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Патент USA US2121601

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2,121,601
Patented June 21, 1938
UNITED . STATES
_
‘PATENT OFFICE
2,121,601
REGULATING APPARATUS
Joseph F. Kovalsky, Turtle Creek, Pa., assignor
to Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing
_Company, East Pittsburgh, Pa., a corporation
oi’ Pennsylvania
Application January 30, 1937, Serial No. 123,239
11 Claims. (01. 171-229)
My invention relates to regulator systems and in which the anti-hunting means is controlled
more particularly to regulator systems of the type electromagnetically.
My invention will be better understood by ref
employing a contact making control element.
In regulators of the rheostatic type wherein erence to the accompanying drawing, in which
Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic viewof circuits and
a primary control relay is employed having a con- _
tact member that is moved in accordance with apparatus illustrating one preferred embodiment
Variations in a regulated quantity and which en
gages a' cooperating contact member to close a
circuit through which a correction in the regu
10 lated quantity is effected, it is also necessary to
move the secondary contact member to prevent
the regulator from hunting. The cooperating
contact member when actuated to prevent “over
shooting” of the corrective action is moved to
15 interrupt the control circuit sooner than it other
wise would. .It is desirable that said second
named or cooperating contact member be nor
mally held in a de?nite position from which it
is moved after engagement by the ?rst-named
20 contact member, and to which position it is grad
ually returned to e?ect a reclosing of the control
circuit unless the ?rst contact member, which
is responsive to the regulated quantity, has been
moved to such position that no circuit is com
25 pleted upon the return of the second member
to its normally ?xed position. It is desirable
that the movement of said second-named contact
member in a direction to e?ect a reclosing of the
interrupted circuit be slow, so that the reclosing
30 of the circuit will be a function of the time fol
lowing its interruption ‘and be also dependent
‘
of the invention;
.
Fig. 2 is a view illustrating curves disclosing
certain characteristics of the invention; and
Fig. 3 is a diagrammatic view of a portion of.
the circuit showing a modi?ed form thereof.
Referring to Fig. l, a generator I is employed
having an armature winding 2 connected to cir
cuit conductors 3 and 4 and a ?eld winding 5 that ,
may be energized from any suitable source of
direct current, such as an exciter generator 6,
as controlled by a rheostat ‘I operatively con
nected to .a pilot motor 8. The pilot motor is
provided with an armature winding 9 and ?eld
windings i2 and I3 through which circuits may 20
be closed by contactors l4 and I5, respectively,
to supply energy to the motor 8 from a battery l6
for operating it in the one or the other direction
in accordance with the operation of a relay i'l
that is controlled by the voltage between con 25
ductors 3 and 4. The primary relay ll comprises
a magnetic core structure I! having a control
winding l8 on a winding leg thereof that is con
nected by conductors 2i and 22 to be energized
in accordance with the voltage between load cir 30
cuit conductors 3 and 4. The ends of the core
[9 are spaced apart to provide room for a mov
upon the position of the contact member that
moves in accordance with the regulated quantity.
a OI The slow movement of the cooperating contact
member to its normally fixed position may be
effected by damping means such as a dashpot, but
and biased by a spring 26 against the pull of the
armature 23. A pair of contact members 21 and
liquid ?lled dashpots possess limitations depend
ent upon the viscosity of the ?uid employed, the
or lever 24 and are adapted to engage contact
All , temperature and the presence of foreign matter,
such as dirt. '
.
It is an object of my invention to provide a
regulating system of the above indicated char
acter in which anti-hunting means is provided for
able armature 23 positioned partly between them
to provide a double air gap. The armature is
carried by a lever 24 mounted upon a pivot 25 35
28 are carried at the lower end of the relay arm
_members 3| and 32, respectively, mounted on 40
levers 33 and 34 which are mounted, respectively,
on the ?xed pivots 35 and 36. The levers 33 and
34 are mechanically connected together by a link
31 in such manner that the upper or contact
varying the duration of the corrective action to . carrying ends thereof move in opposite directions 45
interrupt said action prior to a completion there
of in order to prevent overtravel.
It is a further object of my invention to pro
vide a} regulating system of the aboveindicated
character in which the intervals between succes
sive corrective steps in a corrective action vary as
the regulated quantity approaches the desired
value.
