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Патент USA US2121740

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June 21, 1938.
'
H, T, KRAFT '
2,121,740
SKID PREVENTING DEVICE FOR’ USE WITH VEHICLE TIRES
Filed Jan. 2, 1936
Z! '
'////
'
INVENTOR
Herman T} Kraft
BY W
ATTO RN EYS
Patented June 21, 1938
2,121,740 ,
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFECE
2,121,740
SKID-PREVENTING DEVICE FOR USE WITH 7
'
VEHICLE TIRES
Herman T. Kraft, Akron, Ohio, assignor to The
General Tire & Rubber Company, Akron, Ohio,
a corporation of Ohio
Application January 2, 1936, Serial No. 57,177
11 Claims.
(Cl. 152-210)
This invention relates to skid-preventing de
vices for use with vehicle tires and has for one
of its objects the provision of vehicle tires with
new and novel skid preventing devices which are
Fig. 3 showing a modi?ed form of the device
sembled thereto;
as
Fig. 10 is a sectional View of a tire similar‘ to
Fig. 3 showing another form of the invention;
5 light in weight, simple in construction and eco
Fig. 11 is a view similar toFig. 6 showing a 5
nomical to manufacture.
slightly modi?ed form of the invention;
Another object is to provide a vehicle tire with.
Fig. 12 is a sectional view showing a further
skid-preventing devices of such construction that. modi?ed form of the invention; and
they may. be. easily assembled to the tiretread,
Fig. 13 is a section taken approximately on line
10 and, yet, will neither impair the original resiliency |3~|3 of Fig. 12.
10
and pliability of the tire, nor impair the opera
Referring to the accompanying drawing in
tion of or injure the tire at high vehicle speeds which like numerals refer to like parts thoughout
on dry road surfaces.
the several views, the skid-preventing devices of
Another object is to provide skid-preventing de
the present invention are particularly adaptable
15 vices for vehicle tires which do not. materially add
to vehicle tires of the general type disclosed in my
to the weight of the tire and which may be co-pending application Serial No. 754,104, ?led
readily attached to and detached from the tire.. Nov. 21, 1934,, and such as the tire I, shown in
Another object is to provide a vehicle tire with Fig. 1, having a tread 2 comprised of relatively
new and improved skid-preventing devices which narrow, circumferentially extending, ?exible ribs
are carried by the tire tread and yet will not inter
3, axially spaced by narrow grooves 4. However, 20
fere with the riding qualities of the tire.
it is to be understood that the devices about to
A further object is to provide a skid-preventing be described, are also adaptable for use with any
device of the character speci?ed which may be tire tread having circumferentially arranged
left intact in the tire tread even though its use grooves‘ extending either partially or completely
is not required, without causing excessive wear of around the tire tread.
.
either the tire or‘ the device itself.
Broadly stated, the present invention resides
With the above and other objects in View, the in providing a plurality of ?at elements of hard,
present invention consists of certain features of wear-resisting material, preferably of high car
construction and combinations of parts to be bon or plow steel or a metal known to the trade
30 hereinafter described with reference to the ac
as “Stellite”,_vinserted at spaced and preferably 30
companying drawing and then claimed.
staggered intervals between spaced radial sur
In the drawing, which illustrates suitable em
faces of; the vehicle tire tread, preferably par
bodiments of the invention,
allel to the median plane thereof, and mechani
Figure .1 is a fragmentary perspective view, in cally anchored in position.’ These elements are so
3
section, of a vehiclertire showing one form of the arranged that they will engage the road surface
during tread engagement with the road surface,
and present sharp edges which will, upon tend
Fig. 2 is a perspective view of one form of the . ency of the vehicle to skid either sideways or in
skid-preventing device of the present invention,
assembled thereto;
40
skid-preventing device of the present invention;
the direction of travel of the vehicle, effectively
Fig. 3 is a fragmentary section taken through
a Vehicle tire showing the device of Fig. 2 in side
prevent or minimize skidding and slipping, particularly on wet or icy road surfaces.
