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Патент USA US2121729

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June 21, 1938.
' 2,121,729
Filed Jan. 9, 1937
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June 21, 1938.
Filed Jan. 9, 1957
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Patented June 21, 1938
Raymond A. Cole, Worcester, Mass, assignor to
Norton Company, Worcester, Mass, 2:. corpo
ration oi’~ Massachusetts
Application January 9, 1937, Serial No. 119,772
4 Claims. ((71. 51-165)
internal grinding machine, for example that dis
The invention relates to internal grinding ma
closed in McDonough Reissue Patent No. 16,141,
chines, and particularly to automatically actuat
using one of the gauges thereof to initiate a dress
ing size controlling apparatus therefor.
One object of the invention is to provide a sen
sitive photoelectric sizing apparatus and method
for an internal grinding machine. Another ob
ject of the invention is to provide van internal
grinding machine achieving precision results in
the grinding of work pieces. Another object of
the invention is to provide a completely automatic
internal grinding machine with precision instru
mentalities including size determining’ apparatus
of sensitive characteristics. Other, objects will
be in part obvious or in part pointed out herein
' The invention accordingly consists in the fea
tures of construction, combinations of elements
and arrangements of parts, as will be exempli?ed
.in the structure to be hereinafter described, and
the scope of the application of which will be
pointed out in the following claims.
In the accompanying drawings illustrating one
of many possible embodiments of the mechanical
features of this invention,
Figure 1 is a front elevation of an internal
grinding machine incorporating the invention;
- Figure 2 is an electrical diagram;
Figure 3 is a horizontal axial sectional. view of
the optical apparatus for directing the rays
against the work piece;
Figure 4 is a sectional view, taken on the line
4-4 of Figure 3;
Figure 5 is an optical diagram;
Figure 6 is a perspective view of one of the
35 mirror instrumentalities which includes two re
ilecting surfaces;
Figure 7 is a further optical diagram in which
the rays are projected into a single plane for pur
poses of illustration; and‘
Figure 8 is a fragmentary sectional view, on an
enlarged scale, showing a portion of the optical
Referring ?rst to Figure 1, I provide an inter
nal grinding machine which may be of the gen--'
eral type identi?ed by the trade-mark “Size
Matic” and which, so far as some of its features
are concerned, will be found-described in United
States Letters Patent No. 1,682,612 and No. 1,682,
673 but, instead of relying on a predetermined ad
vance beyond the dressing plane to control ?n
ished size of work pieces, I substitute the photo
electric apparatus herein particularly to be de
scribed. It should be understood, however, that
I may embody the sizing apparatus more partic-,
55 ularly described herein with any other type of
ing operation.
Considering now the illustrative embodiment of 5
the present invention, the machine includes a
base ID, a work head Ii mounted on a bridge I2,
and a carriage l3 mounted for reciprocatory
movement on the base In under the bridge l2.
The machine further includes a wheel head 14 10
mounted on a cross slide, not shown, which is
mounted on the carriage 13 so that the wheel head
Ill may be moved transversely ,of the direction
of reciprocation of the carriage 13, that is tosay
substantially at right angles thereto. The wheel 15
‘head I4 journals a spindle 15 upon which is
mounted a small grinding wheel i6, and any suit
able drive for the spindle i5 is provided. The
Ways supporting the carriage i3 guide the car
riage I3 in the direction of the axis of the spindle 20
I5 whereby the grinding wheel l6 may be ad
vanced into a work piece 20, grind the work piece “
and thereafter withdraw to the position shown in
Figure 1. The cross feed ‘of the wheel head M on
the carriage i3 is procured by rotation of a screw 25
shaft 2| controlled by a hand wheel 22 and other 7
mechanism more fully described in the patent to
Taylor No. 1,682,673 referred to. The rectilinear
movement of the carriage l3 may be procured by
mechanical actuation or by ?uid pressure actua- 30
tion as, for example, by the use of hydraulic
mechanism described in Heald and Guild Pat
ent No. 1,582,468, which includes a cylinder-pis
ton unit, not shown, actuating a piston rod 23
which is connected by a bracket 24 to the carriage 35
i3. Automatic cross feed of the wheel head I4
is, as described in the Taylor patent referred to,
achieved by a relative engagement of a cam 25
‘(adjustably fastened to- a bar 26, one end of ‘which
is secured to the bridge 12 and the other end of 40
which is secured by means of a bracket 21 to
the base ill) with a roller, not shown, connected
to a pawl 21. Pawl 2i actuates a ratchet wheel
connected by reduction gearing to the screw shaft
2 I, all as is in detail illustrated in the Taylor pat- 45
ent referred to.