'
'
'
It is a further object of my invention to pro
65 vide a regulator of the above-indicated character‘
as viewed in‘ the ?gure. A spring 38 is provided
for normally biasing the levers 33 and 34 into
engagement with stops 4| and 42 respectively,
to establish normally ?xed positions for the con
tact members 3| and 32. A magnet 43 is pro 50
vided having a winding '44 for biasing the levers
33 and 34 against the pull of the spring 38. One
side of the winding 44 _is connected _by conductor
45 to one terminal of a source of direct current
energy 46 and the other side is connected by
2
2,121,601
conductor 41 through a damping circuit com
prising a resistor 48 and a condenser 49 to the
opposite terminal of the source 48.
I1’ the system is in operation and the voltage
oi’ the generator I is as at its. desired value, the
acteristic most generally desired. The damper
circuit may be so designed by varying the resist
ance of the resistor 48 and the capacitance of the
condenser 49 that.curves lying generally between
the curves 82 and 63, shown in Fig. 2, may be Si
energization of the primary relay winding 18 is
su?icient to balance the pull of the adjusted
produced.
spring 28 so that the contact members 21 and 28
will be positioned between the contact‘members
member 32 toward its fixed position takes place
10 3| and 32 out of engagement therewith, as illus
trated. If the voltage of the generator increases
above its desired value, the energization of the
winding I8 increases, thus increasing the pull on
the armature 23 causing the lever 24 to move
15 toward the right to cause engagement of the con
tact 28 with the normally ?xed contact 32. A
circuit is thus completed from the positive termi
nal oi the battery 46 through conductor 5|, the
winding 52 of the relay i4 through conductor 53,
20 contact members 32 and 28, the winding 44 and
conductor 45 to the negative terminal of the bat
tery 45, energizing the relay I 4 and causing the
contact members 54 and 55 thereof to be moved
to their circuit closing positions. The contact
25 members 54 complete a circuit from the battery
l8 through the ?eld winding I2 and armature
winding 9 oi’ the motor 8 to operate the rheostat
‘I in a direction to decrease the excitation of the
generator ?eld winding 5 to decrease the genera
30 tor voltage.
The contact members 55 complete
a circuit from the positive terminal of the bat~
tery 48 through conductor 5|, contact members
55, conductor 41, winding 44, and conductor 45,
thus energizing the magnet 43 and causing the
35 lever 34 to be moved in a clockwise direction
about the pivot 38 to move the contact member
32 toward the right. If the initial movement of
the primary relay contact member 28 is just
enough to cause engagement of the contact
40 members 28 and 32, this movement oi.’ the con
tact member 32 interrupts the above traced cir~
cult through the winding 52 of the secondary re
lay l4 causing the relay to drop to its circuit, in
terrupting position after a predetermined short
45 time interval determined by the condenser 58,
.which condenser provides a source of current
through the winding 52 for a sufficient time to
insure that the rheostat arm 51 will move a dis;
tance corresponding to the distance between ad
The
50 iacent rheostatic contact members 58.
movement of the relay contact member 32 toward
the right takes place abruptly upon the closure
of the circuit through the winding 44, and, after
the time interval necessary to cause the relay l4
55 to interrupt the circuit through the contact mem
bers 55, introduces the damping circuit consisting
of the condenser 49 and the resistor 48 into the
circuit of the winding 44. A charging current
?ows through this circuit from the battery 45
to charge the condenser 49, the duration of which
is determined by the values assigned to the par
ticular condenser and resistor ‘49 and 48, respec~
tively. This charging current maintains a par
tial energization of fthe magnet 43, permitting a
65 gradual decrease only in the current through the
winding 44 to permit a gradual movement of the
lever 34 in a counterclockwise direction against
the stop 42 to bring the contact member 32 to
its original or normally stationary position.
Referring to Fig. 2, the curve 8i illustrates a
70
condition under which the movement of the con
tact member 32 to its normally ?xed position
takes place gradually, the distance through which
it moves being proportional to the timeafter the
75 interruption of the circuit through the contact
member 32 and which curve illustrates the char
The condition represented by curve
82 is one in which no movement of the contact
for a predetermined time after the circuit through
the contact member 52 has been interrupted, after
which predetermined time a relatively rapid
movement with respect to time takes place dur
ing the relatively level portion of the curve 62,
the rate of movement decreasing as indicated by
the right-hand portion of the curve which turns
upwardly. The condition represented by the
curve 82 is one in which a very rapid movement -
of the contact member 32 toward its normally
?xed position takes place immediately after in
terruption of the circuit through the contact 20
member 32, the amount of movement per unit
of time decreasing as shown by the right-hand
portion of the curve which turns steeply up
wardly.
