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Патент USA US2121504

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June 2l, 1938.
l
J. v. MAàTlN
2,121,504`
VEHICLE SUSPENSION
Original Filed July 2l, 1951
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June 21,A 1938.
J..V.
MARTIN
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VEHICLE SUSPENS ION
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VEHICLE'SUSPENSION
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VEHIQLE SUSPENSION _
original Enea July-V21, v'1931
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VEHICLE SUSPENSION
_original Filed July 21, 1931
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VEHICLE SUSPENSION
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Original Filed July 2l. 1931
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ll~ Sheets-Sheet 9
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June 21,'1938.
VEHICLE sUsPENsI'oN
`Original Filed J_u1y 2lI 1931
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yUNI'41‘V1E'~D- STATE s ¿PATENT oFF-ICE
2,121,504 j
VEHICLE SUSPENSION
.lames V. Martin, Garden City, N. Y.
Application July 21, '1931. `Serial No. 552,238
Renewed June 19, 1937
11 claims. (ci. aso-124)
Fig. '8 is a view looking down upon the rear
drive wheel guide bracket and brake mechanism,
The primary object of my invention is to pro
vide an improved vehicle suspension, which while
- holding the wheels inilexiblywithin a rotational
and
'
-
‘
t
,
Fig. 9 is a sectional view through the universal
plane or planes will permit a large range of
joint shown in the hub cap of Fig. 'L_ and Fig. 10 ß
5 comparatively free vertical movement, i. e. yield
able _vertical movement free from cramping or v is a still more detailed internal view of this uni
binding effects due to various side loadings of the versal joint turned to a maximum angle.
Fig. 11 is a sectional view looking down upon
_
The beneñts of individual springing for vehicle the center of the rear guide bracket.
Fig. 12 is aside elevation showing the outside 10
10 wheels have long been known, but practical diill
'
wheels.
Y
'
'
'
«
cultieshave prevented succes'sln application and
in my experience the tendency‘of vertical guides
of an improved taxibus or cab to which my in-A
-vention is applied, and .
Fig. 131s a plan view showing the inside seating
to cramp or bind has -held back the application
of complete individual wheel springing.
15
`
_ and door arrangements of the improved taxibus.
A further' object of vmy invention is to simplify
while
and` adapt the related Jsteering and driving
‘
l5
Fig. 14 ‘is a front elevation and Fig. 15 a front
interior view of the said taxi and,
»,
parts in harmony with the new form ot guide
herein disclosed and to improve upon the guide
_ Fig. 16 is a side elevational view showing the
interior partly in section, and Fig. 17 shows the
brackets -and steering means shown in-my co
preferred arrangement of my novel guard strips 20 V
20 pending Serials #355,839, filed Apr. 17, 1929 and
issued- asiPatent #2,010,368; #407,131 ñled Nov. .and pannel inclosing the rear drive wheel, and
Fig. 18 shows the wheel housing and pannel in .
14, 1929 and issued as Patent #2,084,694 and
#431,617 iiled Feb. 26, 1930 andissued as Patent
#1,989,995.
25
.
‘
,
'
section as seen from above and Fig. 19 shows one
form o! the guard strip in' section while Fig. 20 _
shows an alternative form and alternative meth- 25
'
A still further object vof my invention vis to
show the best application of my invention to a ods of attaching to the body side wall, while Fig.
road vehicle and an aeroplane and to provide a ' .21 shows a method of marrying the ends of the
guard strips and their pannel to the car side
wall to bridge the strength against external blows.
more compact arrangement of seating,- motor
placement, wheel location and entrance than
a0 those hitherto. known or used and to eliminate
from external positions certain parts such as the
muñler and to protect in a novel manner the sides
of the ìvehicle from injury due tto contact with
~
3.3
other objects.
`
V
, Fig. 22 shows the self-aligningguide shoe and 30 »
Fig. 23 is an end view ofthe same showing in '
dotted lines the hole for the self-aligning axis.
, Continuing with a more detailed description of
my invention similar numerals will'designate sim
>
Still> further objects of my invention will become
apparent Aas the description proceeds. '_
Fig.V 1 is a view in elevation and mostly in
ilar parts throughout:
_.
