Патент USA US2121460код для вставки
June 21,1938. >. H. F. WATERS " 2,121,460 WIRELESSLY OPERATED ELECTRICAL DECORATIVE LIGHT Filed Feb. 10, 1957 ' 4-291. 1529.2 / 23 26 To _ ' - f 2,2 ,24 TREE ______ TO Fill/Y i 25 a; J2 ‘ 55 , 2 Patented June 21, 1938 ~ 2,121,460 ‘ ; i ; UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE I . 2,121,450 WIRELESSLY OPERATED ELECTRICAL DEC QRATIVE LIGHT ' ' Harry F. Waters, New York, N. Y. ,7 ‘ ‘ Application February‘ 10, 1937, Serial -No. 125,111 l2‘ Claims. (01. 240L-I0) , 3Theepresent invention relates to wirelessly op transmitted through the medium of a Christmas erated electrical , decorative lamps, and, more tree but without any direct wire connection. (particularly, to wirelessly operated decorative , Still another'object oi! the invention is to pro vide a self-contained converter ‘of industrial lamps for Christmas trees. 5 Heretotore, it was customary to employ candles or small incandescent‘lamps on Christmas trees for decorative purposes. Candles had the obvious alternating currents to high frequency currents 5 and having. means for receiving and holding a Christmas tree exposed to the effect of such cur- _ disadvantage of providing a \ substantial fire rents whereby discharge tubes and electrical hazard and in addition had to be replaced quite lamps are actuated merely by means of the cur 10, frequently. Small‘ incandescent lamps did not ' rent received through the trunk and the branches 10 completely solve the problem because they pro of the Christmas tree. , vided, a light e?ect which was much too strong and could not imitate the soft and attractive glow ‘ of candles. Another grave vobjection against is conventional incandescent lamps was that they had to be connected to a wire ‘line carried throughout the treevand which interferred with ‘the decorative value of the tree. The lamps and. Y The invention also contemplates discharge lamps of novel form and character capable of emitting an attractive, inspiring and soft-glowing light when employed in connection with the tre- 1g quency converter of the present invention. It is also within contemplation of the inven tion to provide a simple and self-contained fre their sockets with the associated wires or cords ‘ quency converting device of small dimensions for have‘ been quite heavy and weighed down the wirelessly operating decorative lights on Christ- 20 branches of the tree. Moreover, short circuits mas trees, which is simple in construction and have frequently been caused bysmali'threads or which may be manufactured and sold at a rela particles of‘ tinsel“ or of tinfoil, which ‘are ex tively low price. ‘ ‘ tensively used on trees for decorative purposes, Other and further objects and advantages will 95 contacting parts of the lamp sockets or the pro become apparent from the following description 25 , truding part of the lamp bases and cases have taken in, conjunction with the accompanying been known when serious ?res involving lossoi' drawing, in which:— , property‘ or human life ‘occurred for this reason. ,Fig. 1 illustrates a perspective view of a device Although this situation was well known in the embodying the principles of the present invention art for a considerable length of time and various and holding a Christmas tree having wirelessly 30 suggestions and proposals have been made 'to ‘ operated decorative lamps mounted thereon; solve the outstanding. problem,» none, as far as I Fig. 2 depicts the electrical circuit employed am aware, of thesevarious suggestions and‘ pro; ' in the deviceshown in Fig. 1; ppsals wascompletely satisfactory and successful. Fig. 3 shows a discharge lamp of elongated I km 1 have discovered‘that the problem may be form adapted to be wirelessly energized by means 35 solved in a, remarkably simple manner. I It is an object of ‘the present invention‘to‘pro vide an‘ improved system‘ of electrical illumina tion for decorative purposes,‘ particularly . for 40 Christmas ‘trees, which is completely_‘free from 'the'disadvantages‘ and inconveniences of con ventional candles and of electrical incandescent lamps. “ " ‘ r ‘ of the device of Fig. l; ‘ " Fig. 4 is a modified gas discharge device of , spherical form adapted to emit light under the in?uence ofhigh frequency currents; and Fig. 5 is ‘a further modi?ed gas discharge de- ‘ 40 vice having'the form of a cross. \ ‘ Broadly stated, according to the principles of my invention, I provide an oscillation producer adapted to produce electrical, oscillations, ofa provide ‘a device for operating electrical lamps‘ high frequency. 'I'heoscillation producers may 45 _ ll ‘ ‘Itis another object of the present invention to or discharge tubes emitting light and mounted v be of widely different character such as a ' on a‘ Christmas tree without connecting said lamps‘ or tubes by‘wire to'the source of electrical 50 energy.“ ‘ , 1' c 1 It‘is " further object of the invention ‘to pro vide a device adapted to convert industrial elec 'trical currents‘ into‘ high frequency currents, which is capable of‘energizing suitable light ‘ emitting lamps by means of'electricallcurrents thermionic tube ‘oscillator or an oscillator. of the spark gap type, such as employed in con ventional medical diathermy machines. 1 intro duce one pole of the produced high frequency 60 currents ‘into a Christmas tree while ‘the other pole oi’ theoscillation producer may remain dis connected or, if desired, may be grounded. ,As ‘decorative ' lamps, I employ small evacuated vessels of glass in various decorative forms and 55' . 