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Патент USA US2121625

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June 21, 1938.
H, R, CRAGQ
2,121,625
HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEM
Filed NOV. 17, 1936
5.9
/36
/34
Inventor‘:
Haw‘ ‘Cy, R . CT-a o,
by
His At‘tcr‘ney.
Patented
21,
l
l
I
I
,
_
‘1
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEM
Harry B. vCrago, Caldwell, N. 1., assignm- to
General Electric Company, a corporation of.
I New York
Application November 17, 1938, Serial No. 111,208
15 Claims. (Cl. 238-1)
My invention relates to an improved heating
and cooling system and more particularly to a
system of the type utilizing a single heat exchanger for both heating and cooling.
It has been found from experience that it is
advantageous for reasons of e?iciency and econ-
thereby on a -call for heat to vary the time o!
response of the device. The energization of the
local source of heat on a call for heat by the
thermal responsive means e?ects movement of
the latter to its oil position sometime prior to the 5
time that the room reaches a predetermined
omy to utilize the same heat exchanger element
temperature.
for both heating and cooling an enclosure.
'
This
It is therefore another object of my invention
is true particularly with respect to existing struc-
to provide an improved system inwhich the above
10 tures already furnished with heat exchangers
and conduits leading thereto from a central
source of heat exchange medium, such as water,
brine, or air.
In the past these installations have been man15 ualiy controlled for the most part. Whenever a
‘change from heating to cooling or vice versa was
desirable, it was necessary to manually operate
valves to change over from one medium to the
other and manually operate reversing switches to
20 reverse with respect to temperature the action
of the thermal responsive controlling means on
the medium ?ow regulating means. In some in-
stallations the action of the thermal responsive
referred to reversing means- is adapted both to 10
vary the temperature at which the thermal re
sponsive means responds and to provide an an
ticipating thermal control during those periods
that heating is desired.
It is still another object of my invention to 15
provide a control in which a single thermal re
sponsive means performs all the functions out
lined above Whenever a change is made in the
medium supplied to the enclosure.
A further object of- my invention is to insure 20
successful operation of the System at all times
In a system of the type under consideration there
would be a gradual change in the temperature
means over the ?ow regulating means has been
:, reversed by thermal responsive means located in
some central portion of the structure whose temperature is a mean of the entire structure. Such
an arrangement is disclosed and claimed in the
of the heat exchange medium from the tempera
ture it possesses when leaving the central source 25
170a temperature approximately that 01 the room
whenever the flow of medium through the heat
exchanger is stopped- If no means were provided
pending application of Edward A. Bailey, appli30 cation Serial No. 70,100, ?led March 21, 1936,
and assigned to the assignee oi.’ the present
application_
It is a primary object of my invention to provide an improved air conditioning system with
to overcome this change in temperature of the
heat exchange medium then, on termination or 30
the supply thereof,‘ the thermal responsive means’
would respond as though one of the two mediums
were being supplied to the system. Whether this
one be heating or Cooling medium would depend
3;, individual thermal responsive control means in
each enclosure in which the reversal of the action
of the thermal control means with respect to the
?ow regulating means is accomplished by means
on the calibration of the thermal responsive 35
means ‘subjected to the heat exchange medium
and the temperature at which the structure is
to be maintained. To overcome'these di?iculties
responsive to the temperature of the medium
40 supplied to the enclosure.
It is known to those skilled in the art that it
is desirable to maintain a lower temperature dur-
ing winter than during summer.
Usually a tem-
perature of approximately 70° F. is maintained
45 in winter whereas a temperature of approximately 85° F. is maintained in summer. It is
desirable also, because of the time lag in most
heating systems and resultant overshooting in
room temperatures, to provide a system with an50 anticipating thermal control during those periods
when the heating system is in operation. These
systems, as more fully explained in Letters Patent 1_,583,496 granted May 4, 1926, to Walter L.
I provide a by-Dass around the ?ow regulating
means so that even when the latter is in its 40
closed position there is a ?ow of medium through
the system.