4
v
35
I'indicates a box-like trussed lower portion of
a vehicle designed to be associated with my _new v '
" section showing my improved guide and bracket ' type of suspension and having ,an angle iron
Ii0
' bridge truss 3 cooperating with a floonsupport l
.as applied to the front left steering wheel.
Fig.~2 is a view looking »down upon the guide and a side wall 5 and bottom 6 to form a non- 4b l
and associated hub and,v tie rod parts, the guideA flexing support for the _guide wheel brackets ‘l
parts themselves being in section.
>
'
Fig. 3 is van elevational view- looking‘atl the
guide from the position of -theguide bracket at
45 tachment to the vehicle body. . -
and 8, »whichare bolted to the side wall at f_l',
~ The i’ront >.wheel brackets 1 have an upper
l
fork 'mand a lower fork 1b which hold a steel‘ 45
Fig, 4` is 'a view‘looking downwardly upon the `tube 9 turnable in bushings l0.' Threaded rings
9a at top'and'9b at bottom hold. the tube from
vertical movement in the forked bracket and also
umn, and
\
‘
i Fig. 5_is a view. in side elevation of this sameîN hold i'n place a steel _metal closing cap lI I- at top
and bottom of the ends of the said tube.
60
bracket.
.
,
I steering bracket at the base of the steering _col
50
» Fig. 6 isa view in elevation _and partly in sec..
Inside of tube 9 and welded or screwed thereto
tion _of-the rear left wheel guide bracket and -are milled ¿omis I2 (Fig. 2) having square shaped
braking mechanism, and
‘
'
'
u
_ _vertical slots'iñto which‘ï'shoes I3 ñt snugly.
Fig. '7 is an elevation. mostly in section, taken . Pins u amena/d to the spinne forging Is a1'- _.
6d along the line X'--'X of Fig. 6.
low the shoes i3 to turn freely _in the holes Il' 65
-
9,121,504
` _in the center of each shoe, so that all lateral
pressures transmitted to the spindle forging I5
will distribute their pressure evenly all along one
face of each shoe and in no case can the upper
or lower edge of a shoe tend to dig into or pinch
the guide surface.` For simplicity the tube 9
including its relatively slidable .parts may be re
- i'erred to as a self-aligning guide: Figs. 1, 13 and
15 show one such‘guide between each steering
10 wheel and the body bracket. ,
It will be observed. that there are four‘shoes
widely separated to gi e leverage strength to the
spindle forging and to old the wheel in desired
side wall 5 thence through the‘tapered hollow
stub axle 34 to another universal joint 4| located
' within the hubcap 42. , 'I'his universal joint is
shown more particularly in Figs. '7, 9 and 10.
Keyed'to the shaft 40 is a cross-head 4I jour
nalled to turn within bronze blocks 44 and these
blocks are radiused to slide and rook within'a
square shaped portion 45 of the hub part 46 to
which the wheel 35 is bolted and which also car- ,
ries the brake drumúl. It will be noticed that
the inner end of the stub-axle 34 is closed against
exit of grease by a radiused dust cap 48 held
tight by a spring 49 so that the grease placed
freely
planes vertically
oi rotation
in the
w .guiallowing it to travel « within the hub cap 42 will suiilce for both the uni
e grooves. Il indi
l
15
cates a radiused head at top and bottom of the versal joint and roller bearings.
The
brake
band
501s
carried
by
the
upward arm
milled forms I2 and this is grooved or recessed.