If the amount of increase in the voltage of the 25
generator I above its desired value is suil‘lcient to
cause a considerable initial movement of the lever
24 toward the right, the contact member 28 may
remain in engagement with the contact member
32 when it is moved toward the right by the mag 30
net 43, in which case the motor 8 will continue to
move until the decrease in the generator volt
age has become su?icient that the contact 28 of
the primary relay l'l moves out of engagement
with the contact member 32. In this case, the 35
amount of correction in generator voltage neces
sary to e?ect separation of the contact members
28 and 32 will not move the contact member 28
su?iciently to the left for it to remain out of
engagement with contact member 32 after the
contact member 32 has moved back to its nor
mally ?xed position. A time interval of relatively
short duration will occur after separation of the
contact members 28 and 32, before the gradual
movement of the contact member 32 toward the
left, as above described, will cause a reengage
ment between contact members 28 and 32 to
again effect operation of the contactor l4 and
of the motor 8 to further decrease the excita
tion of the generator I. Upon reengagement of
the contact members 28 and 32, the anti-hunt
ing magnet 43 will be reenergized and move the
contact member 32 abruptly toward the right,
as above described, permitting it to again return
55
to its illustrated, position.
If the departure of‘the regulated voltage from
;its desired value is sufficient that the bias of the
relay I‘i maintains the contact member 28 in
engagement with the contact member 32 when
actuated to the right by the magnet 43, the con 60
tact members '32 may be brought into engage~
ment with the contact member 28 several times
before the contact member 28 is moved su?i
ciently toward the left that it will'not be re
;engaged by the contact member 32 when the
contact member 32 is moved to its ?xed or illus
trated position upon deenergization of the wind
ing 44. The duration of each successive time
interval in which the contact members 28 and
32 are out of engagement‘during' such series‘ of
regulator operations will increase as the regu
lated quantity approaches its desired value, since,
as the contact member 28 moves to its central
position, the time required for the contact mem
her 32 to move from its extreme right-hand posi- 75
3
2,121,601
tion suf?ciently toward the left to reengage the
contact member 28 increases.
Should the regulated voltage decrease below its
separated, if the desired time interval for com
pletely charging the condenser 43 is to be avail
able aiter an interruption of the circuit through
desired value, the force of the spring 26 will over— the contact members 55 or 68 to provide the
‘balance the force of the armature 23 to cause desired rate of decrease in energization of the
the lever 24 to move toward the left and effect anti-hunting winding 44. In certain installa
engagement between contact members 21 and 3| tions, this is dif?cult to achieve with the resistor
to complete a circuit from the positive terminal 48 in series with the condenser 43 and a rec
of the battery 46 through conductor 64, the‘ tiiier 12 may be then substituted for the resistor
10 winding 65 of the secondary relay l5, conductor which, because of its low resistance characteristic
in one direction permits an immediate discharge
66, relay contact members 3| and 21 and con
ductor 45 to the negativeterminal of the battery of the condenser 49 upon closure of a circuit
46 to operate the secondary relay I5 to its circuit through either the contact member 55 or the
closing position. Upon operation of the relay I5 contact member 68 while requiring an appreci
able time element for the charging of the con
15 to its circuit closing position, the contact mem
bers 61 close a circuit from the battery It through denser 49 through the winding 44 upon the
the motor ?eld winding l3 and armature wind- ' opening of the above indicated circuit.
Many modi?cations in the apparatus and ‘cir
ing 3 to operate the motor 8 in a direction to
increase the excitation of the generator ?eld cuits illustrated and described may be made
winding 5, and the relay contact members 68 within the spirit of my invention and, I do not
close a circuit in shunt relation to the damping wish to be limited otherwise than by the scope
circuit between the junction points 63 and ‘II in of the appended claims.
