Патент USA US2121666код для вставки
June 21, 1938. D, w_ LATTA 2,121,666 GOVERNOR CONTROLLED, COMPRESSION IGNITION INTERNAL COMBUSTION INJECTION ENGINE Filed 001:. 23, 1936 I‘ 57 ' 50 Q52 \ —_>_1|\ 63 f .19 - a Q 0 ~- 1 0 ° . 0 Q j 20 ‘Q "15 ~79 /24 n 17 “I” ‘ L22 l5 - — l2 56 55 ‘ ‘22\ I [j / " ~° ‘ 2,121,666 Patent-ed June 21,1938 1 PATENT oFricE 1 UNITED STATES ' 2,121,666 GOVERNOR CONTROLLED COMPRESSION IGNITION INTERNAL COMBUSTION IN JECTION ENGINE David Wilson ‘Latte, Canton, Ohio, as‘slgnor to Hercules Motors Corporation, Canton, Ohio, a ‘corporation of Ohio Application October 23, 1936, Serial No. 107,198 5 Claims. (Cl. 123-140) My invention relates to compression ignition in ternal combustion injection engines, such as set forth in ‘U. S. Reissue Letters Patent No. 19,742. ‘ The fuel supply means for such‘ an engine in— 5 cludes a fuel injection pump which successively injects separate quantities or charges of‘ liquid hydrocarbon fuel such as Diesel oil into the com bustion chambers of the , engine at successive timed intervals, one charge being injected into the combustion chamber of each cylinder during each four stroke cycle of the piston operating in the cylinder, and in which the air for combustion is introduced into the cylinders and combustion chambers through an air. intake manifold or duct 15 and valve means such as may be usual in internal combustion engines. The tendency to overspeed is always present in 20_ a compression ignition internal combustion in jection engine, and one- form of governor means for the fuel injection pump of such an engine which is frequently used is a'vacuum type gover nor which is actuated by changes in pressure in a venturi located in' the air intake manifold, the changes in pressure being communicated to the 25 governor through a ?exible tubing. ' In such a governor controlled compression ig nition internal combustion injection engine, which maybe for example used as the motive power of a truck, upon a sudden release of the 30 load on the engine,‘ as' when the truck climbs a steep hill and passes over the top of the hill, the usual forms of vacuum governors are frequently too sluggish in action, with the result that serious overspeeding of the engine occurs and the truck 35 may run away‘and get out of control of the driver _with the‘possible result of a serious and damaging collision, or overturning of the truck upon leav ing the road out of control. ~ . The objects of the present improvements in 40 clude the provision of a governor controlled com pointed out and set forth in the appended claims forming part hereof. The nature of the present invention maybe ' described in general terms as including in a com pression ignition internal combustion injection. engine, air intake duct means or an intake mani fold for the engine, fuel injection pump means for the engine, a vacuum type governor which may be termed a 'di?erential pressure diaphragm actuated means controlling the rate of fuel injec 10 tion of the pump means, preferably a venturi in the air intake duct means, tube means operatively associated preferably with the venturi in the ‘air intake duct means and the diiferential pressure diaphragm actuated means for actuating the dia 15 phragm means according to variations in pressure vin they air intake duct means. The speed of the engine is controlled by a. ' manually operable valve means for varying the > air intake opening of the air intake duct. means, 20' which manually operable valve means may be a usual butter?y valve which may be located in the venturi of the intake duct means. Preferably in advance of the manually operable valve means, with respect to the direction of air 25 flow through the air intake duct means, air ve- ‘ locity actuated valve means, preferably vane valve means, are located in the air intake duct means, and normally arranged to permit air ?ow through the air intake duct means and operative 30 to automatically reduce the air ?ow by the at tainment of a predetermined velocity of air ?ow, so as to prevent overspeeding of the engine, as when the load on the engine is suddenly released. By way of example, a compression ignition in-_ ternal combustion injection engine including the present improvements, is illustrated in they ac companying drawing forming part hereof, in which ' Figure 1 is a slde'perspective view of. the fuel pump and air intake side of the compression ig pression ignition internal combustion injection engine, and which may have a vacuum type gov? nition internal combustion injection engine in by the improvements, apparatus, parts, combina the present improvements; and cluding the present improvements; ' ernor, and which is provided with additional gov erning means which are operative substantially ‘ Fig. 2, an enlarged fragmentary elevation view 45 instantaneously with a sudden release of load on of the same side thereof, with portions of the air 45 the engine to e?ectively reduce the