_leading from the top of the stub axle part 34,
so that it provides a guide and radiused part for 5|
this also carries the weight of the brake operat
the slipping of a steel ribbon |'| which is attached
mechanism, while the' brake band is guided on
to the steel forging at Il. It will be noticed that ing
drum 41 by clips- 52 carried by the arms 2| 20
the spindle forging enters the tube s throúgh a the
which is also carried by the stub axle 34. Cor
slot Il vertically elongated as shown by dotted -responding
arms 23 are ilxed to the lower end
lines in Fig. 3 and the function oi the steel ribbon of the bracket 8 and carrythe rear of the body
is to seal the slot againsty exit of grease and through rubber cords 22 such as disclosed in rela
against ingress of dirt, packing is indicated at tion
with the front bracket. The brake operat 25
Il'. 'I‘he wheel hub 2l is held on roller bearings ing mechanism
is not much diii’erent from theA
on the steel spindle forging in ‘conventional man»
but the brake torque is taken in
ner, while 2l' indicates a disc wheel bolted to the conventional,
an entirely novel manner, i. e. instead oi passing
said hub. -Arms 2| are carried by the spindle this
into _a Arear drive housing it is taken directly
forging and these have a three sided channel with into the body side wall in sheer by a >radius arm
30
the open side thereof closed by excentrically jour
nalled and roughened clamps 2| ' designed to grip 52 journalled to the body l at i4.l :The operating
cable „passes over thev journal center 54 so that
‘ and hold aviator cord 22 such as more fully dis
operation of the brakes will not-be affected
closed in my copending application Serial No. the
by the vertical position .of the stub axle in the
35 355.839 filed April 17. 1929.
bracket. Rubber bumpers 56 limit the relative
The lower fork Tb of the bracket '| carries cor- ' movement of the .guide travel and ‘stresses are 35
responding arms 2l andthe rubber cords yield
taken simply and directly instead of in the com
ingly suspend the vehicle body for vertical plicated
and multiplied fashion of conventional
movement between these arms.
.
` practice.
‘
The tube I is fixed at its lower part to a steer
Referring
now
to
Figs.
l2;
13,
14,
15 and 16 we
ing arm` 24 and each end of a steering tie rod 25
- is journalled to turn about a bearing 24' of arm iind a motor 51 bolted securely to the base | of
the taxi and inclosed within a housing Il located
24. This tie-rod does not move up and' down under and to one side of the driver’s seat 59. A
with the wheels as in conventional practice but radiator 8l has a water connection 6| with the
passes through a hole in the body above the bot
motor through the double bottom base | of the
tom thereof and as disclosed in Figs. 4 and 5 has taxi and a hand wheel 28’ ismounted upon the
a rack 26 attached to it
top of the> steering column. A gear box I2 is
- pinion 2T keyed to the lower end of the steering
reached
by hand lever 83, while diiierential 4l' is
column 2l which is Journalled to turn within a located under
rear seat 84 and additional
bracket 2l which _is bolted to the body bottom 6. folding seats 65 the
are provided. ’I‘he doors Il oper
'I'his bracket also carries an idler wheel “to hold ate by rods, not shown, in a well known manner 50
the tie~rod in proper contact with the pinion 21.
from the driver’s seat and fold into the dotted line
v Dust caps Il' hold oil in_and keep dust out.
positions
shown in Fig. 13. In this particular
Referring now to Figs. >6, '1, 8, 9. 10 and 11 the
55 rear brackets l are somewhat like the front arrangementof driver and steering column a link
connection isl shown'to reach from the column 55
brackets excepting thatfthey have no -parts for end
back to the steering tie rod, but itI will be
steering, but have two guides or guide assemblies
understood
that where the'driver does not sit
Il spaced further apart and their shoes I! held
turnably on the ends of pins Il and these pins are so far forward ~the direct connection of tie rod
carried by the stubv axle part 34 which holds the . and column shown in Figs. 4 and 5 may be used;
rear drive wheel Il in rotational augment by . in any'case the tie rod is above the body bottom
and thus protected from injury and road stresses.
‘means of roller bearings It.V The shoes them
Guard strips 61 pass entirely around the ve
selves are like il of Flg's.,22 and 23 and are self
aligning as to pressures transmitted to the guide hicle body, in the preferred construction contin
surfaces of Il. These guide surfaces are iiirmly .lling on a pannel outside oi'l the rear wheel. The
held in body brackets l. attached to wall i and pannel Il, Figs. 17 and 18 «provides Va means of
.like the front brackets the vslots 3l are closed readily approaching the rear wheel to remove the
by steel ribbons 'Il similar to those on the front same and the guard strips bridge the strength
. brackets. These ribbons close the slots 31 against across the pannel by the particular union they
-have with the adjoining guard stripsl as shown in
70.
dirt and pass over radiused parts 3l 'indicated in
‘
`
u
dotted lines in Fig.
.
j
.
A drivel shaft 4I passes from the differential
4l'V which is?xed
to the center of the lower por
j
tion l of the body; the shaft being'attached by
a universal joint, through a slot l’ in the body
Fig. 2l.
