Патент USA US2121378код для вставки
June 21, 1938. H. WILKINSON ET AL ‘2,121,378 APPARATUS FOR MECHANICALLY TREATING FLAX STALKS AND THE LIKE Filed Feb. 5, 1936 4 Sheets-Sheet l HN NR,am awn vwplQmfawém N , B .w. E0‘ ‘ H El.. T! E M 0mmMWW 1..N June 21, 1938; ‘ _ H. Wllv_KlNSO-N ET AL ' ' 2,121,373 APPARATUS FOR MECHANICALLY TREATING FLAX STALKS AND‘ THE LIKE Filed Feb. 5, 19367 > 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 mvamons . M’LKINSON ET _ _ W ., NGTON ‘ VFn-T nN£1 June 21, 1938. 2,121,378 H? WILKINSON ET AL. APPARATUS FOR MECHANICALLXv TREATING FLAX STALKS AND THE LIKE Filed Feb. 5, 1936 _..____ ____¢__._.... ' 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 ..... -' WILKINSON / N.P0mmero~ , B‘l: " FITTOR June 21, 1938. H. WILKINSON ET' AL _ 2,121,378 APPARATUS FOR MECHANICALLY TREATING FLAX STALKS AND ‘THE LIKE Filed Feb. 5, 19556 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 INVENTORSZ Q HENRY WILKINSON ~ NORMHN PILKINGTON - ziwfgvm HTTOQNEY Patented June 21, 1938 2,121,378 UNITED‘ STATES PATENT: OFFICE 2,121,378 ‘ APPARATUS FOR MECHANICALLY TREAT- ‘ " ' ‘mo, FLAX STALKS AND THE LIKE Henry Wilkinson and Norman Pilkington.‘ Old ham, England, assignorslof one-third to Platt ‘ Brothers and Company Limited, Oldham, Eng land ' Application February 5, 1936, Serial No. 62,472 In Great Britain February 16, 1935 1 Claim. This invention has to do with a method of and apparatus for treating ?ax stalks or ?ax straw (or ‘like “bast” ?brous material), for the ultimate production of ?ax ‘or like ?bre of a suitable staple 5‘ length from which “laps” or the like of said ?ax or ‘like ?bres can be later produced and there after blended or combined with laps or the like of cotton or other ?bre or ?bres to be further worked ' to produce composite yarns of ?ax or such like 10 and cotton or other ?bre or ?bres. The present invention is only concerned as to improvements up to the point of production and conveyance of a decorticated mass or body of ?ax or like ?bres of an appropriate staple, as for example, a staple 15? of 4 inches or more or less in length, and of deal ing with the trash matter on and following decor tication and other treatment herein and later described. ' - The method is concerned with a continuous ‘20‘ process according to which the harvested ?ax (01. 19524). In the drawings:-— Fig. 1 is a side elevation of one construction of apparatus which operates according to the method described herein. Fig. 1a is a detail view. Fig. 2 is an enlarged sectional elevation showing one feed arrangement and ?uted roller system‘ and part of a co-operating beater or opening cyl inder. ‘ ‘ Fig. 3 is an outside side-elevation of the mech anism‘ seen in Fig. 2. 10 r -Fig. 4 is a plan view of the apparatus and shows in diagrammatic fashion a suitable gear ing and‘ driving arrangement. There isprovided any appropriate feed mech 15 anism, as it may well be a feeder lattice a with collector roller 19, but any other approved feed ing-arrangement which will feed forward the ?ax or like straw or stalks may be used. The said‘ straw or stalks may be de-seeded or otherwise 20 stalks or straw or ‘the like (whichv may or may not preliminarily treated in the known way. be de-seeded) can be continuously dealt with so as to» crush the stalks, decorticate the same, assist The feeder lattice a delivers the said straw or stalks deposited thereon‘to one or more pairs of crusher rollers c, 01, the straw or stalks being fed longitudinally. These crusher rollers c, e1 have 25 suitable peripheries, the same being shown ?uted and they are inter-geared and driven, The. up the riddance of bark; dust, trash, etc., to submit 25, the decorticated ?brous material to stripping ac tion, and thento combing or beating treatment to break same up into staplellengths, to get rid of further trash, and to pneumatically convey the staple length ?ax or like ?bre to an appropriate 30,, place or receptacle, if desired, subjecting the staple length ?ax or like ?bres so obtained to ‘ further ‘opening or cleaning treatment by pass ing same through a further dusting, opening or cleaning apparatus or more than one of such. 351. The method also embraces provision to deal with the trash as hereafter suggested. - The method may permit of “retting” being omitted, as also of “hackling” treatment in the ordinary sense, and the method contemplates a 40:» continuous process from the initial feeding or“ the ?ax straw or stalks or the like to the delivery of the staple length ?ax or like ?bre at ‘one point, with the obtainment of the main portion of col lected trash or waste at another point. 