,
‘Other objects and advantages of the invention
will become apparent from the ensuing descrip
tion taken in conjunction with the accompany- 45
ing drawing in which is set forth for the purpose
of illustration the details of arrangement.
Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic illustration, partially
in section, of a system embodying the invention.
Fig. 2 illustrates diagrammatically a modified 50
control system.
Referring to Fig. 1. reference ?gures H and i2
illustrate two enclosures, such as rooms forming
Shafer, utilize a local source of heat associated
part of a larger structure which may be a build
with the thermal responsive means and energized
ing or the like. The enclosures are provided with 55
.
2
2,121,625
heat exchangers l3 and it through which either
upper and lower limits, respectively.
a. heating or cooling medium may be passed to
properly condition the enclosures. These may be
tacts are connected by conductors 4| and 42 to
switch arms 43 and 44, respectively, forming part
The con
provided with air circulating means I311. and Ma.
of the reversing mechanism 33. Each of the lat
By heating and cooling mediums I mean either
separate mediums, such as steam and brine, or a
single medium whose temperature has been either
ter has cooperatively associated therewith a pair
of contacts from which lead conductors 45, 4B
and 41, 48, respectively. Conductors 46 and 41
raised or lowered so as to heat or cool the struc
are in turn connected to a conductor 48’ leading
through a limit switch 49 and conductor 50 to
one winding of a slow speed reversibly operable
ture. Heating medium is supplied from a suit
10 able source illustrated diagrammatically as a
furnace I5 of any conventional type and cooling
medium is supplied from a storage tank l6 cooled
by conventional cooling apparatus IT. The heat
ing medium flows through a conduit IQ leading
15 from the furnace to a circulating means, such
as pump 20 of any suitable type, discharging into
electric motor 5! connected through suitable
gearing to a medium flow regulating valve 52
positioned in' the conduit 22 leading to radiator
I3. Conductor 45 is likewise connected by con
ductor 53 through a limit switch 54 and con
ductor 55 to the opposite winding of motor 5|.
an inlet conduit or riser 2| leading through
The common terminal of the motor windings is
branch conduits 22 to heat exchangers l3 and Id.
The medium returns to the ‘furnace through a
connected by conductor 56 to conductor 36 lead
ing to the source of power. Limit switch 49 is
20 return conduit or riser 23 leading through a > adapted to be opened by a switch operating arm 20
branch conduit 24 to the furnace IS.
51 carried on the gearing when the valve 52
The system is supplied with cooling medium
through a pair of branch conduits 25 and 26 con
necting the inlet and outlet risers 2| and 23 to the
25 storage tank 85. Conduits l9 and 24 are provided
with a pair of manually operated valves 2T
adapted to be opened when it is desired to heat
the structure and closed when cooling is desired.
In similar fashion, conduits 25 and 26 are pro
30 vided with a. pair of manually operated valves 28
adapted to be closed when heating is desired and
opened when cooling is desired.
The inlet conduits 22 are provided with suitable
medium ?ow regulating means such as a motor
35 operated valve 52 controlled in a manner to be
described more fully hereinafter. A suitable by
pass 22' is arranged around each valve so that
medium will continuously ?ow past the here
_ inafter to be described thermal responsive means
40 subject to the temperature of the medium. , A
manually operable valve 52' is placed in the by
pass so that the ?ow therethrough may be cut
off if desired.
It may be seen from an inspection of Fig. 1
45 that the controls for enclosures H and 12 are
identical and for this reason the control for en
closure “ only will be described. The enclosure
is provided with thermal responsivemeans 30
adapted to maintain the enclosure temperature
50
within predetermined limits by controlling the
operation of a reversibly operable regulating
means 3| adapted to control the ?ow of heat ex
change medium through the heat exchanger l3.
To reverse with respect to temperature the con
55 trol of the thermal responsive means over the
regulating means, I have provided a second
thermal responsive means ‘32 actuated in re
sponse to the temperature of the medium supplied
to the enclosure.
Associated therewith is a re
60 versing mechanism 33 that is effective to reverse
is operated to its fully closed position and limit
switch 54 is adapted to be opened when the valve
is operated to its fully open position.
