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Патент USA US2121460

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June 21,1938.
>. H. F. WATERS
"
2,121,460
WIRELESSLY OPERATED ELECTRICAL DECORATIVE LIGHT
Filed Feb. 10, 1957 '
4-291.
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Patented June 21, 1938
~ 2,121,460
‘ ; i ; UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE I .
2,121,450
WIRELESSLY OPERATED ELECTRICAL DEC
QRATIVE LIGHT
'
'
Harry F. Waters, New York, N. Y.
,7
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Application February‘ 10, 1937, Serial -No. 125,111
l2‘ Claims. (01. 240L-I0)
, 3Theepresent invention relates to wirelessly op
transmitted through the medium of a Christmas
erated electrical , decorative lamps, and, more
tree but without any direct wire connection.
(particularly, to wirelessly operated decorative
,
Still another'object oi! the invention is to pro
vide a self-contained converter ‘of industrial
lamps for Christmas trees.
5
Heretotore, it was customary to employ candles
or small incandescent‘lamps on Christmas trees
for decorative purposes. Candles had the obvious
alternating currents to high frequency currents 5
and having. means for receiving and holding a
Christmas tree exposed to the effect of such cur- _
disadvantage of providing a \ substantial fire
rents whereby discharge tubes and electrical
hazard and in addition had to be replaced quite lamps
are actuated merely by means of the cur
10, frequently. Small‘ incandescent lamps did not '
rent received through the trunk and the branches 10
completely solve the problem because they pro
of the Christmas tree.
,
vided, a light e?ect which was much too strong
and could not imitate the soft and attractive glow
‘
of candles.
Another grave vobjection against
is conventional incandescent lamps was that they
had to be connected to a wire ‘line carried
throughout the treevand which interferred with
‘the decorative value of the tree. The lamps and.
Y
The invention also contemplates discharge
lamps of novel form and character capable of
emitting an attractive, inspiring and soft-glowing
light when employed in connection with the tre- 1g
quency converter of the present invention.
It is also within contemplation of the inven
tion to provide a simple and self-contained fre
their sockets with the associated wires or cords ‘ quency converting device of small dimensions for
have‘ been quite heavy and weighed down the wirelessly operating decorative lights on Christ- 20
branches of the tree. Moreover, short circuits mas trees, which is simple in construction and
have frequently been caused bysmali'threads or which may be manufactured and sold at a rela
particles of‘ tinsel“ or of tinfoil, which ‘are ex
tively low price.
‘
‘
tensively used on trees for decorative purposes,
Other and further objects and advantages will
95 contacting parts of the lamp sockets or the pro
become apparent from the following description 25
, truding part of the lamp bases and cases have taken in, conjunction with the accompanying
been known when serious ?res involving lossoi' drawing, in which:—
,
property‘ or human life ‘occurred for this reason.
,Fig. 1 illustrates a perspective view of a device
Although this situation was well known in the embodying the principles of the present invention
art for a considerable length of time and various and holding a Christmas tree having wirelessly 30
suggestions and proposals have been made 'to ‘ operated decorative lamps mounted thereon;
solve the outstanding. problem,» none, as far as I
Fig. 2 depicts the electrical circuit employed
am aware, of thesevarious suggestions and‘ pro; ' in the deviceshown in Fig. 1;
ppsals wascompletely satisfactory and successful.
Fig. 3 shows a discharge lamp of elongated I
km
1 have discovered‘that the problem may be form adapted to be wirelessly energized by means 35
solved in a, remarkably simple manner.
I
It is an object of ‘the present invention‘to‘pro
vide an‘ improved system‘ of electrical illumina
tion for decorative purposes,‘ particularly . for
40 Christmas ‘trees, which is completely_‘free from
'the'disadvantages‘ and inconveniences of con
ventional candles and of electrical incandescent
lamps.
“
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r
‘
of the device of Fig. l;
‘
"
Fig. 4 is a modified gas discharge device of ,
spherical form adapted to emit light under the
in?uence ofhigh frequency currents; and
Fig. 5 is ‘a further modi?ed gas discharge de- ‘ 40
vice having'the form of a cross.
\ ‘
Broadly stated, according to the principles of
my invention, I provide an oscillation producer
adapted to produce electrical, oscillations, ofa
provide ‘a device for operating electrical lamps‘ high frequency. 'I'heoscillation producers may 45 _
ll ‘ ‘Itis another object of the present invention to
or discharge tubes emitting light and mounted v be of widely different character such as a
' on a‘ Christmas tree without connecting said
lamps‘ or tubes by‘wire to'the source of electrical
50 energy.“
‘
,
1'
c 1
It‘is " further object of the invention ‘to pro
vide a device adapted to convert industrial elec
'trical currents‘ into‘ high frequency currents,
which is capable of‘energizing suitable light
‘ emitting lamps by means of'electricallcurrents
thermionic tube ‘oscillator or an oscillator. of
the spark gap type, such as employed in con
ventional medical diathermy machines. 1 intro
duce one pole of the produced high frequency 60
currents ‘into a Christmas tree while ‘the other
pole oi’ theoscillation producer may remain dis
connected or, if desired, may be grounded. ,As
‘decorative ' lamps, I employ small evacuated
vessels of glass in various decorative forms and 55' .