elevation when assembled thereto;
Fig. 4 is a transverse section taken substan
45 tially on line 4-4 of Fig. 3;
Fig. 5 is a perspective view of another form of
the invention;
‘Fig. 6 is a sectional view of a tire similar to
Fig. 3 showing the device of Fig. 5 in operative
50
position;
Fig. 7 is a transverse section taken substan
tially on line 'l—'! of Fig. 6;
Fig. 8 is a transverse section showing the man
ner of mounting the device of Fig. 5 in position;
55
Fig. 9 is a sectional view of a tire similar to
The skid-preventing elements described, being
relatively narrow and spaced apart at circumfer
ential and transverse intervals, as shown in Fig.
1, will not impair the resiliency and pliability of
the tire tread and will not injure the tire tread,
even when the vehicle is operated at high speeds
over dry ‘pavements.
'
~The skid-preventing or resisting elements de
scribed are preferably assembled to the tire in
such a manner that the road engaging surfaces
thereof project slightly radially beyond the tread
surface, as shown in the drawing.
Also, these elements may assume several dif
ferent forms, some of which are shown in the 55" ‘
2,121,740
2
drawing, and may be anchored in different
manners.
_
In the form. shown in Figs. 2, 3, and 4, each
skid-preventing element I I is narrow and of gen
erally rectangular shape and is provided with a
base edge I2 conforming to the curvature of the
bottom of the tread groove 4, and a road-engag
ing edge I3 conforming to the curvature of the
road-engaging surface of the tire tread to which
it is to be applied.
in alignment with the apertures 23. Then, the
pin 2! is forced through the aperture 23 of one
of the ribs 3, and caused by means of the jaws A
of a pair of pincers, or by any other suitable
means, which is capable of distorting the other
rib, to be extended through the notch ‘I4 and
into the aperture of the last mentioned rib.
>Upon the tire assuming its normal shape, the
element II. is gripped between the adjacent ribs
3, as shown in Fig. 7.
If desired, the element II may be provided. ' ' .In the modi?ed form of the invention shown
in Fig. 9, the skid-preventing element is in the
form- of a metal Washer 24, which is pivotally
held in' place by means of a pin 25 mounted in
with notches I4 in its edgeI3 to. form a number
of spaced road-engaging portions or lugs. I15.
In the form shown in Fig. 2, the element II is
the same» manner as the pin 2I shown in Figs. 15
provided with laterally extending sharp-pointed
projections I6, one of which'extends from one
side of the element II at one end, and the other
of which extends from the opposite thereof at
the other end.
’
Band 7.
'
While the elements I I of the type shown inFigr
2 may be assembled to an in?ated tire in place
on ‘a wheel, it is preferred to have the tire in a
de?ated condition and removed from the wheel
so that the sides adjacent the tread may be
In the modi?ed form of the invention shown
inFig. l0;v the skid-preventing element is in the
form of a segment 26, the apex of which is sub
stantially in- abutting engagement with the bot
tom of the groove‘ 4, land pivotally mounted by
means ofa .pin 21 extending through the apex
andhaving its ends supported by the ribs in the
in Fig. 8, to separate the ribs 3.
Before assembling 'the element II to the tire,
the element‘ is ?rst heated to approximately
same; manner as the pin 2I shown in Fig. 7.
At high ,speedoperation, the segment or tri- ~‘
angularly shaped element 26, will assume the
position, shown in solid outline in Fig. 10, by
reason of centrifugal force, the arcuate edge 28
400° F. in any suitable manner. Then by insert
forming the road-contacting surface. When,
ing a suitable tool such as a screwdriver between
however, there is a tendency to skid, the element '
adjacent separated ribs 3 of the tire, the ribs are
25‘ pivotsto the position shown in dotted out
25 moved toward each other in the manner shown
distorted and further separated a su?icient dis- ' line in Fig. 10, in which position the sharp corner
tance to permit the heated element to be disposed
by means of pincers or any suitable tool, in the
35 groove between theribs and against the bottom
of the groove. Upon allowing the tire to assume
its normal shape, the projections I6, since the
element is heated to approximately 400° F., will
pierce the ribs 3 and become anchored therein.
