Патент USA US2121381код для вставки
June J. ‘r. BE-RTRAND ' 1 1 . 2,121,381 REFRIGERATING DEVICE Filed Aug. 27. 1936 '15 0 E" \ By > _ Inventor Attorney 2,121,381 Patented June 21, 1938 UNITED ‘STATES PATENT OFFlCE-j 7 2,121,381 REFRIGERATING DEVICE Joseph 'Tétu‘ Bertrand, Isle Verte, Quebec, Canada Application August 2'7, 1936, Serial No. 98,240 ' In Canada OctoberIIE, 1935 1 Claim. The present invention relates to improvements in refrigerators and utilizes the properties of peat ‘ moss (taken from Spagnum moss deposits) as an insulator and absorbent.‘ More particularly, my invention embodies im provements to refrigerating apparatus used for transporting and maintaining cold, meat and other perishable products, in order to- render the transport thereof convenient by truck, to simplify (01. 62-—20) the addition of reservoirs I5 ‘which serve to store the Water resulting from the melting of the ice in 4, said Water saturating thereafter" the mat-‘ tresses 5 and 8. Additional reservoirs It can be ?lled with water to aid the saturation of mat tresses 8 should the‘ice water fail, or to supple; merit this last. These mattresses, which are in direct contact with the metallic walls 6 and I2 can, therefore, absorb, through these conducting l‘ 10‘ the construction of the apparatus since the ‘ various members of the apparatus are easy of ‘ access for inspection or repairs and, in a general walls, the inside heat according to a phenomenon Ill“ manner, to better adapt the apparatus to perform the function expected. 315" These objects are obtained by means of the ‘apparatus illustrated in the annexed drawing, wherein: reservoir 4 from the lateral reservoirs, ‘these Figure 1 is a partial vertical section taken through the apparatus, 20 Figure 2 is a section taken along line C-D of Figure l, V Figure 3 is a section taken on line E—F of Figure 2, and Figure 4 is a longitudinal partial section of the‘ 25 apparatus roof‘ showing the details of certain‘ parts thereof. Referring to the‘ drawing, vwherein similar reference numerals refer to corresponding parts throughout, 1 represents the frame of the re frigerator. This frame is completed by means of lateral Walls l2 and an upper wall 6, both of metal, the object of which will be explained later 35 The sides, ends and the upper part of the frame are covered with peat mattresses 8, II and 5 respectively. The mattresses 8 and 5 are gener ally kept damp by means of water obtained from the melting of ice contained in reservoirs 4 dis posed immediately above the mattress 5, at‘the centre of the metallic wall 6. The reservoirs 4 are insulated from the outside temperature by means of a partition 3 covered also with a layer of dry peat 2, the whole being covered by means of an impermeable canvas l. The sides of the refrigerator are protected by panels 9 arranged as louvres, and provided to prevent damage to the mattresses 8, while permitting circulation of air at the surface thereof. The ends of the refrigerator are closed by a suitable wall l0, provided to protect the mat tresses H. “ ‘as 7 Finally, planks l8, I9, 20 separate the ice planks being provided with inversed V-shaped ori?ces 2i. In order to complete the refrigera- 151 tor, hooks or the like‘ ll are secured inside and are used to attach thereon food to be kept cool. In order to gain access to the inside of the refrigerator, a door, indicated at 22, Figure 3, may be provided in one end wall In, said door having the same respective Wall arrangement of metal, insulation and canvas covering. Further more, replacement of the ice supply may be effectuated in any convenient manner, such as suggested in Fig. 2. Panels 23 may be cut in-the 25 roof, whereby the partition 3 with dry layer_2 and canvas covering‘ I can be lifted easily, in sections, thereby exposing the cavity 4 contain ing the ice. Said panels being narrower than the breadth between elements l8, the roof structure 30 is consequently not weakened and construction simpli?ed. During the operation of this apparatus, which on. ‘ explained later on. Air ducts at l3 and I4 provide a certain air circulation inside the refrigerator, according to the arrows of the drawing, namely: from the bottom to the top. The roof of the refrigerator is completed by may be installed on an ordinary truck, the cold is produced directly by the ice reservoir 4 and also 35 by the application of the well-known principle of absorption of heat during evaporation of water; the cold temperature inside is maintained by proper insulation of the refrigerator by means of light absorbent and insulating material, 40, namely: peat moss, which is used in the form of a mattress 8 and freely in the walls H and the receptacles 2 and 2' above the ice reservoir 4. The ice contained in the reservoir 4, during melting, saturates with cold water the