Патент USA US2121504код для вставки
June 2l, 1938. l J. v. MAàTlN 2,121,504` VEHICLE SUSPENSION Original Filed July 2l, 1951 11 sheets-sheet 1 ZZ #j C» as, /î June 21,A 1938. J..V. MARTIN , 2,121,504 VEHICLE SUSPENS ION ` ‘_ origgnal `Filed July 21, lésl ` 11 Shee'ts-Sheet 2 ' / @|1.5% gmkov June 21, 1938. v ' J. -v. MARTIN ` Original Filed July 21,A 1_931 53 -„J „4 - 2,121,504 VEHICLE'SUSPENSION l1 Sheets-Sheet 4 VEHIQLE SUSPENSION _ original Enea July-V21, v'1931 allarmi, fJunezl; 193s. J. v. MARTIN ` ì ~ 2,121,504 VEHICLE SUSPENSION _original Filed July 21, 1931 11 Sheets-Sheet 6 . . ...fnl 4 4/ / y WM" 21, ‘ ` ` J.v.» MARTIN _ ` . ` 2,121,504 VEHICLE SUSPENSION I Original Filed July 2l. 1931 67‘ Sheets-Sheet 7 _‘a7Y ~ Jung 21, 193s. J. v. MARTIN v vEHIcLE sUsYPENsIoN ` ‘ 2,121,504 Y ` \ Original Filed July 2l. 1.931 d ll SÈeets-Sheet 8 ...__ _ ___l___ I í ‘ Junezl, 193s. ‘ „Mmm VEHICLE f SUSPENSION 1 Original Filed July 2l, .1931 2,121,504 ` ll~ Sheets-Sheet 9 JWM/nto@ . fíw ' dttozmq June 21,'1938. VEHICLE sUsPENsI'oN `Original Filed J_u1y 2lI 1931 ` l1 Sheets-Sheet lO I patetica .time 21,1938 ' i 2,121,504- i = yUNI'41‘V1E'~D- STATE s ¿PATENT oFF-ICE 2,121,504 j VEHICLE SUSPENSION .lames V. Martin, Garden City, N. Y. Application July 21, '1931. `Serial No. 552,238 Renewed June 19, 1937 11 claims. (ci. aso-124) Fig. '8 is a view looking down upon the rear drive wheel guide bracket and brake mechanism, The primary object of my invention is to pro vide an improved vehicle suspension, which while - holding the wheels inilexiblywithin a rotational and ' - ‘ t , Fig. 9 is a sectional view through the universal plane or planes will permit a large range of joint shown in the hub cap of Fig. 'L_ and Fig. 10 ß 5 comparatively free vertical movement, i. e. yield able _vertical movement free from cramping or v is a still more detailed internal view of this uni binding effects due to various side loadings of the versal joint turned to a maximum angle. Fig. 11 is a sectional view looking down upon _ The beneñts of individual springing for vehicle the center of the rear guide bracket. Fig. 12 is aside elevation showing the outside 10 10 wheels have long been known, but practical diill ' wheels. Y ' ' ' « cultieshave prevented succes'sln application and in my experience the tendency‘of vertical guides of an improved taxibus or cab to which my in-A -vention is applied, and . Fig. 131s a plan view showing the inside seating to cramp or bind has -held back the application of complete individual wheel springing. 15 ` _ and door arrangements of the improved taxibus. A further' object of vmy invention is to simplify while and` adapt the related Jsteering and driving ‘ l5 Fig. 14 ‘is a front elevation and Fig. 15 a front interior view of the said taxi and, », parts in harmony with the new form ot guide herein disclosed and to improve upon the guide _ Fig. 16 is a side elevational view showing the interior partly in section, and Fig. 17 shows the brackets -and steering means shown in-my co preferred arrangement of my novel guard strips 20 V 20 pending Serials #355,839, filed Apr. 17, 1929 and issued- asiPatent #2,010,368; #407,131 ñled Nov. .and pannel inclosing the rear drive wheel, and Fig. 18 shows the wheel housing and pannel in . 14, 1929 and issued as Patent #2,084,694 and #431,617 iiled Feb. 26, 1930 andissued as Patent #1,989,995. 25 . ‘ , ' section as seen from above and Fig. 19 shows one form o! the guard strip in' section while Fig. 20 _ shows an alternative form and alternative meth- 25 ' A still further object vof my invention vis to show the best application of my invention to a ods of attaching to the body side wall, while Fig. road vehicle and an aeroplane and to provide a ' .21 shows a method of marrying the ends of the guard strips and their pannel to the car side wall to bridge the strength against external blows. more compact arrangement of seating,- motor placement, wheel location and entrance than a0 those hitherto. known or used and to eliminate from external positions certain parts such as the muñler and to protect in a novel manner the sides of the ìvehicle from injury due tto contact with ~ 3.3 other objects. ` V , Fig. 22 shows the self-aligningguide shoe and 30 » Fig. 23 is an end view ofthe same showing in ' dotted lines the hole for the self-aligning axis. , Continuing with a more detailed description of my invention similar numerals will'designate sim > Still> further objects of my invention will become apparent Aas the description proceeds. '_ Fig.V 1 is a view in elevation and mostly in ilar parts throughout: _. 