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Патент USA US2121381

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June
J. ‘r. BE-RTRAND
'
1
1
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2,121,381
REFRIGERATING DEVICE
Filed Aug. 27. 1936
'15
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E"
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By
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_
Inventor
Attorney
2,121,381
Patented June 21, 1938
UNITED ‘STATES PATENT OFFlCE-j
7 2,121,381
REFRIGERATING DEVICE
Joseph 'Tétu‘ Bertrand, Isle Verte, Quebec, Canada
Application August 2'7, 1936, Serial No. 98,240 '
In Canada OctoberIIE, 1935
1 Claim.
The present invention relates to improvements
in refrigerators and utilizes the properties of peat
‘ moss (taken from Spagnum moss deposits) as
an insulator and absorbent.‘
More particularly, my invention embodies im
provements to refrigerating apparatus used for
transporting and maintaining cold, meat and
other perishable products, in order to- render the
transport thereof convenient by truck, to simplify
(01. 62-—20)
the addition of reservoirs I5 ‘which serve to store
the Water resulting from the melting of the ice
in 4, said Water saturating thereafter" the mat-‘
tresses 5 and 8. Additional reservoirs It can be
?lled with water to aid the saturation of mat
tresses 8 should the‘ice water fail, or to supple;
merit this last. These mattresses, which are in
direct contact with the metallic walls 6 and I2
can, therefore, absorb, through these conducting
l‘ 10‘ the construction of the apparatus since the
‘ various members of the apparatus are easy of
‘ access for inspection or repairs and, in a general
walls, the inside heat according to a phenomenon Ill“
manner, to better adapt the apparatus to perform
the function expected.
315" These objects are obtained by means of the
‘apparatus illustrated in the annexed drawing,
wherein:
reservoir 4 from the lateral reservoirs, ‘these
Figure 1 is a partial vertical section taken
through the apparatus,
20
Figure 2 is a section taken along line C-D of
Figure l,
V
Figure 3 is a section taken on line E—F of
Figure 2, and
Figure 4 is a longitudinal partial section of the‘
25 apparatus roof‘ showing the details of certain‘
parts thereof.
Referring to the‘ drawing, vwherein similar
reference numerals refer to corresponding parts
throughout, 1 represents the frame of the re
frigerator. This frame is completed by means
of lateral Walls l2 and an upper wall 6, both of
metal, the object of which will be explained later
35
The sides, ends and the upper part of the frame
are covered with peat mattresses 8, II and 5
respectively. The mattresses 8 and 5 are gener
ally kept damp by means of water obtained from
the melting of ice contained in reservoirs 4 dis
posed immediately above the mattress 5, at‘the
centre of the metallic wall 6. The reservoirs 4
are insulated from the outside temperature by
means of a partition 3 covered also with a layer
of dry peat 2, the whole being covered by means
of an impermeable canvas l. The sides of the
refrigerator are protected by panels 9 arranged
as louvres, and provided to prevent damage to
the mattresses 8, while permitting circulation of
air at the surface thereof.
The ends of the refrigerator are closed by a
suitable wall l0, provided to protect the mat
tresses H.
“ ‘as
7
Finally, planks l8, I9, 20 separate the ice
planks being provided with inversed V-shaped
ori?ces 2i. In order to complete the refrigera- 151
tor, hooks or the like‘ ll are secured inside and
are used to attach thereon food to be kept cool.
In order to gain access to the inside of the
refrigerator, a door, indicated at 22, Figure 3,
may be provided in one end wall In, said door
having the same respective Wall arrangement of
metal, insulation and canvas covering. Further
more, replacement of the ice supply may be
effectuated in any convenient manner, such as
suggested in Fig. 2. Panels 23 may be cut in-the 25
roof, whereby the partition 3 with dry layer_2
and canvas covering‘ I can be lifted easily, in
sections, thereby exposing the cavity 4 contain
ing the ice.
Said panels being narrower than the
breadth between elements l8, the roof structure 30
is consequently not weakened and construction
simpli?ed.
During the operation of this apparatus, which
on.
‘
explained later on.
Air ducts at l3 and I4 provide a
certain air circulation inside the refrigerator,
according to the arrows of the drawing, namely:
from the bottom to the top.
The roof of the refrigerator is completed by
may be installed on an ordinary truck, the cold
is produced directly by the ice reservoir 4 and also 35
by the application of the well-known principle
of absorption of heat during evaporation of
water; the cold temperature inside is maintained
by proper insulation of the refrigerator by means
of light absorbent and insulating material, 40,
namely: peat moss, which is used in the form of
a mattress 8 and freely in the walls H and the
receptacles 2 and 2' above the ice reservoir 4.