The control of the rectilinear movement of the
carriage l3 may be achieved by fluid pressure con
trolling and reversing mechanism described in
aforesaid Patent No. 1,582,468 to Heald and Guild, 50
the reversing valve being controlled by a lever
30 which'is interlocked with a reversing lever 3|
so that when the lever 30"is to the right, the lever
31 is to the left, as shown in Figure 1, and vice
versa. Suitable detents or load-and-?re devices 55
are provided and the lever 38 controls a. revers
ing valve to reverse the direction of motion of the
manner fully described in Taylor Patent No.
table I3, as will be found described in the afore
said patent to Heald andGuild, it being now well
known to control the motion of a' grinding car
riage by the actuation of carriage dogs on an in
line of the grinding wheel on the work piece at
?nished size will bear substantially the same re—'
1,682,673 whereby the vertical plane of the cutting
lation to the vertical plane of the dressing line
throughout the grinding of a whole series of
terposed reversing lever, such as the lever 3|. The - work pieces ground to the same size. Accord
carriage dogs which control the reversing lever ingly the speci?c compensation mechanism of the
3|, as shown in Figure 1, include a ?xed dog 32 Taylor patent need not be in detail'described I
10 adjustably mounted as by means of worm 33 and
worm rack 34 on the carriage l3 and a pivotally
Referring now to Figure 1, the work piece 20
mounted dog 35 which is capable of lifting over is held by means of a suitable chuck 60 which is
the reversing lever 3! when the carriage is trav
ersed to the left, but will engage the lever 3| when
15 the carriage I3 is traversed to the right and when
the lever 3| is between the dogs 32 and 35. The
dog 35 is mounted on a sliding block 36 capable
of sliding with respect to the carriage l3 and
controlled by a latch 31 which in turn is pivotally
20 connected to a block 38 which is adjustably se
cured to the carriage l3 by means of a worm 39
and the worm rack 34.
Referring now to Figures 1 and 2, the machine
further includes electromagnets 40 and 4|, the
25 former being mounted in front of the latter, and
mounted on the end of a work spindle 6|.
ferring now to Figure 3, the spindle 6| is jour
naled in journals 62 and '63 incorporated in the
work head II. Fastened to the spindle 6| is a
pulley '64 by means of which the spindle 6| may
be rotated by‘ a‘belt drive, not shown. Extend
ing rearwardly from the journal member 63 in
the work head H are brackets 65 and 66.- These 20
brackets 65 and 66 have slideways 61 and 68, re
spectively, supporting a slide 69 which is shaped
in the form of the capital letter D, as shown in
Figure 4. Extending between'the-top and bottom
of the slide 69, as shown in Figures 3 and 4, is a
both being mounted on the front of the machine, rock shaft 10 upon which is mounted an optical 25
as shown in Figure 1. These electromagnets con
tube 1|. Extending rearwardly from the optical
trol levers 42 and 43. The lever 42 is in the verti
tube ‘H is an arm 12 through which extends a
cal plane of the latch 31'. The lever 43 is in the rod 13 having a spring 14 thereon which engages
30 vertical plane of the dog 35. When the lever 42
the arm. The spring ‘I4, which is backed up by
is lifted, the latch 31 will be raised, thus to al . a nut 15, urges the arm and also the optical tube 30
low the block 3'6 to slide, relatively, along the car
‘H ‘in a clockwise direction, Figure 3. The front
riage [3, extending the reciprocatory traverse end
of the rod 13 is supported by a resilient bar
stroke of the grinding wheel I 6 to pass it by a 88 having a notch 8| in a position to engage a
35 dressing diamond 45 which is at that time low—
detent 82 on the arm 12. The arm 12 may be ,
ered into the path of travel of the wheel l6. used as a handle to swing the optical tube ‘H in
Raising of the lever 43 causes the dog 35 to a counterclockwise direction and the detent 82
pass over the reversing lever 3| to extend the and the notch 8| will hold it there. This facili
stroke of the carriage l3 to the right, thereby to tates the introduction into and removal of work
” cause the grinding action to cease, the carriage
I3 being stopped in the withdrawn position by
devices not shown herein. The dressing diamond
45 is mounted on an adjustable screw plug 46
which in turn is carried by a swinging member
45 41 mounted on a trunnion 48 provided by a suit
able standard 49 rising from the stationary frame
of the machine. When the lever arm 42 is moved,
a downward extension 50 thereof moves a valve
5|, thus making the pressure ?uid active against
the piston, not shown, which is connected by
means of a link ‘52 to the member 41, so that
when the electromagnet 40 is operated, the stroke
of the grinding wheel I5 is extended and as it
starts outwardly, the diamond 45 moves into its
55 path, thereby to procure a dressing operation.