4 v 35 I'indicates a box-like trussed lower portion of a vehicle designed to be associated with my _new v ' " section showing my improved guide and bracket ' type of suspension and having ,an angle iron Ii0 ' bridge truss 3 cooperating with a floonsupport l .as applied to the front left steering wheel. Fig.~2 is a view looking »down upon the guide and a side wall 5 and bottom 6 to form a non- 4b l and associated hub and,v tie rod parts, the guideA flexing support for the _guide wheel brackets ‘l parts themselves being in section. > ' Fig. 3 is van elevational view- looking‘atl the guide from the position of -theguide bracket at 45 tachment to the vehicle body. . - and 8, »whichare bolted to the side wall at f_l', ~ The i’ront >.wheel brackets 1 have an upper l fork 'mand a lower fork 1b which hold a steel‘ 45 Fig, 4` is 'a view‘looking downwardly upon the `tube 9 turnable in bushings l0.' Threaded rings 9a at top'and'9b at bottom hold. the tube from vertical movement in the forked bracket and also umn, and \ ‘ i Fig. 5_is a view. in side elevation of this sameîN hold i'n place a steel _metal closing cap lI I- at top and bottom of the ends of the said tube. 60 bracket. . , I steering bracket at the base of the steering _col 50 » Fig. 6 isa view in elevation _and partly in sec.. Inside of tube 9 and welded or screwed thereto tion _of-the rear left wheel guide bracket and -are milled ¿omis I2 (Fig. 2) having square shaped braking mechanism, and ‘ ' ' u _ _vertical slots'iñto which‘ï'shoes I3 ñt snugly. Fig. '7 is an elevation. mostly in section, taken . Pins u amena/d to the spinne forging Is a1'- _. 6d along the line X'--'X of Fig. 6. low the shoes i3 to turn freely _in the holes Il' 65 - 9,121,504 ` _in the center of each shoe, so that all lateral pressures transmitted to the spindle forging I5 will distribute their pressure evenly all along one face of each shoe and in no case can the upper or lower edge of a shoe tend to dig into or pinch the guide surface.` For simplicity the tube 9 including its relatively slidable .parts may be re - i'erred to as a self-aligning guide: Figs. 1, 13 and 15 show one such‘guide between each steering 10 wheel and the body bracket. , It will be observed. that there are four‘shoes widely separated to gi e leverage strength to the spindle forging and to old the wheel in desired side wall 5 thence through the‘tapered hollow stub axle 34 to another universal joint 4| located ' within the hubcap 42. , 'I'his universal joint is shown more particularly in Figs. '7, 9 and 10. Keyed'to the shaft 40 is a cross-head 4I jour nalled to turn within bronze blocks 44 and these blocks are radiused to slide and rook within'a square shaped portion 45 of the hub part 46 to which the wheel 35 is bolted and which also car- , ries the brake drumúl. It will be noticed that the inner end of the stub-axle 34 is closed against exit of grease by a radiused dust cap 48 held tight by a spring 49 so that the grease placed freely planes vertically oi rotation in the w .guiallowing it to travel « within the hub cap 42 will suiilce for both the uni e grooves. Il indi l 15 cates a radiused head at top and bottom of the versal joint and roller bearings. The brake band 501s carried by the upward arm milled forms I2 and this is grooved or recessed. _leading from the top of the stub axle part 34, so that it provides a guide and radiused part for 5| this also carries the weight of the brake operat the slipping of a steel ribbon |'| which is attached mechanism, while the' brake band is guided on to the steel forging at Il. It will be noticed that ing drum 41 by clips- 52 carried by the arms 2| 20 the spindle forging enters the tube s throúgh a the which is also carried by the stub axle 34. Cor slot Il vertically elongated as shown by dotted -responding arms 23 are ilxed to the lower end lines in Fig. 3 and the function oi the steel ribbon of the bracket 8 and carrythe rear of the body is to seal the slot againsty exit of grease and through rubber cords 22 such as disclosed in rela against ingress of dirt, packing is indicated at tion with the front bracket. The brake operat 25 Il'. 