The circuits just described are those through 25
which the control is exerted when the enclosure
is to be cooled at which time the thermal re
sponsive means merely actuates the valve oper
ating motor in opposite directions to variable
control the ?ow of cooling medium to the radia 30
tor, as will be described more fully hereinafter.
Whenever heating medium is supplied to the
enclosure the thermal ?uid containing bulb 58
of the thermal responsive means 32 is heated
and the expansion of the ?uid therein and in
the bellows 59 associated therewith forces the
latter to the right to close switch 60. The latter
is adapted to close a circuit connecting the pre
viously mentioned conductor 36 and a conductor
5|, which form an energizing circuit for re
versing relay 62 forming part of the reversing
mechanism 33. The armature of the latter is
connected to switch arms 43 and 44 and when
ever the relay is energized the switch arms are
moved upwardly from their indicated positions
to reverse the control of the thermal responsive
means over the regulating means 3|, and simul
taneously to change the control to an anticipating
control and vary the temperature at which the
thermal responsive means 30 operates.
The anticipating control is obtained by placing
in heat conducting relation with the thermal re
sponsive element 38 a ?rst local source of heat,
such as a resistor 53 connected to the previously
mentioned conductors 48 and 53 through a con
ductor 64 so that it will be energized whenever
the thermostat calls for additional heat. The
variation in the temperature at which the ther
mal responsive means 30 operates is obtained by
rendering effective a second local source of heat,
the connections between the thermal responsive illustrated as an electrical resistor 35 connected
means 38 and the regulating means 3| in response in parallel with the reversing relay 52 and ener
to the action of the thermal responsive means 32. - gized simultaneously therewith. In describing
the operation of the system resistor 63 will be
A more detailed descriptionof the various above
called a preheat resistor and resistor 65 a sub
65 mentioned control mechanisms will now be given.
The control is supplied with energy through a calibrating resistor.
transformer 34 from the secondary of which there
leads a pair of conductors 35 and 36. Conductor
35 is connected by conductor 31 to the thermal
70 responsive element 38 of the thermal responsive
means 30. Element 38 is illustrated as being of
the well known bimetallic type and has associ
ated therewith a pair of contacts 39 and 40 en
gageable thereby whenever the temperature with
75 in the enclosure varies beyond predetermined
The operation of the system illustrated in Fig.
1 will now be described. Assuming ?rst that the
thermal responsive element 38 is calibrated to
maintain a temperature of 85° F. when una?ected
by local source of heat, as it would whenever
cooling medium is supplied to the enclosure, the
control is illustrated in the position it would have
whenever cooling medium is supplied to the en
closure and' the temperature within the enclosure 75
2,121,625
is 85° F. At this time the bimetallic element 36
is intermediate the contacts 39 and 40 associated
therewith but will engage contact 39 whenever
the temperature increases above 85° F. and to
engage contact 46 whenever the temperature de
creases below 85° F. Assuming further that
valves 21 have been closed and valves 26 opened
to supply cooling medium to the radiators then,
if the temperature within enclosure || increases
above 85", element 33 engages contact 39 thereby
H)
energizing motor 5| to operate the valve 52 to
ward its open position. The energizing circuit
for the motor is as follows: from one side of the
secondary winding of transformer 34 through
conductor 31, thermal responsive element 38 in
engagement with contact 39, conductor 4|, switch
- arm 43 in engagement with conductor 45, con
ductor 53, limit switch 54 in its closed position,
and conductor 55 to the opening winding of mo
20 tor 5| and thence through conductors 56 and
36 back to the other side of the secondary wind
ing of the transformer. Motor 5| is thereby en
ergized and slowly opens valve 52. If the tem
perature within the enclosure decreases to a value
of 85°, the bimetallic element 36 is moved out of
engagement with contact 39 thereby deenergiz
ing motor 5| and valve 52 remains in an inter
mediate open position. If the temperature again
30
rises above 85° the motor is again energized to
further open valve 52 and the operation will be
repeated until the valve 52 is operated to its fully
open position at which time limit switch 54 will
be opened by action of switch-operating arm 51.
carried on the gearing.