45.,» The apparatus comprises or consists of means which function and co-operate together for the purpose of carrying out the method set forth. The method and apparatus necessary to carry same into effect will be understood by a further 1; description thereof, and of apparatus appropri ‘ ate to the purpose stated'and whereby crushed and decorticatedand cleaned. ?ax or like ?bre of , per roller 01 is shown as‘sprin'g weighted by bars 02 heldlon the bearing blocks by rods 03 upon which adjustable springs. c4 act. Then follows 30 a succession of pairs of decortioating rollers, four pairs being shown but a less or greater number than four pairs ‘may be used. These four pairs of decorticating rollers are lettered d1, (11X, d2, dZX,‘ d3, (13X, d4, d4><. These pairs of decorticating rollers are showngas ?uted rollers,,as clearly rep resented in Fig. 2. The bottom rollersidl, ($2,113, cL‘i are positively driven, whilst the upper rollers (11X, (12X, (13X, 0Z4‘x are driven by contact; or they may be geared.‘ These decorticating rollers di 40 minish progressively in diameter, but are driven at a constant speed, the diminution‘of diameter giving ‘a slightly less surface speed. Each upper decorticating‘ roller is shown spring weighted, there being provided arms 125 which press on the bearing ‘blocks of the upper‘ rollers, ‘and to these arms d5 are attached rods d6 acted upon by ad justable. springs'd", All the decorticating rollers (11, 0Z1X‘ to 1%, d4>< (being of slightly decreasing di ameter) run at a progressively slightly less sur 50 face speed so as not to break the straw or stalks in staple length can be obtained and conveyed toa the direction of their length, but‘rather to crush and slightly “crimp” the same. There then fol desired place, or to other apparatus to act on lows, say two pairs of stripping rollers f1, f1><, f2, 55,-‘ same. . . I“, but one or more than two pairs may be pro 55 2 2,121,378 vided. These stripping rollers f1, f1X, f2, J'2X are shown ?uted (see Fig. 2) and these are of equal diameter as to each pair but they are so driven as to run at a slightly higher peripheral speed than the last pair of decorticating rollers (14, d4>< so as to exercise a slight drafting action which tends to separate or strip the bark, or trash, etc., from the ?bre, and to some extent to “de-crimp” or take out the crimp imparted ‘to the ?ax or like 10 straw or stalks by the action of the decorticat ing rollers. v The stripping rollers f1, flx, f2, f2>< are shown as spring weighted, there being arms f3 engaging the bearing blocks of the upper rollers and rods 15 I4 acted upon by adjustable springs I5 (see Fig. 3). As regards the stripping rollers f1, 11X, I2, I“, each pair is positively driven, the pairs being geared together (see Fig. 4). Then follows one or more pairs of delivery rollers, one pair 9, g1 be 20 ing shown, said rollers being indicated as pro vided with shallow ?utes. These delivery rollers g, g1 are both positively driven at a slightly higher speed than the stripping rollers ]‘1 to I”. The upper roller in each pair is shown as spring 25 weighted by arms 92 which press on the bearing blocks and have rods g3 upon which adjustable springs g4 act. _ The collecting roller 1) and the lattice a are shown positively driven by gear, and the crusher 30 rollers c, c1 are both positively driven. The diagrammatic plan, Fig. 4, shows a gear chart of the driving mechanism and no detailed explanation of this is necessary. In Fig. 4, the main driving shaft is marked l and this actuates 35 an auxiliary shaft 2 which drives a gear 4 on a provision to allow air to enter and get into the upper encasement of the revolving beater or opening cylinder 2' to supply the pneumatic con veyance pipe m and any necessary valve con trivances can be ?tted. The letter n1 denotes a hinged inspection door. The curved pneumatic conveyance pipe 112 leads to any place of deposit or storage bin or recep tacle, or, if desired, to a dusting machine or other opener used for the purpose of removing any 10 remaining dust or trash. From the dusting machine (if used) or from the place of deposit or the receiving receptacle the clean and staple length ?bre is ultimately delivered to the vat for the wet or other treat ment of the staple length ?ax or like ?bre pro 15 duced by the apparatus described. According to the relative speed of the delivery rollers g, g1 and the revolving beater or opening cylinder 1', so is the ?ax or like straw or stalks 20 fed and broken up into staple lengths, whilst further trash is got rid of and thrown through the grid 7' into the trash compartment h, the sta ple length ?bre being carried forward pneumati cally as already explained. In operating, the ?ax or like straw or stalks, which need not necessarily be “retted”, are fed to the apparatus and ?rst come under the crush ing rollers, being then passed onto the succes sion of decorticating rollers which do not break the stalks in the direction of their length but rather tend to further bruise or crush and “crimp” same. Then the stripping rollers act to still feed and strip and straighten or take out the “crimp” from the ?ax or like straw or 35 stud shaft 3 which, through gear and interme diate wheels, as indicated, drives the feed lattice stalks, and the delivery rollers such as g, 91 de liver to the co-acting staple length producing a and the various rollers at the proper speeds and in the right directions. The treatment from lattice or feed arrange beater or opening cylinder contrivance i which has the cleaning and staple length producing ac tion already mentioned. 