'I‘he wheel hub 2l is held on roller bearings ing mechanism is not much diii’erent from theA on the steel spindle forging in ‘conventional man» but the brake torque is taken in ner, while 2l' indicates a disc wheel bolted to the conventional, an entirely novel manner, i. e. instead oi passing said hub. -Arms 2| are carried by the spindle this into _a Arear drive housing it is taken directly forging and these have a three sided channel with into the body side wall in sheer by a >radius arm 30 the open side thereof closed by excentrically jour nalled and roughened clamps 2| ' designed to grip 52 journalled to the body l at i4.l :The operating cable „passes over thev journal center 54 so that ‘ and hold aviator cord 22 such as more fully dis operation of the brakes will not-be affected closed in my copending application Serial No. the by the vertical position .of the stub axle in the 35 355.839 filed April 17. 1929. bracket. Rubber bumpers 56 limit the relative The lower fork Tb of the bracket '| carries cor- ' movement of the .guide travel and ‘stresses are 35 responding arms 2l andthe rubber cords yield taken simply and directly instead of in the com ingly suspend the vehicle body for vertical plicated and multiplied fashion of conventional movement between these arms. . ` practice. ‘ The tube I is fixed at its lower part to a steer Referring now to Figs. l2; 13, 14, 15 and 16 we ing arm` 24 and each end of a steering tie rod 25 - is journalled to turn about a bearing 24' of arm iind a motor 51 bolted securely to the base | of the taxi and inclosed within a housing Il located 24. This tie-rod does not move up and' down under and to one side of the driver’s seat 59. A with the wheels as in conventional practice but radiator 8l has a water connection 6| with the passes through a hole in the body above the bot motor through the double bottom base | of the tom thereof and as disclosed in Figs. 4 and 5 has taxi and a hand wheel 28’ ismounted upon the a rack 26 attached to it top of the> steering column. A gear box I2 is - pinion 2T keyed to the lower end of the steering reached by hand lever 83, while diiierential 4l' is column 2l which is Journalled to turn within a located under rear seat 84 and additional bracket 2l which _is bolted to the body bottom 6. folding seats 65 the are provided. ’I‘he doors Il oper 'I'his bracket also carries an idler wheel “to hold ate by rods, not shown, in a well known manner 50 the tie~rod in proper contact with the pinion 21. from the driver’s seat and fold into the dotted line v Dust caps Il' hold oil in_and keep dust out. positions shown in Fig. 13. In this particular Referring now to Figs. >6, '1, 8, 9. 10 and 11 the 55 rear brackets l are somewhat like the front arrangementof driver and steering column a link connection isl shown'to reach from the column 55 brackets excepting thatfthey have no -parts for end back to the steering tie rod, but itI will be steering, but have two guides or guide assemblies understood that where the'driver does not sit Il spaced further apart and their shoes I! held turnably on the ends of pins Il and these pins are so far forward ~the direct connection of tie rod carried by the stubv axle part 34 which holds the . and column shown in Figs. 4 and 5 may be used; rear drive wheel Il in rotational augment by . in any'case the tie rod is above the body bottom and thus protected from injury and road stresses. ‘means of roller bearings It.V The shoes them Guard strips 61 pass entirely around the ve selves are like il of Flg's.,22 and 23 and are self aligning as to pressures transmitted to the guide hicle body, in the preferred construction contin surfaces of Il. These guide surfaces are iiirmly .lling on a pannel outside oi'l the rear wheel. The held in body brackets l. attached to wall i and pannel Il, Figs. 17 and 18 «provides Va means of .like the front brackets the vslots 3l are closed readily approaching the rear wheel to remove the by steel ribbons 'Il similar to those on the front same and the guard strips bridge the strength . brackets. These ribbons close the slots 31 against across the pannel by the particular union they -have with the adjoining guard stripsl as shown in 70. dirt and pass over radiused parts 3l 'indicated in ‘ ` u dotted lines in Fig. . j . A drivel shaft 4I passes from the differential 4l'V which is?xed to the center of the lower por j tion l of the body; the shaft being'attached by a universal joint, through a slot l’ in the body Fig. 2l. ' - As shown in Figs. 19 and 20 these guard strips are built .up in form and material for great strength and are hollow for light weight, being of combined wood and metal construction glued together with water resisting glue. Alternative ,70 ` . _ 3 2,121,504. methods of attaching