3,191,460 shapes with or without internal electrodes, which ‘ discharge- vessels1 which will light up under the . are in unipolar electrical connection’ with the influence of the high frequency currents com trunk or with the branches of a Christmas tree. municated thereto. The unipolar connection of Thesesmall glass vessels are ?lled with a suitable the discharge lamps with the oscillator through gas or mixture of gases at alow pressure, such as, for example, neon, argon, helium, hydrogen, nitrogen, etc. As those skilled in‘ the art know, evacuated. vessels of the described, character will ‘emit ‘a soft glow‘ or light when subjected to the effect of high'v frequency currents or ?elds, .due to the ionization of the gas content. The color 'and'the character of the light emitted largely depends on the character and pressure of the gases contained within the vessel or glass en velope, the frequency and thecharacter of the high frequency currents, and on the form and shape of the electrodes. Discharge lamps of the described character will emit light even in, the case when they are connected only to one side -' of a high frequency oscillatory circuit,‘and, inv case the high frequency field is su?‘iciently strong, even without ‘any wire or electrical connection whatsoever. Discharge vessels of this type are ,very moderate in their current requirements so that an oscillator of relatively small output may supply a relatively large number of such lamps with high frequency currents. In addition to this, high frequency currents within the fre quency range contemplated have no physiological effect ‘on the human body so that they are harm less and cannot produce direct shocks even if the conductors are touched directly. Referring now more particularly to Fig. 1 of thedrawing, a preferred embodiment of- the in-v vention is illustrated. A box or casing l con stituted of wood or some similar material is supported on feet 2 constituted of a good in sulator such as, for example, hard rubber, syn thetic resins, etc. Casing _i is provided with a 40, tree-supporting member 3 constituted of metal mounted on the top surface thereof, having a tubular extension adapted to receive and to hold a Christmas tree. A thumb screw 4 may be pro , vided in the tree supporting member for secure 45 ly holding the tree in position and also for pro ,viding a good electrical connection between the _ member and the tree. 3 Within casing i is pro vided a small oscillator preferably of the ther mionic tube type adapted to convert the alter nating current from the power line and intro duced into the casing through cord and plug 9, into a high frequency current. The one side of the output of the high frequency oscillator is con nected to the tree supporting member 3, while 55 the other side of the output is grounded through a wire l0. On the branches of tree 5 are mounted or suspended light-emitting gas dis charge tubes 6, ‘I and 3 having various decora tive forms, which are in electrical connection with the tree through little hooks, wires, or clamps having at the same time the object of holding. them in position on the tree. From the preceding description the operation of my device for wirelessly operating decorative lamps on Christmas trees will be readily under stood by those skilled inthe art. When casing i is connected to the power line, the oscillator . therein will produce electrical oscillations of a high frequency which are unipolarly introduced 70 into the tree. It is to be noted that a tree which still contains some natural moisture, is a fairly good conductor of high frequency electrical en ergy. Thus,-the high frequency energy will be transmitted through the medium of the tree to the various decorative lamps in the form of gas the tree will be su?lcient for providing a dis placement current in the lamps in case the fre quency of the high frequency current is high enough. Preferably, frequencies considerably" below the radio broadcasting range are used cor responding to wave lengths between 100 meters and 6 meters to prevent interference with con ventional broadcasting receivers. Fig. 2 is a preferred circuit diagram for the conversion of industrial alternating currents into the high frequency currents required for the 15 wireless operation of decorative lights. A trans former having a primary winding II and three secondary windings l2, l3, and H, is_ provided for supplying a conventional full wave recti?er tube IS with ?lament and plate‘current, and an oscillator tube 2! with ?lament heating current. The recti?ed current is ?ltered by means of low’ ‘frequency chokes l6 and i1 and ?lter condensers l9 and 20 and is hereafter introduced through a high frequency choke it into the oscillator prop er.v The oscillator comprises tube 2|, tapped in ductance 22, blocking condenser 23 and grid con 'denser and resistance 24 and 25, respectively, which are connected to the tube in conventional manner. The high frequency oscillations pro sov duced in the circuit are taken off by means of a coil or inductance 23 loosely coupled within ductanoe? and tuned by a variable series con denser 2‘l.v The output of high frequency‘oscil lations is connected to the tree supporting mem 35 ber and to the ground. In view of-the fact that. this circuit