3
cuit: from one side of the secondary winding of
transformer 34 through conductor 35 leading to
the relay 62 and thence through conductor 6|,
switch 60 now in its closed position and conduc
tor 36 back to the other side of the transformer
secondary winding. Energization of the revers
ing relay results in the upward movement of
switch arms 43 and 44, the former being moved
from engagement with conductor 45 into en
gagement with conductor 46 and the latter be 10
ing moved from engagement with conductor 41
into engagement with conductor 48. It will be
seen that this movement of the switch arms re
verses with respect to temperature the control
of the thermal responsive means over the regulat
ing means because switch arm 43 is now in the
circuit to the closing winding of motor 5| where
as it was formerly in the circuit with the open
ing winding and switch arm 44 is likewise in the
20
opposite circuit.
Simultaneously with the energization of the
reversing relay the subcalibrating resistor 65 is
energized. It will be assumed that the resistor
is so constructed and placed with respect to the
thermostatic element that it will raise the tem
perature thereof 15°. The 15° rise is actually the
creation of a false ambient around a thermostatic
element so that it will now maintain a tempera
ture of 85° minus 15° or 70° within. the enclosure.
Accordingly, the thermal responsive element will 30
now move into engagement with contact 39 when
ever the temperature increases above 70° and
into engagement with contact 40 whenever the
temperature decreases below ‘10°.
'
The anticipating control is also- rendered ef
On a decrease in temperature below 85° the I fective by the energization of preheat resistor 63
valve is operated toward its closed position in a
manner similar to that described above with re
gard to the opening of the valve. The bimetal
lic element engages contact 40 and energizes the
closing winding‘ of the motor through the follow
ing circuit: from one side of the secondary trans
whenever the thermal responsive means 30 calls
for additional heat. Assuming ?rst that the tem
perature within the space decreases below 70°,
former 34 through conductor 31, bimetallic ele
ment 38 in engagement with contact 40, conduc
The circuit leads from one side of the secondary
tor 42, switch arm 44 in engagement with con
ductor 41, conductor 48', limit switch 49 in its
closed position, and conductor 50 to the closing
winding of the valve operating motor and thence
through conductors 56 and 36 back to the other
side of the secondary winding of the transformer.‘
The motor .operates the valve slowly toward its
closed position until such time as the bimetallic
element moves out of engagement with contact
40. If thereafter the enclosure temperature de
creases still further, the above described ener
gizing circuit for motor 5| will be again ener
gized to further close the valve. This operation
will continue until the valve is in its fully closed
position, at which time the limit switch 49 is
‘opened by actuating arm 51.
A minimum circulation of the cooling medium
through the radiator will take place through the
by-pass 22' whenever the valve is operated to its
fully closed position. In this manner I provide
a continuous circulation of heat exchange medi
um past the bulb 58 of the thermal responsive
means 32 and insure proper operation of the con
trol system under all conditions.
Assuming now that outdoor temperatures
change making it desirable to heat the structure.
Valves 21 are opened and valves 28 closed and
heating medium is supplied to the enclosures by
pump 26. In response to the increased tempera
ture of the heat exchange medium the volatile
?uid in bulb 58 expands forcing bellows 59 out
wardly and closing switch 60. Reversing relay
62 is energized thereby throughthe following cir
then the thermal responsive means closes a cir
cuit energizing the opening winding of the valve
operating motor 5| and the preheat resistor 63.
