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Патент USA US2121378

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June 21, 1938.
Filed Feb. 5, 1936
4 Sheets-Sheet l
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June 21, 1938; ‘
Filed Feb. 5, 19367
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June 21, 1938.
Filed Feb. 5, 1936
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June 21, 1938.
Filed Feb. 5, 19556
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Patented June 21, 1938
" '
Henry Wilkinson and Norman Pilkington.‘ Old
ham, England, assignorslof one-third to Platt ‘
Brothers and Company Limited, Oldham, Eng
' Application February 5, 1936, Serial No. 62,472
In Great Britain February 16, 1935
1 Claim.
This invention has to do with a method of and
apparatus for treating ?ax stalks or ?ax straw
(or ‘like “bast” ?brous material), for the ultimate
production of ?ax ‘or like ?bre of a suitable staple
5‘ length from which “laps” or the like of said ?ax
or ‘like ?bres can be later produced and there
after blended or combined with laps or the like of
cotton or other ?bre or ?bres to be further worked
' to produce composite yarns of ?ax or such like
10 and cotton or other ?bre or ?bres. The present
invention is only concerned as to improvements
up to the point of production and conveyance of
a decorticated mass or body of ?ax or like ?bres
of an appropriate staple, as for example, a staple
15? of 4 inches or more or less in length, and of deal
ing with the trash matter on and following decor
tication and other treatment herein and later
The method is concerned with a continuous
‘20‘ process according to which the harvested ?ax
(01. 19524).
In the drawings:-—
Fig. 1 is a side elevation of one construction of
apparatus which operates according to the
method described herein.
Fig. 1a is a detail view.
Fig. 2 is an enlarged sectional elevation showing
one feed arrangement and ?uted roller system‘
and part of a co-operating beater or opening cyl
Fig. 3 is an outside side-elevation of the mech
anism‘ seen in Fig. 2.
-Fig. 4 is a plan view of the apparatus and
shows in diagrammatic fashion a suitable gear
ing and‘ driving arrangement.
There isprovided any appropriate feed mech
anism, as it may well be a feeder lattice a with
collector roller 19, but any other approved feed
ing-arrangement which will feed forward the ?ax
or like straw or stalks may be used. The said‘
straw or stalks may be de-seeded or otherwise 20
stalks or straw or ‘the like (whichv may or may not
preliminarily treated in the known way.
be de-seeded) can be continuously dealt with so
as to» crush the stalks, decorticate the same, assist
The feeder lattice a delivers the said straw or
stalks deposited thereon‘to one or more pairs of
crusher rollers c, 01, the straw or stalks being fed
longitudinally. These crusher rollers c, e1 have 25
suitable peripheries, the same being shown ?uted
and they are inter-geared and driven, The. up
the riddance of bark; dust, trash, etc., to submit
25, the decorticated ?brous material to stripping ac
tion, and thento combing or beating treatment
to break same up into staplellengths, to get rid
of further trash, and to pneumatically convey the
staple length ?ax or like ?bre to an appropriate
30,, place or receptacle, if desired, subjecting the
staple length ?ax or like ?bres so obtained to
‘ further ‘opening or cleaning treatment by pass
ing same through a further dusting, opening or
cleaning apparatus or more than one of such.
351. The method also embraces provision to deal with
the trash as hereafter suggested.
The method may permit of “retting” being
omitted, as also of “hackling” treatment in the
ordinary sense, and the method contemplates a
40:» continuous process from the initial feeding or“ the
?ax straw or stalks or the like to the delivery of
the staple length ?ax or like ?bre at ‘one point,
with the obtainment of the main portion of col
lected trash or waste at another point.
45.,» The apparatus comprises or consists of means
which function and co-operate together for the
purpose of carrying out the method set forth.