'
-
As shown in Figs. 19 and 20 these guard strips
are built .up in form and material for great
strength and are hollow for light weight, being
of combined wood and metal construction glued
together with water resisting glue. Alternative
,70
`
.
_
3
2,121,504.
methods of attaching the guard strips to the side>
wheel through anti-friction bearings and having
wall are shown at69 and `10v and where an out
guide extensions on the body side of the said
wardly swinging door is used it is contemplated
carrying the guard strip across the door having a
bearings, multiple guide shoes journalled to the
V shape- at the hinge side and a shape such as
shown at Fig. 21 omitting the bolt .1| on the non
hinge "side. In order to prevent the horizontal
protrusions of 'other vehicles -from injuring the
body of a vehicle I have provided vertically dis
10 posed guard bumpers 18 and 19 outwardly/"ofV the
horizontal guard bumpers 61, see Figs. v12 and" 14.
It-will be noticed that vertical part 19 is attached
vsaid extensions and sliding vertically in an in
closed guide rigid with the lower part of the said
body.
.
Y
.
5.> A combination according to claim 4 and a
drive shaft passing through the said stub axle
part to a universal joint located outwardly of the
said bearings.
' .
"
6. In combination with independent' drive
wheel springing for road vehicles, two ver
at 80 to the horizontal bumper `61. Such a door > tically elongated and spaced apart guide mem
may replace the closed side of the taxi-bus omit
bers attached to the sprung portions of the said
V15 ting the two folding seats.
«
_
vehicle, each of said guide members inclosing an
Since the low center of gravity obtained by my upper and a lower shoe, each said shoe carried
boxlike structure is so near to the ground that
no room for a muffler is available a nëw type of
muiiler suitable for installation inside of the base '
on a pivot by a stub axle part of the said wheel \
and the said pivot located intermediate the upper
and lower bearing‘surfaces of each said shoe._
'7.„A combination according to claim 6, an en
from pipe 12 and by Venturi tube eifect' 'M the , trance in each-saidv guide member for portions of
air circulation through the base I from the air saidaxle part and a loop of flexible material
openings 11_ and drawn afround the muiiier T3 sealing one >of the said entrances against in
through the outer muiller cover 16 is increased gress of dirt while` permitting> vertical move
20 l is provided at T3 which takes the exhaust gases
'25 and the hot gas expelled at 15.
1B shows my im
proved vehicle >bumper using rubber cords 22.
30
ment of the said part therein.
8. In
combination
with
the
'
25
independentlyj y `
Having thus disclosed‘the nature of my inven
tion and its method of operation, what I specifi
sprung drive wheel of a vehicle, a stub axle part
cally claim is:--- .
wheel through anti-friction bearings and hav
holding the rotational alignmentV of- the said> I y
l. In combination with aA vehicle body- and ing guide extensions on the body side of the said 03 0
road wheel, an intervening guide bracketv inclos- . bearings, multiple guide shoes journalled to said
ing self-aligning guide surfaces to hold the wheel f extensions and sliding vertically in an inclosed «
in desired relations with the said body and pro
viding a sliding yieldable vertical movement
35 therebetween, a-steering tie-rod leading from a `
sprung-portion of the said bracket through the
body side wall above the body bottom, a steering
.column secured to the body bottom and carrying y
a pinion thereon, and a rack meshing with the
said pinion on the said tie rod to move the same.
2. In combination with a wheel bracket inter
' vening between a vehicle side wall and a road
wheel, a stub axle part vertically elongated and
guided for vertical movement within an inclosed
45 part of the said bracket and carrying the wheel
spindle through a slot in the said bracket and a
steel ribbon havingV one end attached to the said
part above and' the other end below the said
spindle and closing the said `slot against ingress
of dirt.
3. In combination with'-- independent wheel
springing for a vehicle,.an internally trussed por
guide rigid with the lower part of the said body,
a drive shaft passing through the said stub axle
to a universal joint located outwardly of the said 63 5
bearingsand'means to seal the space between the
outer end of the said stub axle` and the shaft
against passage of oil or dirt while permitting
universal movement of the said shaft.