a manner similar to the contact member 55, as
explained above, thus energizing winding 44 of
25 the anti-hunting magnet 43, in the same manner
as explained above upon closure of the contact
members 55 of the relay I4. The link 31 be
tween levers 33 and 34 causes the contact mem
ber 3| to be moved toward the left. or away from
30 the contact member 21 at the same time that
_ I claim as my invention:
-
1. In a regulating system, in combination, a
control relay having contact means positionally 25
responsive to a quantity to be regulated and con
tact means cooperatively related thereto, means
responsive -to the engagement of said cooperat
ing contact means for controlling said regulated
quantity, electromagnetically controlled anti 30
hunting means controlled by engagement of said
cooperating contact means for abruptly varying
thus interrupting the circuit through the contact the position of said second named contact means
members 21 and 3| in the same manner as pre- I in a direction to separate said contact means, and
35 viously explained for the circuit through the '. damping means for, permitting a gradual return
contact members 28 and 32. If the decrease in only of said second named contact means to its
the lever 34 is moved in a clockwise direction to
move the contact member 32 toward the right,
the regulated voltage below its desired value has ' initial position.
been su?icient that the contact member 21 re
2. In a regulating system, in combination, a
mains in engagement with the contact member control relay having contact means positionally '
40 3| during its leftward movement and thus pre
vents immediate interruption of the circuit there-'
through, the voltage correction will occur in a
series of steps upon repeated reengagement -be—
tween the contact members ,21 and 3|, the dura
45
tion of the successive current interruptions by
these contact members increasing as the regu
lated quantity approaches its desired value in the
same manner as explained above for the circuit
through the contact members 28 and 32. It will
50 thus be seen that upon a relatively large vari
ation in the regulated quantity from its desired
value, the rate of correction in the regulated
quantity is rapid in its initial stage and decreases
to a step by step correction, the time intervals
55 increasing‘ between the steps as the regulated
quantity approaches its desired value, thus giving
time for a correction effected by operation of the
motor 8 to be felt at the terminals of the gen
erator '2, so that a quick corrective ~ action is
initiated and an accurate correction is effected.
Referring to Fig. 3, a circuit is employed-4n
which a copper oxide recti?er 12 is substituted
for the resistor", the recti?er 12 being so con
nected that a high resistivity to the flow of cur
65 rent in the direction of the arrows is o?ered
while a low resistivity to ?ow of current in the - 1
opposite direction is provided. It will be appre
ciated that the condenser‘ 43 is normally charged
to. receive a potential across its terminals corre
70 sponding to the potential of the source-of current
46, and that when the resistor 48 is employed, a.
suf?cient time interval must be provided upon
closure of the relay contact members 55 or 68
to permit the. complete discharging of the con
75 denser 43 before the contact members are again
responsive to a quantity to be regulated and con 40
tact means cooperatively related thereto and
normally biased to a given position, means re
sponsive to the engagement of said cooperating
contact means for controlling said regulated
quantity, anti-hunting means comprising electro 45
responsive means energized upon engagement of
said contact means for abruptly movingsaid
second named contact means in a direction away
from said ?rst named contact means, and means
for permitting a gradual deenergization only 50
of said electroresponsive means to permit a
gradual return of said second named contact
means to its initial position.
3.'In a regulating system, in combination, a
control relay having contact means positionally 55
responsive to a quantity to be regulated and co
operating contact members normally biased to
a given position, means actuated upon engage
ment of said contact members for controlling
said regulated quantity, electroresponsive means 60
energized upon engagement of said contact mem
bers for abruptly moving said second named
contact member in a direction away from said
?rst named contact means, and a damper circuit
for permitting a gradual decrease only in the de 65
energization of said electroresponsive means to
permit a gradual return of said second named
contact members to said given position.
4. In a regulating system, in combination, a
control relay having contact‘ members position
ally responsive to a. quantity to be regulated
and contact members normally biased to a given
position and adapted to cooperate with said ?rst
named contact members, means actuated upon
engagement of said cooperating contact mem 75
4
2,121,601
bers for controlling the regulated quantity, means
actuated upon engagement 0! said cooperating
contact members for abruptly moving said second
secondary control relay means responsive to the
named contact members in a direction away from
engagement of said primary relay cooperating
said first named contact members, and electro
magnetic damping means for permitting a
contact means for ‘controlling said motor operat
ed means, electromagnetic means energized upon
operation of said primary relay to a circuit clos
ing position for abruptly moving said second
named contact means in a direction away from
said ?rst named contact means‘, and an energy 10
gradual returnonly of said second named con—
tact members to said given positions after sepa
ration of said cooperating contact members.