The foregoing instrumentalit'res are now well
known in grinding machines; are described in the
patents referred to and in others and embodied
pieces from the chuck 60.
Still referring to Figure 3, the tube ‘H has a
central partition 85. On one side of this par
tition 85 is a camera chamber 86 for the passage
of light. On the other side of the partition is
a tube 81 forming another ‘camera chamber for 45
the passage of light. The tube 81 is supported
by a plurality of partitions 88 which, as shown
in Figure 4, surround the tube 81 and extend be
tween it and the inside of the tube ‘ll. At the
ends of the tube ‘H are right'angle extensions 89
and 98, respectively. In the right angle chamber 50
89 and ?rmly fastened in place is a lamp 9| hav
ing a point source of illumination 92. The lamp
9| is an incandescent electric lamp, the ?laments
93 of which are dark, all light being given from 55
the point 92. The point 92 is located in the axis
of the tube 81. In the tube 81 are suitably fas
tened a pair of condensing lenses 96 and 91.
in many machines now on the market, and there
These are lenses which have substantially
fore I do not describe the same in more detail. spherical surfaces to refract the light in two di
In the present embodiment of this invention, the mensions to direct the rays toward a true focus. 60
grinding wheel 16 is advanced into the work In front of them and mounted in the tube 8‘! is
piece 28 and grinds witha reciprocatory stroke ‘a color ?lter I00 to eliminate all rays excepting
just long enough to effect the grinding action those of one color, in order that diffusion of light
and, after preliminary grinding has been by refraction of the different wave lengths at
achieved, the automatic dressing indicated is ef
different angles will be avoided to a su?icient ex
fected, whereupon the wheel l6 returns into the tent. Inthe tube B'l'is also a condensing lens
work piece for the ?nal and ?nishing cuts. The
“H which may be of the same general type as
wheel I6 is finally removed from the work piece lenses 9‘6 and 91, but in the present illustrative
by energization of magnet 4! which lifts the dog embodiment of the invention it is shown as a
35, and magnet 4| is controlled by the size con
double convex lens whereas the lenses 96 and 9'!
trolling apparatus now particularly to be de— are single convex lenses. Referring now to Fig.
scribed. During the outward movement of the ure 5, three rays of light will be traced, these
carriage I3 at the end of a grinding operation, being designated a, b, and c. The ray a is the
compensation ‘of the cross slide is achieved in‘a ' central ray and the'rays b and c are marginal
rays. The ray a passes through all three lenses Figure 'l, which is an illustration of the light rays
96, 91 and IM and also the color ?lter I99 with /in projection‘. Since the projection plane of
out being deviated from its straight line course. Figure 7 is not identical with the diagrammatic
It next passes through a double concave lens I92, view of, Figure 5, 'the rays a, b and 0 cannot be
identi?eds' However, rays 0:, y, z, x’, y’ and z’
also suitably fastened in the tube 91, without be
are identi?ed in Figure 7, and these rays repre
ing diverted from its straight line course. The sent
rays actually approaching the work piece 29
rays b and c, however, were altered from their
the ?nished surface 29’ thereof between
path of divergence by the lenses 96 and 91, being
brought into parallelism with the ray a between
10 the lenses 91 and IN. The lens I9I brought the
rays b and 0 toward a focus. Considering the
light 'now as a beam, it started out as a diverg
ing beam from the source of light 92, as every
luminous body sends rays in all directions. The
15 lamp 9| should have its glass painted black ex-_
cepting in the very small circle sufficient to send
forth enough light to cover the face of the lens
96. The lenses 96 and 91 produced a beam with
parallel rays. The lens I9I brought this beam
20 towards a focus. Before it came to a focus, this
beam passes through the double concave lens I92
said surface and the mirror .I I I; beyond the
mirror III they are shown in their image posi 10
tions, that is to say with their incident paths
projected backwards. Construction circles xa,
ya. and 2a are drawn in Figure '1 tangent to rays
2:, y, z, m’, y’ and 2.’. It will be seen that upon
re?ection from the surface 29', rays :22, y, z, :n', y’ 15
and z’ are tangent to the other sides of the circles
:ca, ya and 2a.