fuel supply intake duct means and associated parts and por tions of the fuel supply means broken away and and thus the speed of the engine. The foregoing and other objects are attained illustrated in section for more clearly illustrating 50 tions, and sub-combinations, which comprise the present invention, and the nature of which is set forth in the following general statement, and pre ferred embodiments of which, together with their mode of use are set forth in the following descrip , 55 tion, and which are particularly and distinctly Fig. 3, a fragmentary elevation view of portions of Fig. 1 showing one form of velocity actuated vane valve or governor means adapted for use in _ the present improvements, with the‘ cover plate thereof removed and with portions being illus trated‘in section. 55 2 Similar 2,121,666 parts throughout the drawing. _ numerals refer to similar a transfer or supply pump 2| attached to the side of the lower part of the casing i1, and one or The compression ignition internal combustion injection engine including among others the pres more fuel ?lters, not shown, may be interposed in the fuel supply line to the injection pump M. ent improvements is indicated generally at ill, and as illustrated is a six cylinder, four stroke vided with a vacuum or differential pressure cycle, single action, high speed, compression ig nition internal combustion injection‘ engine, in which the air for combustion is obtained normally 10 directly from the atmosphere, and in which sep arate quantities or charges of the preferred liquid hydrocarbon fuel, suchas Diesel oil, are succes sively injected into the combustion chambers of the engine at successive timed intervals, one 15 charge being injected into the combustion cham ber of each cylinder during each four stroke cycle of the piston operating in the cylinder.v The illustrated engine includes the improve ments in Compression ignition internal combus 20 tion engines set forth in the United States re issue patent of 0. D. Treiber, 19,742, relating more particularly to an improved and preferred arrangement of’ cylinder chambers, side com bustion chambers, and connecting passageways, -25 and a preferred character of fuel jet injected. into each side combustion chamber, which need not be described more in detail ‘herein. The engine l0 furthermore includes air intake duct means indicated generally. by H through The injection pump it as illustrated is pro governor means indicated generally by 22, and which as shown is of a usual type, and which may be termed differential pressure diaphragm actuated means controlling the rate of fuel in 10 Jection of the pump I! through the tubes i9 and the fuel nozzles into the combustion cham bers of the engine. - ' In effecting control of the rate of fuel injec tion of the pump 14 by means of the differential 16 pressure governor means 22, the fuel pump in cludes valve or variable metering means for each - fuel pump cylinder controlling the quantity of I liquid fuel admitted to each pump cylinder from the main supply tube, and thus controlling the 20 quantity of fuel in each charge pumped out of; each pump cylinder into its associated engine cylinder combustion chamber, on the pressure .; stroke of the piston of the pump cylinder. _ The fuel pump it furthermore includes a valve setting or throttle rod 23 which ‘is operatively associated with each of- the valve means for each of the pump cylinders and which is arranged for reciprocation in normal horizontal opposite 30 which‘the air supply for the engine is introduced . directions in the casing ll of the pump H. and caused to ?ow into thev cylinder chambers through overhead valve means, not shown, but The rod 23 when displaced to its extreme posi tion in the direction of the arrow S in Fig. 2 I which are included beneath the air intake valve actuates’ the valve means so as to shut off the mechanism cover‘ i2, and which overhead valve ?ow of liquid fuel into the pump cylinders and 35 means may be as set forthin said U. S. Reissue Patent 19,742. thus stop the engine. , For thus stopping the engine a stop lever 24 is ' The engine i0 furthermore includes fuel sup ply means indicated generally by l3 and which operatively associated with the rod 23. includes a fuel injection pump is operatively mounted at one side of the engine as shown in the arrow F actuates the pump valve means to Figs. land 2. I The illustrated fuel injection pump l4 ‘isof usual construction and arrangement, and is a Bosch fuel injection, pump, made by Robert Bosch, A. G., Stuttgart, Germany, and includes a shaft l5, driven by a chain ,and sprocket con nection with the ‘cam shaft of the engine con tained in a gear and chain housing ii of the engine. 