The method and apparatus necessary to carry
same into effect will be understood by a further
1; description thereof, and of apparatus appropri
‘ ate to the purpose stated'and whereby crushed
and decorticatedand cleaned. ?ax or like ?bre of
per roller 01 is shown as‘sprin'g weighted by bars
02 heldlon the bearing blocks by rods 03 upon
which adjustable springs. c4 act. Then follows 30
a succession of pairs of decortioating rollers, four
pairs being shown but a less or greater number
than four pairs ‘may be used. These four pairs
of decorticating rollers are lettered d1, (11X, d2, dZX,‘
d3, (13X, d4, d4><. These pairs of decorticating
rollers are showngas ?uted rollers,,as clearly rep
resented in Fig. 2. The bottom rollersidl, ($2,113,
cL‘i are positively driven, whilst the upper rollers
(11X, (12X, (13X, 0Z4‘x are driven by contact; or they
may be geared.‘ These decorticating rollers di 40
minish progressively in diameter, but are driven
at a constant speed, the diminution‘of diameter
giving ‘a slightly less surface speed. Each upper
decorticating‘ roller is shown spring weighted,
there being provided arms 125 which press on the
bearing ‘blocks of the upper‘ rollers, ‘and to these
arms d5 are attached rods d6 acted upon by ad
justable. springs'd", All the decorticating rollers
(11, 0Z1X‘ to 1%, d4>< (being of slightly decreasing di
ameter) run at a progressively slightly less sur 50
face speed so as not to break the straw or stalks in
staple length can be obtained and conveyed toa
the direction of their length, but‘rather to crush
and slightly “crimp” the same. There then fol
desired place, or to other apparatus to act on
lows, say two pairs of stripping rollers f1, f1><, f2,
55,-‘ same.
I“, but one or more than two pairs may be pro
vided. These stripping rollers f1, f1X, f2, J'2X are
shown ?uted (see Fig. 2) and these are of equal
diameter as to each pair but they are so driven as
to run at a slightly higher peripheral speed than
the last pair of decorticating rollers (14, d4>< so as
to exercise a slight drafting action which tends
to separate or strip the bark, or trash, etc., from
the ?bre, and to some extent to “de-crimp” or
take out the crimp imparted ‘to the ?ax or like
10 straw or stalks by the action of the decorticat
ing rollers.
The stripping rollers f1, flx, f2, f2>< are shown as
spring weighted, there being arms f3 engaging
the bearing blocks of the upper rollers and rods
I4 acted upon by adjustable springs I5 (see Fig.
3). As regards the stripping rollers f1, 11X, I2, I“,
each pair is positively driven, the pairs being
geared together (see Fig. 4). Then follows one or
more pairs of delivery rollers, one pair 9, g1 be
20 ing shown, said rollers being indicated as pro
vided with shallow ?utes. These delivery rollers
g, g1 are both positively driven at a slightly higher
speed than the stripping rollers ]‘1 to I”. The
upper roller in each pair is shown as spring
25 weighted by arms 92 which press on the bearing
blocks and have rods g3 upon which adjustable
springs g4 act.
The collecting roller 1) and the lattice a are
shown positively driven by gear, and the crusher
30 rollers c, c1 are both positively driven.
The diagrammatic plan, Fig. 4, shows a gear
chart of the driving mechanism and no detailed
explanation of this is necessary. In Fig. 4, the
main driving shaft is marked l and this actuates
35 an auxiliary shaft 2 which drives a gear 4 on a
provision to allow air to enter and get into the
upper encasement of the revolving beater or
opening cylinder 2' to supply the pneumatic con
veyance pipe m and any necessary valve con
trivances can be ?tted.
The letter n1 denotes a
hinged inspection door.
The curved pneumatic conveyance pipe 112 leads
to any place of deposit or storage bin or recep
tacle, or, if desired, to a dusting machine or other
opener used for the purpose of removing any 10
remaining dust or trash.
From the dusting machine (if used) or from
the place of deposit or the receiving receptacle
the clean and staple length ?bre is ultimately
delivered to the vat for the wet or other treat
ment of the staple length ?ax or like ?bre pro
duced by the apparatus described.
According to the relative speed of the delivery
rollers g, g1 and the revolving beater or opening
cylinder 1', so is the ?ax or like straw or stalks 20
fed and broken up into staple lengths, whilst
further trash is got rid of and thrown through
the grid 7' into the trash compartment h, the sta
ple length ?bre being carried forward pneumati
cally as already explained.
In operating, the ?ax or like straw or stalks,
which need not necessarily be “retted”, are fed
to the apparatus and ?rst come under the crush
ing rollers, being then passed onto the succes
sion of decorticating rollers which do not break
the stalks in the direction of their length but
rather tend to further bruise or crush and
“crimp” same. Then the stripping rollers act
to still feed and strip and straighten or take
out the “crimp” from the ?ax or like straw or 35
stud shaft 3 which, through gear and interme
diate wheels, as indicated, drives the feed lattice
stalks, and the delivery rollers such as g, 91 de
liver to the co-acting staple length producing
a and the various rollers at the proper speeds
and in the right directions.