35
40
winding of the transformer through conductorv
31, bimetallic element 38 in engagement with
contact 40, conductor 42, switch arm 44 in en
gagement with conductor 48, preheat resistor 63,
conductors 64 and 53, limit switch 54 in its closed
position, and conductor 55 to the opening winding
of motor 5| and thence through conductors 56
and 36 back to the secondary winding of the
transformer. The motor is thereby energized and
moves the valve 52 slowly toward its open posi
tion. At the same time the preheat coil 63 is
energized to locally heat the bimetallic element
38. If the total heat supplied to the bimetallic
element by the heating medium and preheat re
sistor is sufficient to raise the temperature of the
latter to 70° it will move out of engagement with
contact 40, thereby deenergizin'g the preheat re 60
sistor and valve- operating motor. Because of
the effect of the resistor, this may occur some
time prior to the time that the temperature of
the enclosure is above 70°. In this event the
bimetallic element will again engage contact 40
and again energize the preheat resistor and motor
to further open the valve 52. After a series of
intermittent valve opening movements the room
temperature will finally reach a value of 70°
whereupon the valve will be maintained at some
?xed position. If the outside temperature is low TU
enough the valve will be operated to its fully
open position, at which time limit switch 54 will
be opened in a previously described manner.
Operation of the valve to its open position in a
series of slow intermittent movements permits a 7
4
2,121,626
closer regulation of temperatures and also pre
vents overshooting and undershooting.
Assuming that outside conditions moderate
and the temperature within the enclosure rises
above 70°, then bimetallic element 38 will engage
contact 38 closing an energizing circuit for the
valve closing winding of the motor.‘ This circuit
is as follows: from one side of the secondary wind
ing of the transformer through conductor 31.
10 bimetallic element 38 in engagement with contact
element 8| which exerts control whenever heat
ing medium is supplied to the enclosure. This
element is adapted to move in a manner similar to
thermal responsive element 13 and therefore en
gages contact 82 on an increase in temperature
and contact 83 on a decrease in temperature.
Contact 82 is connected to conductor ‘I8 and
thence through a previously described circuit to
the closing winding of the motor and conductor
83 is connected by conductor 84 to‘ the conductor 10
‘l1 and thence through. a previously described
circuit of the motor winding.
Assuming that the thermal responsive means
38, conductor 4|, switch arm 43 in engagement
with conductor 48, conductor 48', limit switch 48‘
in its closed position, and conductor 58 to the
closing winding of the motor and thence through 13 is adjusted to maintain a temperature of 85°
conductors 56 and 36 back to the secondary wind
within the enclosure and thermal responsive ele
ing of the transformer. If the temperature of ment 8| to maintain a temperature of 70° then, 15
the enclosure thereafter decreases to a value of with cooling medium supplied to the enclosure
70°, the motor will become deenergized and the the operation will be as follows: On an increase
valve will remain in some new position. If, on in temperature above 85° bimetallic element 13
20 the other hand, the temperature again rises, the will engage contact 14 thereby energizing the
20
motor will be again energized to close the valve. opening winding of motor 5|. The circuit is as
This action will continue until the valve is fully follows: from one side of the transformer sec
closed at which time the limit switch will be
opened in the previously described manner.
When the valve is in its fully closed position,
a limited amount of heating medium will ?ow
through the by-pass insuring operation of the
control system even though no heat is called.for
by the enclosure thermal responsive means for
some time.
It will be obvious to those skilled in the art
that my invention provides a simple arrangement
whereby the controls in the various enclosures of
a structure are independently changed to provide
proper temperatures and control in response to
change~over of the system from heating to cool
ing and vice versa. My invention obviates the
necessity of connecting the individual room con
trols to a master control and thus effects a con
40
siderable saving in cost of wiring.
In Fig. 2, I have disclosed a modi?ed form of
control whereby somewhat the same results may
be obtained. In this ?gure I have disclosed an
arrangement in which the thermal responsive
means subject to’ the temperature of the medium
supplied to the enclosure is adapted to select one
thermostat for cooling control and a second ther
mostat for heating control. The above-men
tioned thermal responsive means is exactly the
same in construction as that disclosed in Fig. 1.