Any desired number of the elements’ I I may be
'disposed between desired pairs of ribs 3 in any
29 engages the road surface and effectively re
duces the tendency. of the tire to skid.
The. construction shown in Fig. 11 is some
35
what similar'to the ‘construction shown in Fig. 6,
and .comprises a flat element 30, which is pivot
ally'mountedvon a pin 3I mounted in the same
manner’ as the pin 2| of Fig. '7. The end portions 40
320i the road-engaging edge 33 are rounded as
shown.
The opposite edge comprises two sur
suitable spacing arrangement, and in the con
racesi34iwhich-divergefrom the end terminations .
struction just described the elements II become
of the rounded portions 32 to a point intermedi
ate the ends of the element 30.
-In operation, the element 30 is free to pivot
substantially permanently anchored in. position,
45.. due to the action of the heated element on the
rubber of the tread body.
The skid-preventing element shown in' Figs. 5,
during rotation of- the tire upon the road sur
face f'rom the position- shown in solid outline to
one vof-the positions shown in dotted outline.
Driving, rocks it‘ in one direction and braking in 50
ner of mounting, and for this reason correspond- 1
50
the other.
ing portions carry the same numerals.
In each of- the constructions‘ shown in Figs. 6,
The anchoring projections are omitted in the 9," 10, and'lll, the particular elements described
element of. Fig. 5, andthe corners of the element may be readily detached when they are no longer
I I are preferably rounded, as shown at 22 in Figs.
such- as at the end of the winter season, 55
5 and 6,'to prevent gouging of the bottom of the needed,
by‘distorting the tread to separate the ribs 3 and
groove withinwhich the element II is mounted, removing-the supporting pins. '
because the element is held in place solely by a
In the construction shown in’ Fig. 9, the ele
pin 2| ?tting within the central notch I4 and
is free to rotate and thereby present a
having ‘its ends projecting into apertures 23 ment-ZG?
continuously’ changing road-engaging surface. 60
formedin
the
adjacent
ribs
3.
In
this
mounting,
60
The skid-preventing device shown in Figs. 12
the pin 2| seats against the bottom of the inter
mediate notch M' and holds the edge I2 against andl3, comprises alU-shaped element 35 of metal,
the inner surfaces of the legs thereof having small
the bottom of the groove 4.
The apertures 23 are formed in the adjacent projections 36 thereon. The tire is distorted as
in Fig. 8 to separate the ribs 3 and the element
65 ribs 3, between which the element I I is‘ to be dis
6,’ and '7 is similar to the construction shown in '
7 Figs. 2, 3, and 4, with the exception of the man—
posed,’ by separating the ribs in any suitable
manner, and piercing the two ribs in question’
with a sharp-pointed instrument, which is heated
to a sufficient temperature to form the apertures
by burning.
'
In order to assemble the element II of Fig. 5
to the tire, the ribs 3 are separated to a position
such as shown in Fig. 8, and the element II‘ is
positioned in the bottom of the groove 4 between
75; the two ribs and with the intermediate notch I4
36.. in slightly’ expanded form and preferably
heated to approximately 400° F. is slipped over
the desired rib- 3', and then the legs thereof are
clampedor clinched against the sides of the rib
with su?icient pressure to force the projections
36 .intothe rib. The junctions of the legs with
the base of the element36iare preferably square
corneredqso that sharp edges are provided. This
modi?cation of. the invention is more fully de
scribed in myzco-pendingpatent application Se
2,121,740
rial No. 76,144, ?led April 24, 1936, now Patent
No, 2,117,766.
’
It will be observed from the drawing and fore
going description that I have provided a new and
improved means for use with vehicle tires for
1
preventing and minimizing skidding.