3,191,460
shapes with or without internal electrodes, which ‘ discharge- vessels1 which will light up under the .
are in unipolar electrical connection’ with the influence of the high frequency currents com
trunk or with the branches of a Christmas tree. municated thereto. The unipolar connection of
Thesesmall glass vessels are ?lled with a suitable the discharge lamps with the oscillator through
gas or mixture of gases at alow pressure, such
as, for example, neon, argon, helium, hydrogen,
nitrogen, etc. As those skilled in‘ the art know,
evacuated. vessels of the described, character will
‘emit ‘a soft glow‘ or light when subjected to the
effect of high'v frequency currents or ?elds, .due
to the ionization of the gas content. The color
'and'the character of the light emitted largely
depends on the character and pressure of the
gases contained within the vessel or glass en
velope, the frequency and thecharacter of the
high frequency currents, and on the form and
shape of the electrodes. Discharge lamps of the
described character will emit light even in, the
case when they are connected only to one side
-' of a high frequency oscillatory circuit,‘and, inv
case the high frequency field is su?‘iciently strong,
even without ‘any wire or electrical connection
whatsoever. Discharge vessels of this type are
,very moderate in their current requirements so
that an oscillator of relatively small output may
supply a relatively large number of such lamps
with high frequency currents. In addition to
this, high frequency currents within the fre
quency range contemplated have no physiological
effect ‘on the human body so that they are harm
less and cannot produce direct shocks even if the
conductors are touched directly.
Referring now more particularly to Fig. 1 of
thedrawing, a preferred embodiment of- the in-v
vention is illustrated. A box or casing l con
stituted of wood or some similar material is
supported on feet 2 constituted of a good in
sulator such as, for example, hard rubber, syn
thetic resins, etc. Casing _i is provided with a
40, tree-supporting member 3 constituted of metal
mounted on the top surface thereof, having a
tubular extension adapted to receive and to hold
a Christmas tree. A thumb screw 4 may be pro
, vided in the tree supporting member for secure
45 ly holding the tree in position and also for pro
,viding a good electrical connection between the
_ member and the tree. 3 Within casing i is pro
vided a small oscillator preferably of the ther
mionic tube type adapted to convert the alter
nating current from the power line and intro
duced into the casing through cord and plug 9,
into a high frequency current. The one side of
the output of the high frequency oscillator is con
nected to the tree supporting member 3, while
55 the other side of the output is grounded through
a wire l0. On the branches of tree 5 are
mounted or suspended light-emitting gas dis
charge tubes 6, ‘I and 3 having various decora
tive forms, which are in electrical connection with
the tree through little hooks, wires, or clamps
having at the same time the object of holding.
them in position on the tree.
From the preceding description the operation
of my device for wirelessly operating decorative
lamps on Christmas trees will be readily under
stood by those skilled inthe art. When casing
i is connected to the power line, the oscillator
. therein will produce electrical oscillations of a
high frequency which are unipolarly introduced
70 into the tree. It is to be noted that a tree which
still contains some natural moisture, is a fairly
good conductor of high frequency electrical en
ergy. Thus,-the high frequency energy will be
transmitted through the medium of the tree to
the various decorative lamps in the form of gas
the tree will be su?lcient for providing a dis
placement current in the lamps in case the fre
quency of the high frequency current is high
enough. Preferably, frequencies considerably"
below the radio broadcasting range are used cor
responding to wave lengths between 100 meters
and 6 meters to prevent interference with con
ventional broadcasting receivers.
Fig. 2 is a preferred circuit diagram for the
conversion of industrial alternating currents into
the high frequency currents required for the 15
wireless operation of decorative lights. A trans
former having a primary winding II and three
secondary windings l2, l3, and H, is_ provided
for supplying a conventional full wave recti?er
tube IS with ?lament and plate‘current, and an
oscillator tube 2! with ?lament heating current.