40 The continued and progressive roller treat ment breaks up and detaches a good deal of the outer skin or bark and the woody core, leaving the ?ax or like ?bre fairly clear therefrom, and the main body of the separated trash falls down into the trash compartment h from which it can be pneumatically or mechanically removed, ment to delivery rollers, is crushing, decorticat ing, and stripping and straightening treatment, whereby the ?at or like straw is somewhat crushed so that the outer membrane or bark and 45 the woody core is to a great extent loosened or separated (for example about 40 per cent) and suchv detached trash falls and can be directed by underneath inclined containing walls h1 in to trash collecting compartments h, hX where it 50 may collect. From the main collecting compart ment h the trash can be removed by pneumatic conveyance along a suction pipe or. pipes 71.2 or by a conveying apron 71.3 as indicated by the Fig. 1a; or in other manner. The compartment hX can be emptied as and when required. Working adjacent the delivery rollers g‘, g1 is a beater or opening cylinder and advantageously a type of “porcupine” opener or cylinder 12 which operates over a segmental grid 7' of approxi mately 90° through which grid 9' further trash is thrown out into the trash collecting compart ment h. Extending upwards at the back of the beater or opening cylinder housing from the lower edge of the grid 7' is a segmental longitudi 65 nal cover It. whichmay be of stout woven wire mesh with numerous apertures of about a quar ter of an inch in size and such cover It may ex tend over about 180° and wholly across the open er structure. Thus, it encloses something like 70 one half 'of the beater or opening cylinder 1'. There is apreferably curved delivery or pneu matic conveyance pipe m‘ leading forward from and approximately‘ tangential to the segmen tal mesh cover k, and there is an air opening or 75 = intake at n and perforated sheet o, or equivalent as such trash may have a small commercial value The method is well adapted for the production and delivery of staple length ?ax or like ?bre 50 at a desired point where a mass of such is to be deposited or taken, onwards to provide ?bres to be worked up for the ultimate production of laps or supplies of ?ax or like ?bre to be subsequently blended or combined with laps or opened sup 55 plies of cotton or other ?bre to form the supply for the ultimate production of composite or com bination yarns (of ?ax or the like and cotton or the like) and afterwards a cloth of such com bined ?bres, and the treatment is distinct in that 60 in the ordinary linen processes the straw or stalks are used in full length staple, whilst by our method is effected a continuous crushing and decortication, opening and cleaning with produc tion of a suitable staple length of ?ax or like 65 ?bre to mix with cotton or other ?bres, with continuous and purely automatic cleaning, con veyance, and separation of the trash. ' We claim: In a ?ax straw treating machine, a pair of 70 feed rolls, a series of pairs of crimping rolls, each of said pairs of crimping rolls comprising an upper roll and a lower roll, said pairs of crimp ing rolls being arranged on the delivery side of‘ the feed rolls with the pairs uniformly spaced, 3 2,121,378 the ?rst pair of rolls of the series being of greater diameter than the last pair of rolls of the series and‘the intermediate pairs being gradually de creased in diameter throughout the series, all of said rolls being provided with a uniform num ber of teeth whereby the pitch of the teeth on the several pairs gradually decreases from the first to the last pairs of rolls, means to drive said crimping rolls at uniform revolutions per minute 10 whereby to prevent draft on the straw as it passes through said crimping roll, a series of pairs of decrimping rolls positioned to receive material delivered from the crimping rolls, each roll of the decrimping rolls having its periphery provided with shallow grooves forming spaced cusps extending longitudinally of the roll, said decrimping rolls being arranged to revolve with the cusps of one roll of the pair entering the grooves of the other roll of the pair, and a pair of corrugated delivery rolls arranged to receive material from the decrimping rolls. 10 HENRY WILKINSON. NORMAN PILKINGTON.