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Патент USA US2121506

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l
June 21, l193s.
M. MENNESSON
CARBURETOR
Filed Dec. 9, 1955
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
,
/n ven ¿or
Marcelßouz'sMemeSsan
JuneZl, 1938.
.M MENNESSON
2,121,506
CARBURETOR
Filed Dec. 9,\ 1935
§15
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2 Sheets-Sheet 2
In venian.'
Marœàllouisßíemesson
,
2,121,506
Patented June 2l, 1938
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,121,506
CARBURETOR
Marcel Mennesson, Neuilly-sur-Seine, France;
assìgnor to Societe Anonyme Solex, Neuilly
sur-Seine, France, a corporation of France
Application December 9, 1935, Serial No. 53,682
In Belgium January 29, 1935
8 Claims. (Cl. 261-50)
The invention relates to floatless carburetors
for" internal combustion engines and it is more
particularly concerned with those fdr; aircraft'
engines.
l
,
The main object is to produce a carburetor
which can operate in all positions to which the
»engine to which it is ñtted is brought, even in
the case where the carburetor is turned through
180° from its normal position.
A ñoatless carburetor according to the present
10
invention comprises a space communicating with
the suction pipe of the engine by means of at
least one passage whose effective section is rela
tively small and with the free air by means of
at least one passage whose section is relatively
large so that the pressure in said space is prac
tically independent of the suction prevailing in
said suction pipe and in which space the primary
mixture of fuel and air is effected, fuel being fed
20 to said space from a fuel pump, means for con
trolling the feed of fuel into said space, a throt
tling member for air or mixture in said suction
pipe of the engine, and a rigid connection be
tween said throttling member and the fuel con
trolling means.
A further feature consists in providing feed
regulating members of carburetors of the kind in
question with means adapted to prevent a sudden
opening of the said members and, on the con
trary, to impose on this opening a period which
corresponds substantially to the period of acceler
ation‘of the engine.
»
Another feature consists in embodying in carbu
retors of the kind in question, means, independent
of the quantity of air admitted in the carburetor
and adapted to correct the richness of the mix
ture, by varying the discharge pressure of the
fuel pump, said means being actuated manually
or automatically as a function of the momentary
40
conditions of working such as the quantity of
mixture to be fed to the engine or the tempera
ture, density or pressure of atmospheric air,
considered separately or together.
i
In order that the nature of the invention may
be more clearly understood, reference will now be
made to the accompanying drawings.
Fig. 1 shows, in vertical diagrammatic section,
a carburetor constructed according to a ñrst em
50
bodiment of the invention.
Fig. 2 shows, similarly, a carburetor constructed
according to a second embodiment of the inven
tion.
.
Fig. 3 shows, in elevation (parts in section) an
alternative _of a part of the embodiment accord
55 ing .to Fig.'2.
In the different embodiments represented there
is arranged, outside the suction pipe I of the en
gine, a space or chamber 2 which is advantage
ously given-a spherical form and of which the
wall is supported by suitable means. Into this 5
chamber there opens, near its central part, an
air conduit 3 the section of which may be adjust
able or not, as desired, and which opens into the
free air, for example by being connected to the
said suction pipe in front of the throttling mem 10
ber-suchfas the butterfly valve ll--which regu
lates, as in _the ordinary way, the degree of open
ing of the said suction pipe I and consequently
the feed of combustible mixture to the engine, by
the intermediary of the means described below.
On the attached drawings there is- shown, by
way of example, an air conduit 3 in the form of
a tube of relatively great transverse section and
of which the greatest part is substantially parallel
to the axis of the suction pipe I. Further, the 20
axis of the air pipe is offset somewhat beyond
the theoretical centre of the said chamber 2.
In the chamber I there also opens a conduit 5 '
for the feed of fuel in such a Way that the outlet
orifice of the said conduit is not-located opposite
the air conduit 3, the outflow of fuel being effected
for example parallel and in the opposite direction
to the feed of air furnished‘by the conduit 3. In
this way the two fluid currents (fuel and air) do
not encounter each other. It follows that, on the 30
contrary, the whole of the fuel is effectively fed
to the interior of the chamber 2 and cannot enter
the conduit 3 whatever the positioning of the
conduits 3 and 4 relatively to the vertical during
flying and even when the aircraft is inverted. 35
Further, by reason of the opposite directions in
which these two fluid currents enter the chamber
2, the regular and homogeneous mixing of the
fuel and of the air is facilitated.
,
,
.