9. The combination between a vehicle having a
»bracket and ground wheel, of a vertically'elon
gated guide secured at its top and bottom to the
said bracket, a stub axle» part for the said wheel
extending from the said wheel into the said guide
between thesecured portions thereof and hav
45
ing upwardly and downwardly extending parts
~within 'the said guide and a pivoted shoe on each
of the -said. extending parts.
10. In combination with an individually sprung
vehicle wheel, a guide, a stub axle part guided
for vertical movement within the said guide and
entering the said guide through a slot in the
»tion'of the vehicle body extending horizontally ' wheel side thereof and a iiexible closure for the
between" two forward steering road wheels, the ,said slot sealing the sides thereof attached to the
floor of- the said body forming the upper mem
berof the said trussed portion and a lower bot
tom’closure forming the bottom truss member, a
`forked wheel guide- bracket having an upper fork
upper and lower side of the said stub axle part.
1l. In combination with a vehicle and _one of
its ground wheels, a vertical guide, a stub axle
part, guide shoes carried by said part and sliding i
leading off from the upper and a lower fork from - within the said guide and holding the said vehicle
and wheel in guided vertical alignment with each 60
other, the said shoes pivotally mounted on the
ber sliding on ï self „aligning bearings within a _said part so that they have part of their bearing
.cylindrical guide, the said guide journalled to. surfaces above, and part below' the said pivot.
" turn within bearings located in the ~said forked
12. In' combination Vwith a vertical guide
65 bracket, a tie rod lever rigid with the cylindrical bracket interveningv between and connected to
thel lower of said truss limits on each side of the
`. V„said body, a vertically. yieldable stub axle mem
r'guide on each side and a connecting rack pass-.
ing through the said trussed body portion and
connecting the said tie rod levers, a steering col
umn passing through a bearing located within
' the said trussed portion and a pinion meshingv
' Awith the said rack and rotated- by the said col
umn'to steer the said wheels.
- 4. In combination with independent springing
' for .the drive-'wheel of Va vehicle, a stub axle part
holdingthe -rotational alignment of L the said
a vehicle and oneof its ground wheels, an in
closed vertical guide, a stub> axle part connected
to the _said bracket and having pins thereon mul
tiple sliding shoes journalled on said pins carried
by the said part and iitted within the said guide .70
and parts of the bearing area of eachsaid shoe/l
located above and other parts below the said pins.
13. In' combination with guide brackets inter
vening between a vehicle side wall and a road
wheel thereof, aradius rod, a stub axle part, shoes 75
4
2,121,504
journalled on pins attached to the said part and
holding it in a given rotational planerelative the
` said vehicle and wheel while permitting vertical
vmovement there-'between and the said rod ar
ranged to_ absorb brake torque , so „that such
tach'ed `to the sprung part of the said vehicle, a
stub axle part entering through a slot in the side
of the said guide and a Acontinuous loop of ñex
ible material passing from the upper said axic
part where it enters the sa'id slot and sealing the
torque does- not enter the said shoes.
said slot against ingress of dirt and passing over
14. In combination with independently sprung. -radiused portions of the said guide atl top and
wheels for a vehicle, an internally trussed portion bottom thereoi and ending adjacent the bottom
of the vehicle Vbody extending horizontally be
of ‘the said axle part where same enters the Asaid
tween two forward steering wheels, the floor of
the said body forming vthe upper member of- the
said trussed-portion and a lower bottom closure
forming~ theV bottom truss member, a forked
bracket having’an upper fork leading oil'. from
Il the said upper and a lower fork from the said
lower member of the said truss limits on each
side of the said body, a stub axle part sliding ver
tically on self-aligning bearings within a cylin
drical guide journalled to turn within the ends
of the said forks.
15. In combination with independent wheel
springing for a vehicle wheel, a vertical guide at
slot.
~
16. In combination with a -vehicle wheel, a
stub axle part, a vertical wheel guide carried by
the vehicle and guide shoes pivotally carried by
the said stub axle part, the axis of the said pivots
10
being intermediate part ofthe upper and lower 15
area of the said shoes.
- »
17. A combination according to claim 16 and
a means including rubber in tension to carry the
said guide yieldably from the said axle part.
20
JADEES V. MARTIN.
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