The recti?ed current is ?ltered by means of low’
‘frequency chokes l6 and i1 and ?lter condensers
l9 and 20 and is hereafter introduced through a
high frequency choke it into the oscillator prop
er.v The oscillator comprises tube 2|, tapped in
ductance 22, blocking condenser 23 and grid con
'denser and resistance 24 and 25, respectively,
which are connected to the tube in conventional
manner. The high frequency oscillations pro
sov
duced in the circuit are taken off by means of a
coil or inductance 23 loosely coupled within
ductanoe? and tuned by a variable series con
denser 2‘l.v The output of high frequency‘oscil
lations is connected to the tree supporting mem 35
ber and to the ground. In view of-the fact that.
this circuit is of conventional character and is
well known to those skilled in the art, its oper
ation and’the production of electrical oscilla
tions thereby will be readily understood by those.
skilled inthe art without any further expla
nation.
~
Fig. 3 ‘illustrates a preferred and exemplary
form of a. lamp to be employed in connection with
the device embodying the principles of- the pres;
45.
ent invention. Essentially, the lamp comprises
sealed glass envelope 3| of cylindrical shape hav-_
ing a base 33 and a clamping member 34 asso
ciated therewith which permits to readily attach
the lamp to one of the branches of the Christ
mas tree. If desired, the lamp may be provided
with a single internal electrode 32 which is car
ried through the sealed glass envelope "and is
electrically connected to the clamping-member
34. In most cases, however, it is not necessary 55
‘to provide an internal electrode but only an ex
ternal electrode, for example, by making base 33
of metal. In both cases, when the lamp is at
tached to one of the branches of the Christmas
tree by means of the clamping member, and the 60
treeis energized by means of the oscillator, the
glass envelope 3| will be ?lled with a soft glow
in accordance with the character and pressure of
the gas within. In case an electrode is provided,
it will be covered with a glow discharge and will 65
provide in‘ both cases an attractive and inspiring
decorative
e?ect.
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Fig. 4 depicts a modi?ed embodiment of a gas
discharge device adapted to be operated by high
frequency electrical currents. The lamp com 70
prises a sealed glass vessel of spherical form, ll,
?lled with a suitable gas ata low pressure. Glass
vessel H is provided with an external electrode
42 which is secured to the upper portion of the
spherical vessel by means of cementing. A short
amines
and ?exible wire 43 soldered to the external elec
trode it permits to readily secure the sphere to a
branch of the tree, for example by winding‘ the
wire around the branch a few times. This atthe
same time will provide the required electrical
10
connection between the tree and the discharge
lamp. If desired, spherical glass vessel it may
be constituted of colored or of painted glass in
order to obtain novel and attractive decorative
effects.
,
.
,
. Fig. 5 shows a further modi?ed embodiment of
a lamp having a glass vessel in the form of a
. crosahl, an internal electrode 572, a base 53 which
is preferably constituted of metal and a clamp or
15 fastening device 54.
In view-of the similarity
of construction, operation of’this modi?ed em
bodiment will be readily understood by ‘those
skilled in the art without any further expla
V20
nation.
.
.
It is to be noted that the device embodying the
principles of the present invention provides a
number of important advantages. First of all,
‘a device for wirelessly operating decorativev lamps
on Christmas trees and similar objects, is pro
25, vided which does not require any
wire connec
tion between the source of electrical energy and
the lamps but relies merely on the transfer of
electrical energy by means of radiation and by
30 means of unipolar conduction through the me
dium of the tree. This circumstance not only
permits complete freedom in the arrangement of
the decorations on the tree, but also eliminates
bulky, unsightly and dangerous wire connections.
35
It is also to be observed that the gas discharge
lamps operated by the device of the invention
provide novel and highly attractive decorative
and light ell’ects which are by far superior to the
strong glare of conventional incandescent lamps
and which provide a soft and pleasing glow in
40 ‘keeping with the spirit of Christmas.
‘
Moreover, the device embodying the invention‘
completely eliminates the danger of shortv cir
cuits or of‘ shocks in view of the ‘fact thatthe
high frequency currents employed have no physi
45 ological effect and are completely harmless.
Furthermore, the‘ device embodying the inven
oscillations of high frequency means for supmrt
ing a Christmas tree, coupling means for intro-'
ducing said oscillations into said tree, and elec
trical lamps mounted on said tree and adapted
to emitlight under the effect of such oscillations.
3. In adevice of the character described, the
combination comprising means for converting an
alternating current of an industrial frequency
into electrical oscillations of high frequency,
means for supporting a Christmas tree, means _
electrically associated with said supporting means
for unipolarly introducing said oscillations into
said Christmas tree, and electrical discharge
lamps mounted on said tree and unipolarly con
nected thereto, said lamps being adapted to emit 15
light under the in?uence of said oscillations,
4. In a device of the character described, the.
combination comprising a high frequency oscil
lator, means for supplying electrical power to
said oscillator,.means for withdrawing high fre 20
quency oscillations therefrom, supporting means
connected to one pole of the output of said oscil
lator for holding a Christmas tree, and a plurality
of sealed glassvessels containing gas at reduced
pressure mounted on said tree and adapted to 25
emit light when said oscillator is, actuated.