The re?ected paths of these rays
are parallel to each other. However, with the
work piece surface at 29", the rays 1:, y, z, 2:’, y’
and 2', upon re?ection, assume the positions in- 20
dicated by'the dotted line rays. These rays are _
“which changed it into a beam of paralleLrays not_ in parallelism and the re?ectedbeam comes
again. The reason for condensing the beam that to a focus I’. . The beam has a focal length which
a small ?nite value, in inches. After passing
existed between the lenses 91 and MI, thereafter has
the focal point I’, the rays'are absorbed in the 25
25 to cause it to reassume the form of a beam with - walls of the various tubes'through which they
parallel rays, is in order to intensify. the light,
pass. In order to produce a-re?ected beam whose
or stating this in another way, in order to col
am the rays
lect as many rays as possible to form a strong rays are in parallelism from a
beam ‘of light. The beam in the tube 81 is a of which are in parallelism, lens I95 and the 30
mirror III [are placed in the relative positions
80 beam all the rays of which are substantially in
parallelism. It will be recognized that this is a shown to produce converging rays :1:, y, 2,37, y’ '
condition the complete attainment of which is and .2’ having focal pointv ,f in the mirror IIIv
not possible but by providing a point source of relative to the circle of the work piece, as shown .
in Figure '1, and it is sufficient that the lens I95
light, triple condensing lenses and a double con
be of a convexity and indexv of refraction to bring 35
35 cave lens, ‘this desired condition is achieved for the rays to this focal point. As the focal point
the practical purposes of this invention. The
beam after the lens I92 may also be described I has a de?nite geometrical relation, shown in
as a beam the focus of which is at in?nity dis ‘Figure '1, to the circle 29' of the‘?nished work
piece, this relation is destroyed for any other
tance from the lens I92.
size of work piece such as is represented by the
front or right-hand end of the tube 81 is a double circle 29", and therefore only when the work
convex lens I95 ‘of characteristics quite different piece is at a given ?nished size ‘will the rays be
from the lenses 96, 91 and IN. This lens I95 is re?ected from the surface thereof as a parallel
a cylindrical lens; that is to say, its outline is beam with focal length in?nity. The mirror III 45
of a parallelogram when seen from above, intercepts a part of this parallel beam but the
as in Figures 3 and 5. However, when seen from two side portions thereof are picked up by the
in front, it looks like the lens II“. This lens-I95 mirrors H9, H9 and set along the tube H in
causes the rays to converge .in a vertical plane
but not in a horizontal plane.
Considering further Figures 3 and 4, to the
inside of the tube H I fasten a mirror ?xture I96
comprising a base portion I91 which may be
screwed to the tube H and a glass wedge I98
secured thereto which has integrally connected
55 thereto a non-rectangular parallelepiped I99 of
glass. The wedge I98 and the parallelopiped I99
have re?ecting surfaces H9 and III which form
dihedral angles with the flat surface II2 of the
base I91 of 135°. Surfaces I19 and III may be
60 silvered surfaces.
Light from the lens ‘I95 is
directed onto the surface III and thereby is
turned at right angles into the plane of revolu
tion of the work piece. This light is re?ected
and some of it is reflected by the surfaces II9
into a pair of beams, all the rays of which are
parallel, passing through the camera chamber
96. In the camera chamber 86 and at 135° to the
axis thereof is a mirror I I5 in line with holes I I6
in the wall 85, tube 81 and tube ‘II. From the
mirror H5, the light passes to various other
mirrors ‘and ?nally to a photoelectric cell I29.
the camera chamber 86. As is shown inli'igure
'1, a large cross sectional area of the original
beam is directed toward the mirrors H9, H9.