the guard strips to the side> wheel through anti-friction bearings and having wall are shown at69 and `10v and where an out guide extensions on the body side of the said wardly swinging door is used it is contemplated carrying the guard strip across the door having a bearings, multiple guide shoes journalled to the V shape- at the hinge side and a shape such as shown at Fig. 21 omitting the bolt .1| on the non hinge "side. In order to prevent the horizontal protrusions of 'other vehicles -from injuring the body of a vehicle I have provided vertically dis 10 posed guard bumpers 18 and 19 outwardly/"ofV the horizontal guard bumpers 61, see Figs. v12 and" 14. It-will be noticed that vertical part 19 is attached vsaid extensions and sliding vertically in an in closed guide rigid with the lower part of the said body. . Y . 5.> A combination according to claim 4 and a drive shaft passing through the said stub axle part to a universal joint located outwardly of the said bearings. ' . " 6. In combination with independent' drive wheel springing for road vehicles, two ver at 80 to the horizontal bumper `61. Such a door > tically elongated and spaced apart guide mem may replace the closed side of the taxi-bus omit bers attached to the sprung portions of the said V15 ting the two folding seats. « _ vehicle, each of said guide members inclosing an Since the low center of gravity obtained by my upper and a lower shoe, each said shoe carried boxlike structure is so near to the ground that no room for a muffler is available a nëw type of muiiler suitable for installation inside of the base ' on a pivot by a stub axle part of the said wheel \ and the said pivot located intermediate the upper and lower bearing‘surfaces of each said shoe._ '7.„A combination according to claim 6, an en from pipe 12 and by Venturi tube eifect' 'M the , trance in each-saidv guide member for portions of air circulation through the base I from the air saidaxle part and a loop of flexible material openings 11_ and drawn afround the muiiier T3 sealing one >of the said entrances against in through the outer muiller cover 16 is increased gress of dirt while` permitting> vertical move 20 l is provided at T3 which takes the exhaust gases '25 and the hot gas expelled at 15. 1B shows my im proved vehicle >bumper using rubber cords 22. 30 ment of the said part therein. 8. In combination with the ' 25 independentlyj y ` Having thus disclosed‘the nature of my inven tion and its method of operation, what I specifi sprung drive wheel of a vehicle, a stub axle part cally claim is:--- . wheel through anti-friction bearings and hav holding the rotational alignmentV of- the said> I y l. In combination with aA vehicle body- and ing guide extensions on the body side of the said 03 0 road wheel, an intervening guide bracketv inclos- . bearings, multiple guide shoes journalled to said ing self-aligning guide surfaces to hold the wheel f extensions and sliding vertically in an inclosed « in desired relations with the said body and pro viding a sliding yieldable vertical movement 35 therebetween, a-steering tie-rod leading from a ` sprung-portion of the said bracket through the body side wall above the body bottom, a steering .column secured to the body bottom and carrying y a pinion thereon, and a rack meshing with the said pinion on the said tie rod to move the same. 2. In combination with a wheel bracket inter ' vening between a vehicle side wall and a road wheel, a stub axle part vertically elongated and guided for vertical movement within an inclosed 45 part of the said bracket and carrying the wheel spindle through a slot in the said bracket and a steel ribbon havingV one end attached to the said part above and' the other end below the said spindle and closing the said `slot against ingress of dirt. 3. In combination with'-- independent wheel springing for a vehicle,.an internally trussed por guide rigid with the lower part of the said body, a drive shaft passing through the said stub axle to a universal joint located outwardly of the said 63 5 bearingsand'means to seal the space between the outer end of the said stub axle` and the shaft against passage of oil or dirt while permitting universal movement of the said shaft. 9. The combination between a vehicle having a »bracket and ground wheel, of a vertically'elon gated guide secured at its top and bottom to the said bracket, a stub axle» part for the said wheel extending from the said wheel into the said guide between thesecured portions thereof and hav 45 ing upwardly and downwardly extending parts ~within 'the said guide and a pivoted shoe on each of the -said. extending parts. 