'I'he said chamber 2 communicates by passages 40
6 (orifices or pipes) of relatively small section
and more or less regularly distributed over the
whole of the surface of the wall of the said cham
ber 2, with a space l closed to the outer air and
which surrounds the said chamber completely` 45
It follows that whatever the position of the car
buretor in space, the mixture formed in the cham
ber 2 can enter the space l by the whole or by
certain of the said passages 6.
.
The said space `‘I communicates with a pipe il 50
which feeds the mixture entering the said space
‘I into the suction pipe I of the> engine beyond (or
in front of) the throttling member 4.
'I‘he sections of the passages or orifices 6 and
'that of the air pipe 3 have, advantageously, such 55
2
2,121,606
a. feed conduit 2|. Discharge conduit 5 of said
pump is connected to said feed conduit 2| or
orifices 6, has a substantially zero value on the 'g` said tank 20 by means of at least one calibrated
feed of the outlet orifice I0 of the fuel pipe 5, " oriñce 22 and at least one return-conduit 23.
'I‘he section of one calibrated orifice is modi
so that the pressure in said chamber 2 is practi
cally independent of that prevailing in suction fled by a needle 24 or equivalent actuated manu
ally or automatically, such as described above,
pipe I.
to correct the discharge pressure of the rotary
The feed of fuel is effected by a head or a pres
pump 91, in the known manner, without 4altersure, for example by means of a fuel pump draw
10
ing the fuel from the reservoir and discharging ing the speed of rotation of said pump.
For the example according to Fig. 3, a similar
it-preferably by means of an arrangement
arrangement is used but instead of the volu
adapted to regulate its discharge pressure and
which will be described below-into feed pipe 5 metric or rotary pump 91, a centrifugal pump 9’
is driven by the engine, the discharge pressure
of which the outlet I0 in the chamber 2 is con
of said pump 92 being4 likewise a function of the
trolled by a closure device such as a needle I I con
nected by a suitable transmission I2 to the control speed of said engine. In this alternative, a re
turn-conduit 23 with its needle 24 or the like
mechanism I3 for the principal throttling mem
is equally provided to correct the discharge pres
ber 4. The arrangement is such that the open
ing and closing of the members I I and 4 is effected sure of the pump 92 according to the actual work
relative values that the suction effect of the
engine, acting in the chamber 2 by means of the
tions.
'
20
ing conditions.
simultaneously and according to’ suitable propor
r
In order to prevent an excess of fuel by a
sudden action on the control I3 when opening
the carburetor, it is of value to limit the speed
of opening of the said members II and 4 in such
a way as to permit the engine to accelerate be
fore this opening becomes complete.
The rapidity of thisv opening could be limited
What I claim is:
-
1. A fioatless carbureting system for an in
ternal- combustion engine, which comprises a
suction pipe communicating with said engine, a
throttling member in said suction pipe, a cham 25
ber, several passages of small area distributed
over the whole of the surface of the wall of said
chamber, a conduit enveloping the walls of said
by a device having a damping action on con
chamber and communicating with said suction
trol I 3. One of _the movable members of this
control -I3, such as the rod I4 of the needle Il,
may be retarded by a dash-pot I5 which does
not permit a rapid operation of the control I3
in the direction of opening but, on the conf
trary, permits an instantaneous closing of the
pipe, a large air inlet passage opening in said 30
chamber, means for feeding fuel into said cham
ber, means for controlling the feed of fuel into
said chamber, and means for connecting said
regulating members II and 4.
2. A fioatless carbureting system for an in
ternal combustion engine, which- comprises a
suction pipe communicating with said engine, a
throttling member in said suction pipe, a spheri
cal chamber, several small passages distributed 40
over the whole ofthe surface of the wall of said
,
As indicated above, the fuel conduit 5 is fed
by means of a pump which may be constituted as
follows.
For the example according to Fig. 1, there is
arranged in conduit 5 a device adapted to reg
ulate the dischargerpressure of the pump, said
device being independent of the flow of air en
tering in the carburetor. This arrangement may
be constituted by an expansion device with a di-.
aphragm I6, 'I'he diaphragm'controls van ob
turator such as an inverted valve I1 and it is
throttling member and said fuel controlling
means.
Y-
'
chamber, a conduit enveloping the walls of said
chamber and communicating with said suction
pipe, a large air inlet passage opening in said
chamber, means for feeding fuel in said cham 45
ber, means for controlling the feed of fuel into
said chamber, and means for connecting said
controlled, on the one hand, by the pressure-of
the fuel discharged by the pump and, on the
>throttling member and said fuel controlling
' other hand, by the action of an opposing spring
„ 3. A floatless carbureting system for an in
I8. By this arrangement, well known in itself.