The walls of the camera chamber 86 as well as
the interior wall of the tube 91 are paintedwith
a dull black paint, such as any paint having a
carbon pigment without a glossy surface, so that
all rays which strike these walls will be, as much 55
as possible, absorbed. After leaving the mirror
I I5 the rays of the beam of light or parallel beams
of light are re?ected by a mirror I25 whose posi
tion is indicated in Figure l and which is placed
at an angle of 45° to the horizontal so that ‘the 60
light will be re?ected downwardly in a vertical
direction. The mirror I25 is at the top of a tube
I26 which is held by the machine base I9, as
shown in Figure 1. The interior wall of the tube
I26 is likewise painted with a dull black pigment
paint. At the bottom of the tube I26 is a mirror
I21 at the junction of this tube I26 with a tube
I29. Tube I28 extends along the entire length
of the machine base and at the right-hand end
‘thereof is a mirror I29 which is also at the bot-}
tom of a tube I39. At the top of the tube I39 is
a mirror,I3I which is also at the right-hand end
I But beams with parallel rays, i. e. with focal
length at in?nity, leave the mirror I I9 only when of a tube I32. At the left-hand end of the tube
the work piece 29 is at predetermined ?nished I32 is located the casing I33 that holds the 75
»' size, as will now be explained in connection with photoelectric cell I29. The mirrors I29 and I3I
are at 45° angles, as shown in Figure 1, so that
light is directed from the tube I28 into the tube
I30 and then axially into the tube I32. Tubes
I28, I30 and I32 are likewise painted black in
- side.
axially in the tube 81.
Howeventhe relative
angular position of the tubes 81 and I6! is un
changed and, therefore, the relative angular posi
tion of the lens I05 is not disturbed by the ad
justment. The adjustment moves the center of or
the lens I05 towards and away from the surface
Only a beam or beams of light of very
great focal length can pass along these tubes,
as otherwise the light is absorbed by the walls~ III and, therefore, adjusts the focal linev of the
_of the tubes. Furthermore, it will be noted that crossing beam relative to the surface of the work
the central part of the beam has been cut out piece towards which the beam is directed.
10 by a second re?ection from the mirror surface I
III. Therefore, the central axial ray does not
pass along the tubes at any time, 'andconse
quently excepting only at- the moment when the
focal length of the light beam is. substantially
15 in?nity will any light at all reach the photo?
electric cell I20.
Referring now to Figures 4 and 8, the extension
90 is formed by horizontal upper and lower walls
I40 which are .of a hard material such as
20 hardened steel and bear against the inside of the
work piece 20. .Extension 90 also has side walls
I4I which are preferably of rubber.- The steel
walls I40 bear against the work piece and deter
mine the position of the tube H which is urged
25 in a clockwise direction, Figure 3, by the spring
14. These walls I40 together with the walls I4I
keep grinding coolant water out of the extension
90, at'least to a very considerable extent. The
walls I M, however, will readily deform slightly
to conform to the different curvatures of the
Considering now one electric circuit which may ‘
~ respond to light impinging upon'the cathode I64
of the photoelectric cell I20, and referring to Fig
ure 2,.a 110 volt A. C.‘ line I65 has connected to — "
it conductors I66 and I61 leading to terminals I68
and I69 of a transformer primary I10. Three 15
secondary coils I1I, I12 and I13 are energized by
the primary cell I10. A non-inductive potentiom
eter resistance I14 is connected across conductors
I 15 and I16 of the coil I1I. Conductor I15 leads
to the anode I 11 of the photoelectric cell I20. 20
Conductor I16 leads to a condenser I18 which is
L connected by conductor I19 to conductor I80
which connects to cathode I64 of the photoelec-y
tric cell I20.