10. In combination with an individually sprung vehicle wheel, a guide, a stub axle part guided for vertical movement within the said guide and entering the said guide through a slot in the »tion'of the vehicle body extending horizontally ' wheel side thereof and a iiexible closure for the between" two forward steering road wheels, the ,said slot sealing the sides thereof attached to the floor of- the said body forming the upper mem berof the said trussed portion and a lower bot tom’closure forming the bottom truss member, a `forked wheel guide- bracket having an upper fork upper and lower side of the said stub axle part. 1l. In combination with a vehicle and _one of its ground wheels, a vertical guide, a stub axle part, guide shoes carried by said part and sliding i leading off from the upper and a lower fork from - within the said guide and holding the said vehicle and wheel in guided vertical alignment with each 60 other, the said shoes pivotally mounted on the ber sliding on ï self „aligning bearings within a _said part so that they have part of their bearing .cylindrical guide, the said guide journalled to. surfaces above, and part below' the said pivot. " turn within bearings located in the ~said forked 12. In' combination Vwith a vertical guide 65 bracket, a tie rod lever rigid with the cylindrical bracket interveningv between and connected to thel lower of said truss limits on each side of the `. V„said body, a vertically. yieldable stub axle mem r'guide on each side and a connecting rack pass-. ing through the said trussed body portion and connecting the said tie rod levers, a steering col umn passing through a bearing located within ' the said trussed portion and a pinion meshingv ' Awith the said rack and rotated- by the said col umn'to steer the said wheels. - 4. In combination with independent springing ' for .the drive-'wheel of Va vehicle, a stub axle part holdingthe -rotational alignment of L the said a vehicle and oneof its ground wheels, an in closed vertical guide, a stub> axle part connected to the _said bracket and having pins thereon mul tiple sliding shoes journalled on said pins carried by the said part and iitted within the said guide .70 and parts of the bearing area of eachsaid shoe/l located above and other parts below the said pins. 13. In' combination with guide brackets inter vening between a vehicle side wall and a road wheel thereof, aradius rod, a stub axle part, shoes 75 4 2,121,504 journalled on pins attached to the said part and holding it in a given rotational planerelative the ` said vehicle and wheel while permitting vertical vmovement there-'between and the said rod ar ranged to_ absorb brake torque , so „that such tach'ed `to the sprung part of the said vehicle, a stub axle part entering through a slot in the side of the said guide and a Acontinuous loop of ñex ible material passing from the upper said axic part where it enters the sa'id slot and sealing the torque does- not enter the said shoes. said slot against ingress of dirt and passing over 14. In combination with independently sprung. -radiused portions of the said guide atl top and wheels for a vehicle, an internally trussed portion bottom thereoi and ending adjacent the bottom of the vehicle Vbody extending horizontally be of ‘the said axle part where same enters the Asaid tween two forward steering wheels, the floor of the said body forming vthe upper member of- the said trussed-portion and a lower bottom closure forming~ theV bottom truss member, a forked bracket having’an upper fork leading oil'. from Il the said upper and a lower fork from the said lower member of the said truss limits on each side of the said body, a stub axle part sliding ver tically on self-aligning bearings within a cylin drical guide journalled to turn within the ends of the said forks. 15. In combination with independent wheel springing for a vehicle wheel, a vertical guide at slot. ~ 16. In combination with a -vehicle wheel, a stub axle part, a vertical wheel guide carried by the vehicle and guide shoes pivotally carried by the said stub axle part, the axis of the said pivots 10 being intermediate part ofthe upper and lower 15 area of the said shoes. - » 17. A combination according to claim 16 and a means including rubber in tension to carry the said guide yieldably from the said axle part. 20 JADEES V. MARTIN.