-there may b'e obtained a regulation of the pres
sure of the fluid discharged` by the pump 9.
The pressure of the fluid discharged by the
expansion device I6 is a function of the tension
of the spring I8. 'I'his tension is adjustable by
~a remote control I5 _actuated „in any suitable
manner whereby the said pressure may be ad
justed at every instant to the' momentary work-V
means.
,
50
ternal combustion engine, which comprises a
suction pipe communicating with said engine, a
throttle member in said suction pipe, a chamber,
>'means for connecting said chamber toïsaid suc
tion pipe, a large air inlet passage abutting in said4 55
chamber, a pump for .feeding fuel in a conduit
opening in the central part of said chamber in
an opposite direction to the entrance of air by
means of said large passage, means vfory controlling
60 ing conditions, such as the quantity of mixture . vthe feed of fuelinto said chamber, and means 60
admitted inpthe» engine, the temperaturaM-the ~ for connecting said throttling member and said
pressure or the density of the atmospheric air,ë fuel controlling means.
.
in such a way as thereby to correct the richness ,
4. A floatless carbureting system for an in
of the mixture furnished to the engine as a func
ternal combustion engine, which comprises a suc- tion pipe communicating with said engine, a
tion of the said conditions.
For the example according to Fig. 2, the fuel throttling member ‘in said suction pipe. a cham
is fed in conduit 5 by means Vof va volumetric or ber, means for connecting said chamber to said
suction pipe, a large air inlet passage abutting in
beingat every instant proportional to that of ' said'chamber, a pump for feeding fuel in a con
70 the motor. Pump 31' discharges thus a'volume duit opening in the central part of said chamber 70
of fuel practically constant and at a pressure and in an opposite and offset direction to'.the
-which is a determined function of the speed of entrance of air by means of'ïsaid large passage,
means for controlling the feed of -fuel into said
the pump and, consequently, of that of the en
chamber, andmeans for connecting said throt
gine.
‘
75
Fuel is delivered to pump91-by a tank 2l and _tling inember and said fuel controlling means. 75,
rotary pump 91, driven by the motor, its speed
.
`
'
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I
9,121,508
5. A ñoatless carbureting system for -an in
' 3
means operatively connecting said throttling
ternal combustion engine, which' comprises a suc
member and said fuel controlling means for ,si
necting said chamber to said suction pipe, air
inlet)means having a large effective area and
opening in said chamber, whereby the pressure in
said chamber is substantially independent of var
said conduit for controlling the feed of fuel into V
¿
tion pipe communicating with said engine, a` multaneous movement.
7. Ina device as claimed in claim 5, a conduit
throt'tiing member in said suction pipe, a cham
connecting said pump to said chamber, means in
ber, means having a small effective' area for con
iations in the suction in said suction pipe, a
pump for feeding fuel into said chamber opening
thereinto at a point of substantially maximum
cross section, means for controlling the feed of
fuel into said chamber, and means ¿operatively
connecting -said throttling member and said fuel
controlling-means for simultaneous movement.
6. A ñoatless carbureting system for an in
said chamber and controllable means for varying
the ñow of fuel through said conduit, said Vcon
trollable means being adapted to occupy a plu
rality of positions in which it permits different
amounts of fuel to ?lowthrough the conduit, and
being operable at varying pump pressures, soA as
to correct the discharge pressure .of -said pump
and thereby the strength of the fuel-air mix
ture fed into said suction pipe.
8. In a device as claimed in claim 5, a conduit
connecting said pump to said chamber, means in
vternal combustion engine, which comprises a suc- ' said'conduit for controlling the feed of fuel into
tion pipe communicating with said engine, a said chamber and controllable means for varying
the flow of fuel through said conduit, said con 20
throttling member in said suction pipe, a cham
trollable means being adaptedto occupy a plu
ber, means having a small effective area for con
necting said chamber to said suction pipe, air rality of positions in which it permits different
inlet means having across section less thanthat amounts of fuel to flow through the conduit, and
of said chamber but greater than that of said being operable at varying pump pressures, so as 25
connecting means and- opening in said chamber, to correct the discharge pressure of said pump
and ,thereby the strength of the fuel-air mixture
whereby the pressure in said chamber is substan
tially independent of variations in the suction fed into said suction pipe, said controllable means
in said suction pipe, a pump for feeding fuel being independent of the quantity of air admitted
system.
into said chamber opening thereinto, means for into the said carbureting
30
,
MARCEL MENNESSON.
30 controlling the feed of fuel into said chamber, and
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