In each of the forms described any desired
number of the elements may be assembled to the
tire in any desired spaced and staggered relation
10 to provide narrow sharp cornered friction mem
bers which during operation of the tire over icy
road surfaces will actually dig into the icy sur
face and obviously reduce the tendency of the tire
to skid. Also, when the tire is operated over wet
15 pavements, the tendency of the tire to skid is op
posed by the high coef?cient of friction resulting
from the contact of the skid-preventing element
with the road surface. Also, during the tend
ency of the tire to skid, the ribs 3 ?ex and cause
20 the corners of the skid-preventing elements to b
presented to the road surface.
’
Because of the fact that the skid-preventing
elements are relatively narrow as compared with
the width of the tire tread and are spaced trans
versely as well as circumferentially, they will not
interfere with the operation of or impair the re
siliency or pliability of the tread and thus will
not detract from the riding qualities of the tire
tread.
.
30
Although several embodiments of the invention
have been herein shown and described it will be
understood that numerous modi?cations of the
construction shown may be resorted to without
departing from the spiritof this invention as de
35 ?ned in the appended claims.
What I claim is:
.
1. In a vehicle tire having a series of parallel,
narrow, circumferential grooves in the tread por
tion thereof provided with opposed radial walls,
said grooves being closely spaced and providing
laterally ?exible circumferential ribs between
them, independently mounted skid-preventing
elements radially disposed in and spaced laterally
and circumferentially in the tread portion of said
45 grooves, each of said elements comprising a flat
member of hard, wear-resisting material having
abutting engagement with said radial walls, and
having an edge abutting the bottom of the groove
within which the element is disposed, and means
for anchoring said elements to contiguous ?exi
ble ribs, said elements being spaced laterally and
circumferentially in the tread portion so that
the portions of the ribs to which said elements
are attached may ?ex laterally.
2. In a vehicle tire having spaced, circumfer
entially arranged, narrow grooves in the tread
portion thereof provided with opposed radial
walls, a plurality of skid-preventing elements ra
dially disposed in spaced relation in one or more
(if) of said grooves, each of said elements compris
ing a ?at member of hard, wear-resisting mate
rial having abutting engagement with said radial
walls and having lateral projecting portions ex
tending into said side walls near the bottom of
65 the groove formed thereby to anchor the element
in position.
3. In a vehicle tire having spaced, circumfer
entially arranged, narrow grooves in the tread
portion thereof provided with opposed radial
70 Walls, a plurality of skid-preventing elements
radially disposed in spaced relation in one or
more of said grooves, each of said elements com
prising a ?at member of hard, wear-resisting ma
terial having abutting engagement with said ra
75 dial walls and having a lateral projecting por
3
tion at each end, one being 'at one side of the
element and the other being at the opposite side
of the element, said projecting portions extend
ing into the adjacent side walls to anchor the
element in position.
.
4. In a vehicle tire having a series of parallel,
narrow, circumferential grooves in the tread
portion thereof provided with opposed radial
walls, independently mounted skid-preventing
elements radially disposed in and spaced laterally 10
and circumferentially in the tread portion of said
grooves, each of said elements comprising a ?at
elongated member of hard, wear-resisting mate
rial of a thickness to substantially ?t in a groove
and of a height substantially equal to the groove 15
depth, the outer edge of said member having a.
plurality of spaced notches- extending inwardly
from said edge, and means for anchoring each of
said elements in position with its inner edge en
gaging the bottom of a groove and the portions 20
of its outer edge intermediate the notches sub
stantially flush with the tread surface.
5. In a vehicle tire having spaced, circumferen
tially arranged, narrow grooves in the tread por
tion thereof provided with opposed radial walls, 25
a plurality of skid-preventing elements'radially
disposed in spaced relation in one or ‘more of
said grooves, each of said elements comprising a
flat elongated member of hard, wear-resisting
material having substantially abutting engage
ment with the said radial walls and the bottom of
the groove within which the element is disposed
and having a road-engageable edge disposed at
the road-engaging surface of said tread portion,
said member having a plurality of notches ex
tending inwardly from said edge, said side walls
having aligned apertures therein, and a pin mem
35
ber disposed in one of said notches and having its
ends disposed in said apertures for holding said
element in position.