The control is supplied with energy from the
source 34 through conductors 35 and 36. conduc
tor 35 leading to the common terminal of the
valve operating motor 5| and conductor 38 lead
ing to switch 88. Associated with the latter are
a pair of contacts 18 and 1|, the switch 68 being
shown in engagement with contact 18 which is
the position obtaining when cooling medium is
supplied to the radiator l3. Contact 18 is con
60 nected by conductor 12 to the thermal responsive
element 13 exerting control when cooling medium
is supplied to the enclosure. The latter'is .ar
ranged to move to the left on an increase in
temperature and to the right on a decrease in
temperature and thereupon to engage contacts
14 and 15, respectively.’ Contact 14 is connected
by conductor 16 to conductor 11 and thence
through limit switch 54 and conductor 55 to the
opening winding of the motor. ' Contact ‘I5 is con
70 nected by conductors ‘l8 and 18 to the limit switch
48 and thence through conductor 58 to the clos
ing winding on the motor 5|.
When heating medium is supplied to the heat
exchanger, switch 68 engages the contact 'Il con
75 nected by conductor 88 to a thermal responsive
ondary winding through conductor 36, switch 68
in engagement with contact 18, conductor 12,
thermal responsive element 13 in engagement 25
with contact 14, conductors ‘l6 and ‘I1, limit
switch 54, and conductor 55 to the opening wind
ing and thence through conductor 35 back to the
secondary winding of the transformer. Motor
5| is thereby energized to operate the valve slowly
toward its open position in a manner that should
be obvious from
the preceding description.
Likewise, on a decrease in temperature below 85“
the thermal responsive element will engage con
tact 15 to energize the closing winding of the
motor 5| .
This circuit is as follows: from one
side of the secondary winding of the transformer
through conductor 36, switch 68 in engagement
with contact 18‘, conductor 12, element 13 in en
gagement with contact 75, conductors ‘l8 and 18,
limit switch 49, and conductor 58 to the closing
winding of the motor and thence back to the
secondary winding of the transformer through
conductor 35.
40
Whenever valves 21 and 28 are operated to
change over from cooling to heating switch 60
is actuated into engagement with contact 1|
thereupon placing thermal responsive element 8|
in control of the ?ow regulating means. Having
assumed that this element will maintain the tem
perature of the enclosure at 70° then whenever
the temperature decreases below this value the
valve motor will be energized to operate the
valve toward its open position. The energizing
circuit for the motor leads from one side of the
secondary winding of the transformer through
conductor 36, switch 60 in engagement with con
tact 1|, conductorv 88, thermal responsive ele
ment 8| in engagement with contact 83 and
thence through conductor 84 to conductor 11 of 60
the previously described opening circuit. In
similar manner whenever the temperature with
in the enclosure rises above 70° thermal respon
sive element 8| engages contact 82 to close an
energizing circuit for the closing winding of the
valve operating motor. This circuit will be ob
vious from the above description and will not be
repeated here.
It will be seen from the above description of 70
operation that I have provided a number of ar
rangements in which it is necessary only to
change over fromheating to cooling or vice versa
and the control will automatically respond to
exert a proper control function.
75
2,121,025
What I claim as new and desire to secure by
Letters Patent of the United States is:
1. In combination, electrical regulating means
for controlling the flow of both heating and cool
ing medium to an enclosure, means including
thermal responsive switching means and electric
circuit connections controllable thereby for con
trolling said regulating means in response to tem
perature variations within said enclosure, and
means responsive to the difference in tempera
ture of said heating and cooling medium addi
tionally controlling said circuit connections for
reversing the control of said thermal responsive
means over said regulating means.
,
2. In combination, a plurality of enclosures
and heat exchangers in each enclosure having a
common source of heating medium and a com
mon source of cooling medium, separate regu
lating means associated with each heat exchanger
for controlling the ?ow of both heating and cool
ing medium thereto, thermal responsive means in
each enclosure for controlling said regulating
means in response to temperature variations
within the respective enclosures, means respon
sive to the difference in temperature of the
medium supplied to said heat exchangers for re
versing with respect to temperature the action
of said thermal responsive means over said regu
lating means.
3. In combination, a source of heating medium,
a source of cooling medium, a heat exchanger for
an enclosure having means for selectively supply
ing said mediums thereto, regulating means for
controlling the ?ow of the selected medium, means
including thermal responsive means controlling‘
said regulating means to effect an increased sup~
ply of cooling medium on an increase in'tem
perature in said enclosure, and vice versa, when
cooling means is supplied to said enclosure, and
means including a second thermal responsive
means for reversing with respect to temperature
the action of said ?rst thermal responsive means
over said regulating means when heating medium
is supplied to said heat exchange.