is of conventional character and is well known to those skilled in the art, its oper ation and’the production of electrical oscilla tions thereby will be readily understood by those. skilled inthe art without any further expla nation. ~ Fig. 3 ‘illustrates a preferred and exemplary form of a. lamp to be employed in connection with the device embodying the principles of- the pres; 45. ent invention. Essentially, the lamp comprises sealed glass envelope 3| of cylindrical shape hav-_ ing a base 33 and a clamping member 34 asso ciated therewith which permits to readily attach the lamp to one of the branches of the Christ mas tree. If desired, the lamp may be provided with a single internal electrode 32 which is car ried through the sealed glass envelope "and is electrically connected to the clamping-member 34. In most cases, however, it is not necessary 55 ‘to provide an internal electrode but only an ex ternal electrode, for example, by making base 33 of metal. In both cases, when the lamp is at tached to one of the branches of the Christmas tree by means of the clamping member, and the 60 treeis energized by means of the oscillator, the glass envelope 3| will be ?lled with a soft glow in accordance with the character and pressure of the gas within. In case an electrode is provided, it will be covered with a glow discharge and will 65 provide in‘ both cases an attractive and inspiring decorative e?ect. - . - r Fig. 4 depicts a modi?ed embodiment of a gas discharge device adapted to be operated by high frequency electrical currents. The lamp com 70 prises a sealed glass vessel of spherical form, ll, ?lled with a suitable gas ata low pressure. Glass vessel H is provided with an external electrode 42 which is secured to the upper portion of the spherical vessel by means of cementing. A short amines and ?exible wire 43 soldered to the external elec trode it permits to readily secure the sphere to a branch of the tree, for example by winding‘ the wire around the branch a few times. This atthe same time will provide the required electrical 10 connection between the tree and the discharge lamp. If desired, spherical glass vessel it may be constituted of colored or of painted glass in order to obtain novel and attractive decorative effects. , . , . Fig. 5 shows a further modi?ed embodiment of a lamp having a glass vessel in the form of a . crosahl, an internal electrode 572, a base 53 which is preferably constituted of metal and a clamp or 15 fastening device 54. In view-of the similarity of construction, operation of’this modi?ed em bodiment will be readily understood by ‘those skilled in the art without any further expla V20 nation. . . It is to be noted that the device embodying the principles of the present invention provides a number of important advantages. First of all, ‘a device for wirelessly operating decorativev lamps on Christmas trees and similar objects, is pro 25, vided which does not require any wire connec tion between the source of electrical energy and the lamps but relies merely on the transfer of electrical energy by means of radiation and by 30 means of unipolar conduction through the me dium of the tree. This circumstance not only permits complete freedom in the arrangement of the decorations on the tree, but also eliminates bulky, unsightly and dangerous wire connections. 35 It is also to be observed that the gas discharge lamps operated by the device of the invention provide novel and highly attractive decorative and light ell’ects which are by far superior to the strong glare of conventional incandescent lamps and which provide a soft and pleasing glow in 40 ‘keeping with the spirit of Christmas. ‘ Moreover, the device embodying the invention‘ completely eliminates the danger of shortv cir cuits or of‘ shocks in view of the ‘fact thatthe high frequency currents employed have no physi 45 ological effect and are completely harmless. Furthermore, the‘ device embodying the inven oscillations of high frequency means for supmrt ing a Christmas tree, coupling means for intro-' ducing said oscillations into said tree, and elec trical lamps mounted on said tree and adapted to emitlight under the effect of such oscillations. 3. In adevice of the character described, the combination comprising means for converting an alternating current of an industrial frequency into electrical oscillations of high frequency, means for supporting a Christmas tree, means _ electrically associated with said supporting means for unipolarly introducing said oscillations into said Christmas tree, and electrical discharge lamps mounted on said tree and unipolarly con nected thereto, said lamps being adapted to emit 15 light under the in?uence of said oscillations, 4. In a device of the character described, the. combination comprising a high frequency oscil lator, means for supplying electrical power to said oscillator,.means for withdrawing high fre 20 quency oscillations therefrom, supporting means connected to one pole of the output of said oscil lator for holding a Christmas tree, and a plurality of sealed glassvessels containing gas at reduced pressure mounted on said tree and adapted to 25 emit light when said oscillator is, actuated. 