5. In a device of the character described, the
combination comprising a source of current, an
oscillator connected to said source of current and
adapted to produce electrical oscillations of high 30
frequency, metallic supporting means for a
Christmas tree electrically connected to one pole
of said oscillator, a ground lead connected to the
other pole of said oscillator, and a plurality of
glass vessels containing gas at a low pressure 35
mounted on said tree and unipolarly energized
by
high frequency ‘oscillations
through the medium of said tree.
transmitted '
6. In a device of the character described, a
casing, a high frequency oscillator in said casing,
means for supplying electric power to said oscil
lator, a metallic tree-supporting member mount
ed on said casing and connected to said oscillator,
said supporting member being adapted to receive
and to hold a Christmas tree and to transfer d5
high frequency oscillations ‘thereto, and a plu
tion is extremely simple in construction and to rality of electric discharge tubes on said tree
operate and may be manufactured and sold at a , energized by said oscillations unipolarly trans
low price, particularly in view of the fact that the
50 gas discharge lamps contemplated consume very mitted through the medium of said tree.
7. In a device of the character'described, the
small quantities, of electrical energy so that a combination comprising a *casing, means for in 50
, relatively ‘small output'of oscillatory energy will
satisfactorily operate a large number of lamps.
Although the present invention has been de
55 scribed in connection with a few preferred em~
bodiments thereof‘, and particularly as applied to
a Christmas tree, variations and modi?cations
‘ may be resorted to without departing from the
to
principles of the present invention. I consider
'all of these variations and modi?cations as within
the true spirit and scope of the present invention,
as disclosed in the present description and de
?ned by the appended claims.
65
1. In a device of the character described, the
combination comprising means for varying elec
trical energy at a high frequency rate,‘ means for
supporting a Christmas tree, means for impress
ing said energy on said tree, and electrical light
70 producing means associated with said tree and
_adapted to emit light under the effect of such
@energy.
.
2. In a device of the character described, the
combination comprising means for converting an
75 electrical current of low frequency into electrical
sulating said- casing from a supporting surface, a’
high frequency thermionic tube oscillator in said
casing, a cord for supplying electrical energy to
said oscillator from a power line, a tree-support 55
ing member of conductive material mounted on
said casing and connected to said oscillator, said
supporting member being adapted to receive and
to hold a Christmas tree and to transfer high
frequency oscillations thereto.
60
8. In a device of the character described, the
combination comprising a casing, a plurality of
insulative feet for supporting said casing, a high
frequency oscillator in said casing, a cord ‘for
supplying electrical energy to said oscillator from
a power line, a tree ‘supporting member con
stituted of a metallic material mounted on the top
panel of said casing and electrically‘connected to
one pole of the output of. said oscillator, said sup
porting member being adapted to support a 70
Christmas tree and to transfer electrical oscil
lations ‘thereto, a ground lead connected to the
other pole of the output of said oscillator, and .
electrical discharge tubes mounted on said tree
and‘ unipolarly energized by high frequency 75
2,121,4eo
- 4
energy transmitted through the trunk and the
branches of said tree.
'
9‘- In a system of wirelessly operating electrical
decorative lights on a tree, the combination com
_ prising a casingg a high frequency oscillator in
said casing, me ns for supplying electric power
to said oscillator, tree-supporting means mounted
on said casing; arid coupling means electrically
associated with said oscillator andsaid support
ing means and adapted to transfer high frequency
oscillations to said tree.
10. In a system of wirelessly operating elec
irical decorative lights on a tree, the combination
comprising a casing, a high frequency oscillator
in said casing, means for supplying electrical
energy to said oscillator from a power line, tree~
supporting means adapted to receive a. Christmas
tree and to insulatedly hold the same from the
ground, and coupling means electrically associ
ated with said oscillator and said supporting
means to transfer high frequency oscillations to
said tree.
.
10
_ 12. In a system of wirelessly operating elec
electrically associated with said oscillator, said
trical decorative lights on a tree, the combination
comprising a high frequency oscillator, means for
supplying electrical energy to said oscillator from
a power line, tree-supporting means adapted to 15
receive and to insulatedly hold a Christmas tree
from the ground, and coupling means electrically
associated with said oscillator and said support
supporting means being adapted to receive and to
hold a Christmas tree and to transfer high fre
to said tree.
trical decorative lights on a tree, the combination
- comprising a casing, a high frequency oscillator
in said casing, means for supplying electrical
energy to said oscillator from .a power line, tree
supporting means mounted on said casing and
quency oscillations thereto.
,
11. In a system of wlrelessly operating elec
ing means to transfer high frequency oscillations
.
HARRY F. WATERS.
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