1 Y The gearing and sprocket connection with the as ' Displacement of the rod 23 in the direction of increase the rate of flow of liquid fuel into the 40 pump cylinders, the greater the displacement of the rod 23 in the direction of the arrow F, the greater the rate of flow of liquid fuel into the pump cylinders. The vacuum or di?erential pressure governor 46 means 22 includes a casing indicated generally by 25 and having mounted therein intermediate the ends thereof diaphragm means 26 for form ing at one side of the diaphragm means 26 a diaphragm chamber 21 and at the other side engine cam shaft of the fuel injection pump drive ' of the diaphragm means 23 a diaphragm cham shaft I5 is not shown and may be of usual con ber 23. . struction and arrangement, and the cam shaft The diaphragm means 26 is connected by link ,of'the engine is driven in a usual manner, not means 29 with the governor control rod 23 and shown, by a gear connection with the crank shaft accordingly movements of the diaphragm means 56 of the engine. , . . ' 26 caused by pressure differences in'the chambers The fuel injection pump i4 includes a casing 21 and 28, impart movements to the control rod I‘! in which plunger pistons, not shown, are oper 23 in the opposite directions S and F. atively mounted, each in a pump cylinder, not The. diaphragm chamber 28 is vented to the. shown, formed in the casing l1, one pump plunger atmosphere, and the diaphragm chamber 21 com 60 piston and cylinder being provided for each cyl municates through tubing means 30 with the al inder of the engine. The plunger pistons are actuated in a ‘usual manner by cams on a cam shaft portion, not shown, of the shaft ii, the cam shaft portion being located within a cam shaft chamber of th casing l'l. ' Each pump cylinder communicates with a discharge outlet i8 which communicatingly con 70 nects with one end of a tube I9, the other end of which communicatingly connects with the in take ?tting 20 of a. pintle nozzle discharging. into the combustion chamber of one of the engine cylinders. 75 ‘ The injection pump it as :hown is served by intake duct means ll. " As best shown in Fig. 2, the air intake duct means ll of the engine preferably includes a Venturi tube portion 3i located between the pre 65 ferred air cleaner entrance means 32 of the en glue and the manifolding'portion 33 of the air intake duct means II. which distributes the air to the several cylinders through valve means in a usual manner. . , 70 The tubing means 30 communicates with the air intake duct means at the neck of the Venturi tube‘ portion 3i. ’ Manually operable valve means for varying the air-intake opening of the air intake duct means 75 , 9,121,660 are provided as shown in the form. of a butter ?y valve 3i operatively located in ‘the Venturi tube portion 3!, and the butter?y valve 34 is ro ' 3 It is to be noted that the location of the air velocity actuated vane valve means 31 in advance of the butter?y valve means, with respect to the tatable on its shaft 35 by means of the speed direction of the air ?ow through the air intake ' duct means, insures the desired very rapid drop changing lever 36 as shown in _Fig. 1. For the purposes of the present improvements, in pressure in the Venturi tube portion 3| so as air velocity actuated valve means are interposed to eifect a rapid-rand immediate slowing down “in the air intake duct means I I of the engine and movement of the diaphragm means 26 and the injection pump control rod 23. indicated generally at 31. . The illustrated air velocity actuated vane valve means in are such as set forth in U. S. Patent No. 2,026,948, issued to W. E. 'Leibing, and in clude a duct casing 38 which is interposed be tween the Venturi tube portion 3! of the air in is, take duct means H and the air cleaner 32. Valve vanes 33 are operatively located in the duct opening 40 of the duct casing." which‘ forms a portion of the air intake duct means of the engine. 20 , I engine, differential pressure diaphragm actuated means controlling the rate of fuel injection of the 15 pump means, tube means operatively associated with the ‘air intake duct means and the di?eren tial pressure diaphragm‘ actuated means for actu ating the diaphragm means according to varia mally and adjustably maintained by the spring manually operable valve- means for varying the means indicated generally by ll in Fig. 3. in the position shown in full lines in Fig. 2, which posi tion normally permits air flow through the air air intake opening of the air intake duct means, and air velocity actuated valve means normally - At the attainment of a predetermined velocity, the valve vanes 39 actuated by 'the increased ve locity "assume the position shown in dotted lines in Fig. 2, thus automatically reducing and clos 30 ing c? the air ?ow through the air intake duct means ii. ,40 - 1. In a compression ignition internal combus tion injection engine, air intake duct means for the engine, fuel injection pump means for the The velocity actuated valve vanes 38 are nor-- ~ tions in pressure in the air intake duct means, 25 intake duct means of the engine. as I claim: arranged to permit air ?ow through the air in take duct means and operative to automatically reduce theair ?ow by the attainment of a pre determined velocity of air ?ow, so as to prevent overspeeding of the engine, as when the load on _ the engine is suddenly released. ' 2. In a compression ignition internal combus tion injection engine, air intakeduct means for In Fig. 2 the setting of the manually operated , the engine, fuel injection pumpmeans for the en butter?y valve 34 is for full load speed of the. en- ' gine,. di?erential pressure diaphragm actuated gine as when the engine is propelling a truck means controlling the rate of fuel injection of the pump means, tube'means communicatingly con which is climbing a .hill.