The treatment from lattice or feed arrange
beater or opening cylinder contrivance i which
has the cleaning and staple length producing ac
tion already mentioned.
The continued and progressive roller treat
ment breaks up and detaches a good deal of the
outer skin or bark and the woody core, leaving
the ?ax or like ?bre fairly clear therefrom, and
the main body of the separated trash falls down
into the trash compartment h from which it
can be pneumatically or mechanically removed,
ment to delivery rollers, is crushing, decorticat
ing, and stripping and straightening treatment,
whereby the ?at or like straw is somewhat
crushed so that the outer membrane or bark and
45 the woody core is to a great extent loosened or
separated (for example about 40 per cent) and
suchv detached trash falls and can be directed
by underneath inclined containing walls h1 in
to trash collecting compartments h, hX where it
50 may collect. From the main collecting compart
ment h the trash can be removed by pneumatic
conveyance along a suction pipe or. pipes 71.2 or
by a conveying apron 71.3 as indicated by the
Fig. 1a; or in other manner. The compartment
hX can be emptied as and when required.
Working adjacent the delivery rollers g‘, g1 is
a beater or opening cylinder and advantageously
a type of “porcupine” opener or cylinder 12 which
operates over a segmental grid 7' of approxi
mately 90° through which grid 9' further trash
is thrown out into the trash collecting compart
ment h. Extending upwards at the back of the
beater or opening cylinder housing from the
lower edge of the grid 7' is a segmental longitudi
65 nal cover It. whichmay be of stout woven wire
mesh with numerous apertures of about a quar
ter of an inch in size and such cover It may ex
tend over about 180° and wholly across the open
er structure. Thus, it encloses something like
70 one half 'of the beater or opening cylinder 1'.
There is apreferably curved delivery or pneu
matic conveyance pipe m‘ leading forward from
and approximately‘ tangential to the segmen
tal mesh cover k, and there is an air opening or
75 = intake at n and perforated sheet o, or equivalent
as such trash may have a small commercial value
The method is well adapted for the production
and delivery of staple length ?ax or like ?bre 50
at a desired point where a mass of such is to be
deposited or taken, onwards to provide ?bres to
be worked up for the ultimate production of laps
or supplies of ?ax or like ?bre to be subsequently
blended or combined with laps or opened sup 55
plies of cotton or other ?bre to form the supply
for the ultimate production of composite or com
bination yarns (of ?ax or the like and cotton or
the like) and afterwards a cloth of such com
bined ?bres, and the treatment is distinct in that 60
in the ordinary linen processes the straw or stalks
are used in full length staple, whilst by our
method is effected a continuous crushing and
decortication, opening and cleaning with produc
tion of a suitable staple length of ?ax or like 65
?bre to mix with cotton or other ?bres, with
continuous and purely automatic cleaning, con
veyance, and separation of the trash.
' We claim:
In a ?ax straw treating machine, a pair of 70
feed rolls, a series of pairs of crimping rolls, each
of said pairs of crimping rolls comprising an
upper roll and a lower roll, said pairs of crimp
ing rolls being arranged on the delivery side of‘
the feed rolls with the pairs uniformly spaced,
the ?rst pair of rolls of the series being of greater
diameter than the last pair of rolls of the series
and‘the intermediate pairs being gradually de
creased in diameter throughout the series, all
of said rolls being provided with a uniform num
ber of teeth whereby the pitch of the teeth on
the several pairs gradually decreases from the
first to the last pairs of rolls, means to drive said
crimping rolls at uniform revolutions per minute
10 whereby to prevent draft on the straw as it
passes through said crimping roll, a series of
pairs of decrimping rolls positioned to receive
material delivered from the crimping rolls, each
roll of the decrimping rolls having its periphery
provided with shallow grooves forming spaced
cusps extending longitudinally of the roll, said
decrimping rolls being arranged to revolve with
the cusps of one roll of the pair entering the
grooves of the other roll of the pair, and a pair
of corrugated delivery rolls arranged to receive
material from the decrimping rolls.
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