40
6. In a vehicle tire having spaced, circumferen
tially arranged, narrow grooves in the tread por
tion thereof provided with opposed radial walls,
a plurality of skid-preventing elements. radially
disposed in spaced relation in one or more of said 45
grooves, each of said elements comprising a'ilat
elongated member of hard, wear-resisting ?la
terial having substantially abutting engagement
with the said radial walls and the bottom of the
groove within which the element is disposed and 50
having a road-engageable edge disposed at the
road-engaging surface of said tread portion, said
member having a plurality of notches extending
inwardly from said edge and a central opening
therein, said side walls having aligned apertures 55
therein, and a pin member extending through
said opening and having its ends disposed in said
apertures.
7- In a vehicle tire having spaced, circumferen
tially arranged, narrow grooves in the tread por
60
tion thereof provided with opposed radial walls,
a plurality of skid-preventing elements radially
disposed in spaced relation in one or more of
said grooves, each of said elements comprising a
?at elongated member of hard, wear-resisting
material having substantially abutting engage
65
ment with the said radial walls and the bottom
of the groove within which the element is dis
posed and having a road-engageable edge dis
posed at the road-engaging surface of said tread 70
portion, and means for anchoring each of said
elements in position, said member being pivotally
anchored, said road-engageable edge having its
ends rounded, and the opposite edge of said mem
ber comprising two surfaces disposed at an angle 75
4
2,121,740
to‘ each other and intersecting each other inter
mediate the ends of said member, whereby one
or the other of said surfaces may engage ‘with the
bottom of the groove within. which the element
is positioned.
8. In a vehicle tire "having spaced, circumferen
tially arranged, narrow grooves in the treadpor
tion thereof provided with opposed-radial walls, a
plurality of skid-preventing elements radially dis
10 posed in spaced relation in one or more of said
grooves, each of said elements comprising a ?at
elongated member of hard, wear-resisting mate
rial having substantially abutting engagement
with the said radial walls and the bottom of the
15 groove within which the element is disposed and
having a road-engageable edge disposed at the
road-engaging surface of said tread portion, and
means for anchoring each of said elements in
position, said member being pivotally anchored,
said road-engageable edge having its ends round
ed, and the opposite vedge of said member com
prising two surfaces disposed at an angle to each
other and intersecting each other intermediate
the ends of said member, whereby one or the
25 other of said surfaces may engage with the bot
tom of the groove within which the element is
positioned, said road-engageable edge having
notches therein.
9. In a vehicle tire having spaced, circumferen
30 tially arranged, narrow grooves in the tread por
tion thereof provided with opposed radial walls,
a plurality of skid-preventing elements radially
disposed in spaced relation in one or more of said
grooves, each of said elements comprising a ?at
35 member of hard, wear-resisting material having
abutting engagement with said radial Walls, each
said element being of triangular shape having its
apex disposed adjacent the bottom of the groove
within which it is disposed adjacent the bottom
of the groove within which it is disposed, the
edge of said‘ element opposite said apex being
arcuate in shape, and means for pivotally anchor
i'ng'said element in its groove.
'10. In a vehicletire having ‘spaced, circum
ferentially arranged, narrow grooves in the tread
portion thereof provided with opposed radial
walls, a plurality of skid-preventing elements ra
diallydisposed in spaced relation in one or more
of said grooves, each of said elements comprising
a ?at member of hard, wear-resisting material
having abutting engagement with said radial
walls, each-said element ‘being of triangular shape
having its apex disposed adjacent the bottom of
the groove within which it is disposed, the edge
of said element opposite said apex being arcuate
in shape, said element having an opening through 20
its apex, said radial Walls having aligned aper
tures therein, and a pin member extending
through said opening and having its ends dis
posed in said apertures for pivotally anchoring
said element.
11. A vehicle tire having a tread provided with
a series of independent ?exibly supported ground
engaging elements of hard Wear resistant mate
rial spaced laterally and ci'rcumierentially with
respect to one another on the tread, and means 30
for ?exibly supporting said elements on the tread
comprising laterally ?exible integral ribs on the
tread and means for attaching said elements to
said ribs.
HERMAN T. KRAFT.
35
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