5. In a regulating system, in combination, a
control relay having contact means positionally
storing damper circuit comprising a resistor and
responsive to a quantity to be regulated and, con
condenser connected in series for permitting a
tact means normally biased to a given position
and cooperatively related to the ?rst named
gradual deenergization only of said electromag
15 contact means, means comprising a secondary
relay actuated upon engagement of said co
operating contact means for controlling said
regulated quantity, electroresponsive means en
ergized upon operation 01' said secondary relay
20 to its circuit closing position for abruptly moving
said second named contact means in a direction
away from said ?rst named contact means, a
damper circuit comprising a condenser and re-.
sistor in series circuit relation for permitting a
25
mally biased to a given position, motor operated
means for controlling said regulated quantity,
gradual deenergization only of, said electrore
sponsive means upon operation 01' said secondary
relay to its deenergized position.
6. In a regulating system, in combination, a
primary relay having contact means positionally
30 responsive to a quantity to be regulated and con~
tact means cooperatively related thereto and nor
mally biased to a given position, motor operated
means for controlling‘said regulated quantity,
,secondary control relay means responsive to the
35 engagement of said primary relay cooperating
contact means for controlling said motor oper
ated means, electromagnetic means energized
upon operation of said primary relay to a circuit
closing position for abruptly moving said second
named contact means in a direction away from
said ?rst named contact means, and a damper
circuit for permitting a gradual deenergization
only 01' said electroresponsive means after sepa
ration of said contact members to permit a
gradual return of said second named contact
means to said given position.
'I. In a regulating system, in combination, a
primary relay having contact means positionally
responsive to a quantity to be regulated and con
tact means cooperatively related thereto and nor
mally biased to a given position, motor operated
means for controlling said regulated quantity,
secondary control relay means responsive to the
engagement of said primary relay, cooperating
55 contact means for controlling said motor oper
ated vmeans, and electromagnetic means ener
gized upon operation or said primary relay to a
circuit closing position for abruptly moving said
second, named contact means‘ in a direction
60 away from said ?rst named contact means, and a
damper circuit for permitting a gradual deener
gization only of said electroresponsivev means
after separation of said contact members to per
mit a gradual return of said second named con
65 tact means to said given position, said resistor
having a high resistance characteristic with re
spect to current ?owing to charge said condenser
netic means, said resistor having a high resist
ance characteristic with respect to current flow
ing to charge said condenser and a low resist
ance characteristic with respect to current ?ow
ing to discharge said condenser.
9. In a regulator system, in combination, a
primary control relay having contact members
movable in accordance with variations in the
regulated quantity and contact members coop
eratively related to said first named contact
members and normally biased to predetermined
stationary positions, means controlled by en 25
gagement of said cooperating contact members
for e?ecting a correction in the regulated quan
tity, and electroresponsive anti-hunting means
actuated upon the initiation of a. corrective ac
tion for moving said normally stationary contact 30
members in a-direction away from the ?rst named
contact members, said anti-hunting means in
cluding an energy storing circuit for permitting
a gradual return only of said normally stationary
contact members to their initial position.
35
10. In a regulator system, in combination, a
primary control relay having contact members
movable in accordance with variations in the
regulated quantity and normally stationary co
operating contact members, means controlled by 40
engagement of said contact members for e?ect
ing a correction in the regulated quantity, and
electroresponsive anti-hunting means actuated
upon the initiation of a corrective action for
moving said normally stationary contact mem
bers in a direction away from the ?rst named
45
contact members, said anti-hunting means in
cluding an energy storing circuit including a con
denser and resistor connected in series for per~
mitting a gradual return only of said normally 50
stationary contact members to their initial po
sition.
11. In a regulator system, in combination, a
primary control relay having contact members
movable in accordance with.‘ variations in the 55
regulated ‘quantity and normally stationary co
operating contact members, means controlled by
engagement of said contact members for ef
fecting a correction in the regulated quantity,
and electroresponsive anti-hunting means actu 60
ated upon the initiation of a corrective action
for moving said normally stationary contact
members in a direction away from the ?rst
named contact
members,
said anti-hunting
means including an energy storing circuit in 65
cluding a condenser and resistor connected in
series for permitting a gradual return only of
and a low resistance characteristic with respect said normally stationary contact members to
to current ?owing to discharge said condenser._ their initial position, said resistor having a high
8. In a regulating system, in combination, a
primary relay having contact means positionally
responsive to a quantity to be regulated and con
tact means cooperatively related thereto and nor
er resistivity to the ?ow of charging‘ current to 70
said ,condenser than to the how of discharging
current from said condenser.
JOSEPH F. KOVALSKY.
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