The ice contained in the reservoir 4, during
melting, saturates with cold water the layer of 45
moss 5 upon which it directly rests. ‘This moss
rests in its turn upon a metallic wall 6 which
forms the roof of the refrigerator and maintains
inside said refrigerator a cool temperature as
long as the peat 5 is damp. The water surplus 50
coming from the ice reservoir escapes into the
reservoir I6 While circulating through the peat 5
under the action of capillarity. Another function
of these cold water reservoirs I6 is also to store
rain water or other water should the ice supply 55
2
2,121,381
fail. In that case, the cold is produced only by
evaporation of water on the surface of mattresses
8 which remain damp due to the slow in?ltration
as stated previously, by a canvas l which is adapt
of water from reservoirs I6.
Between the cold water reservoirs I6 and the
ice reservoir 4 are receptacles 2 ?lled with dry
ice of the reservoir 4 against the heat of the sun
and avoid losses therefrom.
A ventilating system is necessary inside the
moss; the function thereof is to thermically in
sulate the reservoirs l6 and the space 15 of the
refrigerator to remove humidity and keep fresh
and in perfect hygienic condition the products
ice reservoir 4.
On each side, and on the walls of the refrig
erator-box, are peat moss mattresses 8 wherein
stored therein. This is accomplished by meens
of the inlet and air outlet l3 and I4. The air 10
is sucked inside the refrigerator by the movement
of the truck, said air travelling through the mat
'
spaces are provided (see Fig. 2). These mat
tresses, which receive a certain dampness from
the moss layer 5 over which the ice in 4 rests di
15 rectly, have for a function to provide surfaces
adaptable to the evaporation of the water there
in under the action of the surrounding moving
air, whereby to produce inside the refrigerator
a temperature cool enough to help preserve the
It is easy
20 perishable products stored therein.
to understand that the lowering of the tempera
ture inside the refrigerator box will be propor
tional to the movement of the air, which move
ment is accelerated by the speed of the truck.
It is evident that the heat absorption is easy,
through the metallic walls [2 which have been
provided for that purpose.
Conversely, the mattresses provided around
the refrigerator could, during cold weather, and
30 whenever kept dry, prevent frost from pene
trating inside the refrigerator, the outside sur
face of these mattresses being protected against
weather by canvas or the like, the surface of
which could advantageously be used for adver
35 tising purposes.
It will be noted in I8, l9 and 20 that planks
are provided with small apertures 2| formed on
the lower edge thereof and which assume a shape
of inverse V’s (Fig. 4).
These planks rest di
40 rectly on the damp moss layer 5 and on the up
per part of the apertured mattresses 8 and serve
the purpose of partitions between the dry insu
lating moss 2, the ice reservoir 4, and the reser
voirs l5 and H5. The purpose of the apertures
2| is to prevent damming of the water from the
melting ice and to regulate the ?ow thereof.
The refrigerator is covered on all its surfaces,
ed to protect from rain the dry mattresses 2, 2'.
The dry moss receptacles protect efficiently the
tress 8 which acts as a ?lter and prevents en
trance into the refrigerator of the road dust.
After circulating inside, the air is pushed out
side through the outlet I4. This movement is
accelerated by the speed of the truck.
It is to be understood that the form of my
invention herein shown and described is to be
taken as a preferred example of the same, and 20
that various changes as to the shape, size and
arrangement of parts may be resorted to with
out departing from the spirit of the invention or
the scope of the subjoined claim.
Having thus described my invention, I claim:- 25
A refrigerator of the character described, com
prising a metallic inner casing, a porous mat
tress disposed against the outer surface of the
casing at the top thereof, an ice chamber formed
over said mattress, reservoirs formed adjacent 30
the ice chamber and over the mattress to re
ceive a portion of the water produced from the
melting of the ice, the remaining portion being
absorbed by the mattress by capillarity, lateral
mattresses disposed against the sides of the cas 35
ing and adapted to be wetted by capillarity with
the water of the upper mattress, an insulating
dry layer arranged over the ends of the casing,
dry porous means thermally insulating the top
of the refrigerator above the ice chamber and 40
water reservoirs, ventilating apertures at the top
and bottom of the casing for circulating air in
side the same, a weather-proof canvas over the
upper insulating layer, and louvres disposed out
wardly of the lateral mattresses for evaporating
the water contents thereof by air currents.
JOSEPH TETU BERTRAND.
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