‘ ' ~ The diaphragm means 218 assumes the position necting at one end with the air intake duct means shown in Fig. 2 corresponding to the wide open [and at the other end with the differential pres sure diaphragm actuated means for actuating the setting of the butter?y valve 34, and manual clos diaphragm means according to variations in pres ing of the butter?y valve means 35 is accom panied by increases in vacuum at the neck of the sure in the air intake duct means, manually op Venturi tube 3i and such increases in vacuum or erable valve _means for varying the air intake drops in pressure are communicated through the ' opening of the air intake duct means, and air velocity actuated valve means operative in the air diaphragm casing 27 through the tubing 30 re ducing the speed of the engine by the diaphragm intake duct means in advance of the connection with respect to the direction of air ?ow there shown in Fig. 2. through. . ' The governor 22 connects as aforesaid by the tubing 3!} with the‘venturi tube portion 8!, and 50 or the tube means with the air intake duct means means 26 assuming a position displaced in the direction of the arrow 8 from its position as with not too sudden changes in speed of the en gine, also has a governing action on the dia phragm means 26 tending to maintain the same at any position correspondingto any particular setting of the butter?y valve 3d. This governing action is too sluggish whenthe 55 load on the ermine is suddenly released as when a truck powered by the engine goes over the top of a steep hill. - , In the present improvements however, the ve locity actuated vane valve means 3? are adjusted to instantaneously operate upon a sudden release of the load of the engine to reduce andv close o?. the air ?ow through the air‘ intake duct means ii, and accordingly the pumping action of the engine pistons causes a-very rapid ‘drop in pres 65 sure in the air intake duct means beyond the air velocity actuated vane valve means 8'? in the di rection of the air flow indicated by the arrow £32, with a consequent quick movement, of the dia 70 phragm means 25 in the direction of the arrow S to slow down the engine speed to a safe operat ing speed, after which the valve vanes 39 auto matically operate torreturn to the position shown in Fig. 2 fol-permitting the manual speed control 75 of ~the engine by the butter?y valve means 343. ‘ 1 3. In a compression ignition internal combus tion injection‘ engine, air intake duct means for the engine, fuel injection supply means for the engine, means operative by pressure changes in the air intake duct means for controlling the op eration of the fuel supply means, manually op erabie valve means for varyingthe air intake opening of the air intake duct means, and air ve locity actuated valve means operative in the air intake duct means. ' 1i. In a compression ignition internal combus tion injection engine, air intake duct means for the engine, fuel injection supply means for the engine, di?'erential pressure diaphragm actuated means controlling the operation of the fuel sup- ' ply means, tube means communicatingly connect- ‘ ing at one end with the‘ air intake duct means and at the other end with the di?erential pres $5 sure diaphragm actuated means for actuating the diaphragm means according to variations in pressure in the air intake duct means, manually operable valve means for-varying the air intake opening of the air intake duct means,- and air ve 70 locity actuated valve'means operative in the air intake duct means in advance of the connection of the tube means with the air intake dust means with respect to the direction of A air ?ow there through. as 4- 2,121,066 b. In a compression ignition internal combus tion injection engine, air intake duct means for the engine, differential pressure diaphragm ac ated means, and air velocity actuated valve means tuated means, tube means communicatingly con voperative in the air intake duct means in advance of the connection of the tube means‘ with the air intake duct means with respect to the direction necting at one end with the‘ air intake duct means of air flow therethrough. and communicatingiy connecting at the other end with the differential pressure diaphragm actu DAVID WILSON LA'I‘TA.