4. In combination, regulating means for con
trolling the fiow of heat exchange medium having
different temperatures, thermal responsive means
for controlling said regulating means, means re
the ?ow of heat exchange medium thereto, ther
mal responsive means for controlling said regu
lating means in response to temperature require
ments within said enclosure, means responsive to
a predetermined diiierence in temperature of said
medium for reversing with respect to tempera
ture the action of said thermal responsive means
over said regulating means, and means for main
taining a predetermined minimum ?ow of said
medium to said heat exchanger irrespective of
temperature requirements within said enclosure.
7. In combination, an enclosure provided with
a heat exchanger, a source of cooling medium, a
source of heating medium, means for selectively
supplying said mediums to said heat exchanger,
regulating means operable between fully closed
and open positions for controlling the flow of the
selected medium to said heat exchanger, thermal
responsive means for controlling said- regulating
means in response to temperature variations in 20
said enclosure, means responsive to the tempera
ture of the medium flowing to said heat exchang
er for reversing with respect to temperature the
action of said thermal responsive means over said
regulating means, and means including a by-pass
around said regulating means for maintaining a
predetermined minimum ?ow of medium to said
heat exchanger.
_
8. In combination, means for varying the temi
perature of a heat exchange medium, regulating
means controlling the ?ow of said medium to a
heat exchanger for an enclosure, thermal respon
sive means operable at a predetermined tempera
ture for controlling said regulating means in re
sponse to temperature variations within said en- -
closure, and means responsive to a predetermined
difference in temperature of said medium sup
plied to said heat exchanger for reversing with
respect to temperature the action of said thermal
responsive means over said regulating means and
having means for concurrently changing the
temperature at which said thermal responsive
means operates.
'
9. In combination, a source of cooling medium,
a source of heating medium, means for selective 45
ly supplying said mediums to an enclosure, regu
lating means controlling the flow of the medium
selected to be supplied, means including a pair
sponsive to a predetermined difference in tem- ' of thermal responsive devices operable at dif~
perature of said medium for reversing with re
spect to temperature the action ‘of said thermal
responsive means over said regulating means, and
means for maintaining a predetermined mini
mum ?ow of said medium over said last men
_ tioned means.
5. In combination, a plurality of enclosures and
heat exchangers in each enclosure having a
common source of heating medium and a com
mon source of cooling medium, a separate regu
60 lating means for controlling the flow of both
heating and cooling medium to each of said heat
exchangers, thermal responsive means in each
enclosure for controlling said regulating means‘
in response to temperature variations in the re
spective enclosures, means associated with each
heat exchanger to be responsive to the difference
in temperature of the medium supplied to the re
spective heat exchanger for reversing with re
spect to temperature the'action of said thermal
responsive means over said regulating means,
and means for maintaining a predetermined
minimum flow of said medium to each of said
heat exchangers.
6. In combination, a heat exchanger for an en
closure having regulating means for controlling
ferent temperatures and responding oppositely
in response to like temperature changes adapt
ed to control said regulating means, and means
responsive to the difference in temperature of the
heating and cooling medium supplied to said
enclosure for selectively rendering said devices
effective to control said regulating means.
10. In combination, a source of cooling me
dium, a source of heating medium, a heat ex
changer for an enclosure having means for selec
tively supplying said mediums thereto, regulat 60
ing means operable between closed and open
positions for controlling the ?ow of said me
diums, means including a ?rst thermal respon
sive device adapted when rendered effective to
operate said regulating means toward its open (i5
position on an increase in temperature and vice
versa, means including a second thermal respon
sive device adapted when rendered e?ective to
operate said regulating means toward its open
position on a decrease in temperature and vice 70
versa, and means responsive to the temperature
of a predetermined di?erence in the medium for
rendering said ?rst mentioned thermal respon
sive means e?‘ective when cooling medium sup
plied to said heat exchanger is supplied to said 75
6
2,121,626
enclosure and for rendering said second men
tioned thermal responsive means e?ective when
heating medium is supplied to said enclosure.
