the fractionating tower creased anti-knock value, reacting the hot re
30
35
45
50
55
60
70
75
5
2,121,209
formed products and normally gaseous hydro
carbons obtained as aforesaid with said residual
oil under conditions effective to promote poly
merization of gaseous hydrocarbons to normally
liquid hydrocarbons, removing resultant prod
ucts of said last-mentioned reaction‘and sepa
rately fractionating them to recover said normal
ly liquid hydrocarbons.
.2. The process of treating. a petroleum oil
10 which comprises introducing said oil into a dis
tillation zone receiving hot cracked vapors, sep-'
arately withdrawing residual oil and vapors from
said zone, fractionating said vapors to separately
recover therefrom normally gaseous hydrocar
15 bons, a light gasoline fraction, a heavy gaso
line fraction and a heavier gas-oil fraction, in
dependently subjecting said gas-oil fraction to a
cracking temperature while in transit through
a heating zone and discharging the resultant hot
products into said distillation zone to supply
hot cracked vapors, combining said residual oil,
normally
gaseous
hydrocarbons obtained
as
. aforesaid and said heavy gasoline fraction un
der conditions. of temperature and pressure ef
25 fective to promote polymerization of ,gaseous
hydrocarbons to normally liquid hydrocarbons,
removing resultant products and separately frac
tionating them to recover a gasoline fraction
therefrom.
,
_
3. The process of treating petroleum oil which
comprises introducing said oil into a distillation
zone receiving hot cracked vapors, separately
withdrawing residual oil from said zone, frac
tionating vapors obtained from said zone to sep
35 arately recover therefrom normally gaseous hy
drocarbons, a gasoline fraction and a gas-oil
30
fraction,‘ independently subjecting said gas-oil
fraction to a cracking temperature while in,
transit through a heating zone ‘and discharging
40 the resultant hot products into said distillation
zone to supply said hot cracked vapors, subject
ing at least a part of said gasoline fraction to
conditions of temperature and pressure in a sepa
rate heating zone e?ective to promote reforma
tion of constituents of said gasoline fraction to
constituents .of increased anti-knock value, re
acting the hot reformed products and normally
gaseous hydrocarbons obtained as aforesaid with
said residual oil under conditions effective to pro
mote polymerization of gaseous hydrocarbons to 10
normally liquid hydrocarbons, removing result
ant products from said last-mentioned reaction
and separately fractionating them to recover said
normally liquid hydrocarbons.
4. The process of treating a petroleum oil 15
which comprises introducing said oil into a dis
tillation zone receiving hot cracked vapors, sep
arately withdrawing residual oil and vapors from
said zone, fractionating said vapors to separately
recover therefrom normal gaseous hydrocarbons, 20
a gasoline fraction and a heavier gas-oil frac
tion, independently subjecting said gas-oil frac
tion to a cracking temperature while in transit
through a heating zone and discharging the re
sultant hot products intosaid distillation zone 25
to supply said hot cracked vapors, combining
said residual oil, normally gaseous hydrocarbons
obtained as aforesaid and at least a part of said
gasoline fraction under conditions of tempera
ture and pressure effective to promote polymeri 30
zation of gaseous hydrocarbons to normally liquid
hydrocarbons, removing resultant products and
separately fractionating them to recover a gaso
line fraction therefrom.
‘
5. A process in accordance with claim 4 where 35
in said residual oil is subjected to mild cracking
prior to combining with said normally gaseous
hydrocarbons and said gasoline fraction.
WILLIAM F. MOORE.
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