5. In a device of the character described, the combination comprising a source of current, an oscillator connected to said source of current and adapted to produce electrical oscillations of high 30 frequency, metallic supporting means for a Christmas tree electrically connected to one pole of said oscillator, a ground lead connected to the other pole of said oscillator, and a plurality of glass vessels containing gas at a low pressure 35 mounted on said tree and unipolarly energized by high frequency ‘oscillations through the medium of said tree. transmitted ' 6. In a device of the character described, a casing, a high frequency oscillator in said casing, means for supplying electric power to said oscil lator, a metallic tree-supporting member mount ed on said casing and connected to said oscillator, said supporting member being adapted to receive and to hold a Christmas tree and to transfer d5 high frequency oscillations ‘thereto, and a plu tion is extremely simple in construction and to rality of electric discharge tubes on said tree operate and may be manufactured and sold at a , energized by said oscillations unipolarly trans low price, particularly in view of the fact that the 50 gas discharge lamps contemplated consume very mitted through the medium of said tree. 7. In a device of the character'described, the small quantities, of electrical energy so that a combination comprising a *casing, means for in 50 , relatively ‘small output'of oscillatory energy will satisfactorily operate a large number of lamps. Although the present invention has been de 55 scribed in connection with a few preferred em~ bodiments thereof‘, and particularly as applied to a Christmas tree, variations and modi?cations ‘ may be resorted to without departing from the to principles of the present invention. I consider 'all of these variations and modi?cations as within the true spirit and scope of the present invention, as disclosed in the present description and de ?ned by the appended claims. 65 1. In a device of the character described, the combination comprising means for varying elec trical energy at a high frequency rate,‘ means for supporting a Christmas tree, means for impress ing said energy on said tree, and electrical light 70 producing means associated with said tree and _adapted to emit light under the effect of such @energy. . 2. In a device of the character described, the combination comprising means for converting an 75 electrical current of low frequency into electrical sulating said- casing from a supporting surface, a’ high frequency thermionic tube oscillator in said casing, a cord for supplying electrical energy to said oscillator from a power line, a tree-support 55 ing member of conductive material mounted on said casing and connected to said oscillator, said supporting member being adapted to receive and to hold a Christmas tree and to transfer high frequency oscillations thereto. 60 8. In a device of the character described, the combination comprising a casing, a plurality of insulative feet for supporting said casing, a high frequency oscillator in said casing, a cord ‘for supplying electrical energy to said oscillator from a power line, a tree ‘supporting member con stituted of a metallic material mounted on the top panel of said casing and electrically‘connected to one pole of the output of. said oscillator, said sup porting member being adapted to support a 70 Christmas tree and to transfer electrical oscil lations ‘thereto, a ground lead connected to the other pole of the output of said oscillator, and . electrical discharge tubes mounted on said tree and‘ unipolarly energized by high frequency 75 2,121,4eo - 4 energy transmitted through the trunk and the branches of said tree. ' 9‘- In a system of wirelessly operating electrical decorative lights on a tree, the combination com _ prising a casingg a high frequency oscillator in said casing, me ns for supplying electric power to said oscillator, tree-supporting means mounted on said casing; arid coupling means electrically associated with said oscillator andsaid support ing means and adapted to transfer high frequency oscillations to said tree. 10. In a system of wirelessly operating elec irical decorative lights on a tree, the combination comprising a casing, a high frequency oscillator in said casing, means for supplying electrical energy to said oscillator from a power line, tree~ supporting means adapted to receive a. Christmas tree and to insulatedly hold the same from the ground, and coupling means electrically associ ated with said oscillator and said supporting means to transfer high frequency oscillations to said tree. . 10 _ 12. In a system of wirelessly operating elec electrically associated with said oscillator, said trical decorative lights on a tree, the combination comprising a high frequency oscillator, means for supplying electrical energy to said oscillator from a power line, tree-supporting means adapted to 15 receive and to insulatedly hold a Christmas tree from the ground, and coupling means electrically associated with said oscillator and said support supporting means being adapted to receive and to hold a Christmas tree and to transfer high fre to said tree. trical decorative lights on a tree, the combination - comprising a casing, a high frequency oscillator in said casing, means for supplying electrical energy to said oscillator from .a power line, tree supporting means mounted on said casing and quency oscillations thereto. , 11. In a system of wlrelessly operating elec ing means to transfer high frequency oscillations . HARRY F. WATERS.