11. In combination, a source of supply of cool
Cl ing medium, a source of supply of heating medium, a heat exchanger for an enclosure having
means for selectively supplying said mediums
thereto, regulating means controlling the supply
- of said medium to said heat exchanger, thermally
10 responsive means located within said enclosure
and operable at a predetermined temperature for
controlling said regulating means, local heat
ing means in heat conducting relationship with
said thermal responsive means for changing the
temperature at which said thermal responsive
means operates to exert its control, and means
responsive to the temperature of the medium
supplied to said heat exchanger for reversing
with respect to temperature the control of said
thermal responsive means over said regulating
means and controlling said heating means.
12. In combination, a source of supply of cool
ing medium, a source of supply of heating me_
dium, a heat exchanger for an enclosure having
means for selectively supplying said mediums
thereto, regulating
means operable between
closed and open positions for controlling the ?ow
of the medium selected to said heat exchanger,
means including thermal responsive means with
in said enclosure and electric circuit connections
between said thermal responsive means and said
regulating means for operating the latter toward
ulating means, means for reversing with respect
to temperature the control of said thermal re
sponsive means over said regulating means,
means for subcalibrating said thermostat, a
source of preheat for and controlled by said
thermal responsive means, and means respon
sive to the temperature of the medium for con
trolling said reversing means, said means also
rendering said subcalibrating means eifective
and placing saidsource of preheat under con 10
trol of said thermal responsive means when heat
ing medium is supplied to said zone.
14. The combination of reversibly operable elec
trical regulating means for controlling the ?ow
of heat exchange medium to an enclosure, a 15
source of electrical energy, thermal responsive
means adapted to move to a ?rst position to en
ergize said ?rst mentioned means for operating
it in one direction and to a second position to
operate it in an opposite direction, switching 20
means between said thermal responsive means
and regulating means for reversing with respect
to temperature the action of said thermal re
sponsive means over said regulating means, an
electrical heater in heat conducting relationship 25
with said thermal responsive means and adapted
to be energized thereby when said reversing means
is in a predetermined position, a second electrical
heating means associated with said thermal re.
sponsive means, and means including a‘ thermal 30
responsive device actuated in response to the
temperature of the medium supplied to said en
closure for operating said reversing means and
its open position on an increase in temperature
and vice versa, means for reversing said circuit ' energizing said second mentioned heating means.
connections whereby said regulating means will
15. In combination, a source of supply of cool
be operated toward its open position on a de
ing medium, a source of supply of heating med
crease in temperature and vice versa, local heat
ium, a heat exchanger for an enclosure having
ing means associated with said thermal respon
sive means and adapted when energized to de
40 crease the enclosure temperature at which said
thermal responsive means responds, second local
heating means associated with said thermal re
sponsive means and controlled thereby adapted
when energized to change the time of response
of said thermal responsive means, and means re
sponsive to the temperature of the medium sup
plied to said heat exchanger for controlling said
reversing means, the energization of said ?rst
mentioned local heating means and for placing
said second mentioned local heating means under
the control of said thermal responsive means.
13. In a conditioning system employing heat
ing and cooling mediums, the combination includ
ing medium flow regulating means, thermal re
in L1 sponsive means calibrated to operate at a pre
determined temperature for controlling said reg
means for selectively supplying said mediums
thereto, regulating means controlling the supply
of said mediums to said heat exchanger, thermal 40
responsive means located within said enclosure
and operable at a predetermined temperature
for controlling said regulating means, local heat
ing means associated with said thermal respon
sive means and adapted when energized to change
the time of response of said thermal responsive
means, and temperature responsive means re
sponsive to the di?erence in temperature of the
mediums supplied to said heat exchanger for
reversing with respect to temperature the control
of said ?rst thermal responsive means over said
regulating means and for placing said local heat
ing means under the control of said ?rst thermal
responsive means only when heating medium is
supplied to said heat exchanger.
HARRY R. CRAGO.
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