layer of 45 moss 5 upon which it directly rests. ‘This moss rests in its turn upon a metallic wall 6 which forms the roof of the refrigerator and maintains inside said refrigerator a cool temperature as long as the peat 5 is damp. The water surplus 50 coming from the ice reservoir escapes into the reservoir I6 While circulating through the peat 5 under the action of capillarity. Another function of these cold water reservoirs I6 is also to store rain water or other water should the ice supply 55 2 2,121,381 fail. In that case, the cold is produced only by evaporation of water on the surface of mattresses 8 which remain damp due to the slow in?ltration as stated previously, by a canvas l which is adapt of water from reservoirs I6. Between the cold water reservoirs I6 and the ice reservoir 4 are receptacles 2 ?lled with dry ice of the reservoir 4 against the heat of the sun and avoid losses therefrom. A ventilating system is necessary inside the moss; the function thereof is to thermically in sulate the reservoirs l6 and the space 15 of the refrigerator to remove humidity and keep fresh and in perfect hygienic condition the products ice reservoir 4. On each side, and on the walls of the refrig erator-box, are peat moss mattresses 8 wherein stored therein. This is accomplished by meens of the inlet and air outlet l3 and I4. The air 10 is sucked inside the refrigerator by the movement of the truck, said air travelling through the mat ' spaces are provided (see Fig. 2). These mat tresses, which receive a certain dampness from the moss layer 5 over which the ice in 4 rests di 15 rectly, have for a function to provide surfaces adaptable to the evaporation of the water there in under the action of the surrounding moving air, whereby to produce inside the refrigerator a temperature cool enough to help preserve the It is easy 20 perishable products stored therein. to understand that the lowering of the tempera ture inside the refrigerator box will be propor tional to the movement of the air, which move ment is accelerated by the speed of the truck. It is evident that the heat absorption is easy, through the metallic walls [2 which have been provided for that purpose. Conversely, the mattresses provided around the refrigerator could, during cold weather, and 30 whenever kept dry, prevent frost from pene trating inside the refrigerator, the outside sur face of these mattresses being protected against weather by canvas or the like, the surface of which could advantageously be used for adver 35 tising purposes. It will be noted in I8, l9 and 20 that planks are provided with small apertures 2| formed on the lower edge thereof and which assume a shape of inverse V’s (Fig. 4). These planks rest di 40 rectly on the damp moss layer 5 and on the up per part of the apertured mattresses 8 and serve the purpose of partitions between the dry insu lating moss 2, the ice reservoir 4, and the reser voirs l5 and H5. The purpose of the apertures 2| is to prevent damming of the water from the melting ice and to regulate the ?ow thereof. The refrigerator is covered on all its surfaces, ed to protect from rain the dry mattresses 2, 2'. The dry moss receptacles protect efficiently the tress 8 which acts as a ?lter and prevents en trance into the refrigerator of the road dust. After circulating inside, the air is pushed out side through the outlet I4. This movement is accelerated by the speed of the truck. It is to be understood that the form of my invention herein shown and described is to be taken as a preferred example of the same, and 20 that various changes as to the shape, size and arrangement of parts may be resorted to with out departing from the spirit of the invention or the scope of the subjoined claim. Having thus described my invention, I claim:- 25 A refrigerator of the character described, com prising a metallic inner casing, a porous mat tress disposed against the outer surface of the casing at the top thereof, an ice chamber formed over said mattress, reservoirs formed adjacent 30 the ice chamber and over the mattress to re ceive a portion of the water produced from the melting of the ice, the remaining portion being absorbed by the mattress by capillarity, lateral mattresses disposed against the sides of the cas 35 ing and adapted to be wetted by capillarity with the water of the upper mattress, an insulating dry layer arranged over the ends of the casing, dry porous means thermally insulating the top of the refrigerator above the ice chamber and 40 water reservoirs, ventilating apertures at the top and bottom of the casing for circulating air in side the same, a weather-proof canvas over the upper insulating layer, and louvres disposed out wardly of the lateral mattresses for evaporating the water contents thereof by air currents. JOSEPH TETU BERTRAND.