Secondary coil I12 energizes ?lament I83 of an 25
amplifying or triode' tube I84. A grid I85 of the
tube I84 is connected by a conductor I86 to a
non-inductive resistor I81, the other end of which
is connected to the conductor I80. A plate I90
in the tube I84 is connected to a conductor I9I 30
work piece during grinding. It will be appre
which is connected to a terminal I92. The sec
ciated that the relative change in size of the ondary I 13 has one end thereof connected to a
work piece, as indicated in Figure 7, is grossly terminal I93. Connected ‘in parallel by the ter
exaggerated, to the end that the principles of minals I92 and I93 are a condenser I94 and a sen
35 ‘the invention may be made readily apparent.
sitive relay coil I95. The other end of the sec 35
In order to prevent the tube ‘H from vibrating ‘ondary coil I13 is connected to a conductor I96
as the work piece 20 is revolved, I provide a sup
‘which connects to the movable element I91 of
port I45 which, as shown'in Figure 1, may‘ be
potentiometer I14. Conductor I96 is also con:
hinged at I46 to a bracket I41 that is bolted to
nected by a lead I 98 to the mid point of coil I12;
This support I45 is in the
It will now be seen that a certain degree of
form of a bent arm which may be swung into
the work head II.
illumination of the photoelectric cell cathode I64
causes energization of relay coil. I95 and the ap
paratus is adjustable by means of the potentiom
and out of position, being held in operative posi
tion by means of spring clamps I49. This sup
port I45 rests under a cylindrical boss I50 in
45 tegral with a screw cover I 5| which closes the
right-hand end of the tube 1I. -
The lenses 96, 91, IM and I02 may be cemented
in place in the tube 81 because once the light
beam in the tube 81 has been brought to a con
50 dition of focal length in?nity, there is no further
occasion for adjustment. However, in order that
this condition may be achieved in each new
piece of apparatus Ldespite unavoidable variations
in manufacturing operations, the lamp 9| is pref
55 erably made adjustable in a direction parallel
. with the axis of the tube 81. This adjustment
may be achieved in any suitable manner, not
herein indicated, as by the use of holding screws
extending into slots.
It is, however, desirable that the apparatus be
In so
much as the energization of the relay I95
may be momentary, I have further provided a 4.5
relay to close and keep closedthe ?nal circuits
upon any energizationwhatsoever of the sensitive
relays. As shown in Figure 2, a conductor I66
also connects to a terminal 200. Conductor I61
connects to a relay coil 20I. The other end of
the relay coil MI is connected to a terminal 202.
A‘pendulum contactor 203 is adapted to connect
terminals 200 and 202 and this contactor is ar
ranged to be operated by a long arm 204 of an
armature 205 actuated by the coil I 95. Therefore,
energization of the relay coil I95, even momen
tarily, closes a knife switch 201 electromagnet
ically operated by the coil 20I. Knife switch 201
adjustable so that'it may be used to grind work
connects a conductor 208 to ground. The con 60
ductor 208 is connected to one terminal of the
pieces _to diiferent internal diameters, Accord
ingly the lens I05 is adjustable in the tube 81 by
electromagnet M, the other terminal of which is
means of the‘ construction shown in Figure 8.
*The lens I05 is cemented to a metal annulus I55
through which pass a pair of adjusting screws
I56 withsknurled heads, these screws I56 extend
_ing also‘ into threadedbores in integral lugs I51
located in the inside of the‘ tube 81. Screws I56
are rotatable in the annulus I55 but are axially
immovable relative thereto, as by the provision of
_collars I60 press ?tted onto the screws I56. The
annulus I55 is secured to the inside of the tele
scoping tube I6I ., By turning the screws I56 sub
stantially together, the tube I 6| maybe moved
connected by a conductor 209 to one bar 2I0 of a
switch 2“ which will be found described in the
Taylor patent referred to and which is provided 65
for the purpose of preventing continuous dressing
of the grinding wheel. When the grinding wheel
has takenthe ?nal and ?nishing strokes on the
work piece, a contact plate 2I2 of, the movable
element 2I3 of the switch 2“ connects a bar 2I4 70
with the bar. 2I0, thus -to_ connect the conductor
209 to a conductor 2I5 connecting to a genera
tor 2I6, the other terminal of which is ground,
as shown‘ in Figure 2.
This generator. 2I6 is a
direct current generator but in certain cases the 75
alternating current lines I65 may be substituted
for the generator 2I6.
Brie?y recapitulating the action of the ma
chine, the operator, after having placed an un
ground work piece 20 in the chuck 60, moves the '
lever 12 to swing the right-hand end of the tube
85 toward the work piece until the upper and
lower walls I40 of the extension 90 contact the
work piece.
Having secured the cover I5I in
10 place, the operator swings the. support I45 into
the position shown in Figure 3 where the tube
‘II and all other parts are duly supported against
vibration. The operator then causes the work
piece 20 to be revolved in the usual manner and,
15 moving the main control lever 30 to the left,
causes the grinding wheel I6 to enter the work
piece to start the grinding operation. There
after, automatically, as described in the Taylor
patent referred to, a dressing operation takes
place whenever a cam 220 operated by the cross
feed engages a lever 22I?connecting a conductor
222 which is grounded to a conductor 223 which
is connected by way of conductor 224 to the elec
tromagnet 40. As the carriage I3 moves to carry
the wheel I6 to be dressed by the diamond 45, an
arm 225 carried by the block 38 engages the mov
able element2 I3 of the switch 2| I and. deenergizes
the magnet 40 which prevents further dressing
until a new work piece is placed in the machine.
Thereafter the ?nal and ?nishing cuts are taken
until such time as the rays of light from the point
source 92 are, upon re?ection from the work piece,
of such great focal length that they ultimately
'reach the cathode I64 of the photoelectric cell
I20 whereupon, as already described, circuits are
closed which cause energization of the magnet M
in the embodiment above set forth, it is to be
understood that all matter hereinbefore set forth
or shown in the accompanying drawings is to be
interpreted as illustrative and not in a limiting
I claim:—‘
1. In an internal grinding machine, a grinding
wheel, a work head having means to support and
rotate a work piece, a table or carriage carrying
one of the grinding wheels and the work head 10
whereby the wheel may be advanced into the
work piece bore and withdrawn therefrom, a
source of light, lenses in front of the source of
light so positioned that a beam will strike the
work piece bore wall and be re?ected thereby 15
after coming to a focus, a photoelectric cell lo
cated in the path of the re?ected beam, and‘ elec
trical means operated by the photoelectric cell
to cause a movement of the carriage carrying the
grinding wheel out of the work piece.
2. In an internal grinding machine, a work
head, a wheel head, a grinding wheel rotatably
mounted on said wheel head, instrumentallties
relatively to move the work head and the wheel
head to move the wheel away from the internal 25'
bore ofv a work piece whereby to cause a particu
lar grinding operation to cease, a photoelectric
cell and electric circuits to actuate said instru
mentalities, and optical apparatus to energize 30
said photoelectric cell including a source of light,
optical instrumentalities to condense the beam
of light so positioned with regard to the internal bore of the work piece that rays cross before
reaching the internal bore wall and are reflected
thereby and directed toward the photoelectric 35
cell, whereby the. photoelectric cell will respond
which trips the reversing dog 35, causing the car . only with'the work piece at a given range of sizes
riage I3 to move to the right to‘ the position as to diameters of its internal bore.
3. In a grinding machine as claimed in claim
shown ‘in Figure 1, removing the grinding wheel
2, the combination with the parts and features 40
' l6 from the work piece.
By the provision of the various tubes described, therein speci?ed of mirrors for directing the re
the light is caused to travel a long distance .to the ?ected beam in a relatively long, path whereby
photoelectric cell I20 which makes the apparatus the instrumentalities may be highly sensitive to
achieve accuracy in controlling sizes of ground
extremely sensitive. The gauging device is spring
‘. pressed against a surface of the work piece and, work pieces,
furthermore, is located in ?xed position in a ver
tical plane by the supporting member I45. The
entire apparatus can be adjusted by moving the
D shaped slide 69 in the ways 65, 66', as by
means of adjusting screw 230.
It will thus be seen.that there has been pro-'
vided by this invention apparatus and a method
in which the various objects hereinabove set
forth together with many thoroughly practical
advantages are successfully achieved. As many
possible embodiments may be made of the above
invention and as many changes might be made
4. In apparatus as claimed in claim 2, the com
bination with the parts and ‘features therein
speci?ed of a lens having a cylindrical surface
included as part of the optical instrumentalities,
whereby the beam of light is focused in one plane 50
di?erently from what it is in a plane normal
thereto whereby the re?ected beam, upon re?ec
tion from a concave cylindrical surface of the
work piece, is relatively symmetrical in cross
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