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June 28,“ 1938.
, 2,121,812
‘Filed Aug. 5, 1932 ,I
2 Sheetg-Sheet
mm "
June 28, 1938.:
Filed Aug. ‘5, 1932
2 Sheets-Sheet ‘ 2
_ ______ 1
_ 2,121,812
- Patented a... 28, 1938‘
Ulrich Meininghaus,
Mulheim-Ruhr, Germany, I
assignor to Holzwarth Gas Turbine 00., San
Francisco, Calif., a corporation of Delaware
Application August'5, 1932, Serial No. 627,609
In Germany August '7, 1931
3 Claims.
(01. 60-41)
, My invention relates to apparatus for charg
. ing explosion chambers with compressed-air .and
fuel and has for its object to prevent losses
occurring with heretofore‘known apparatus.
In explosion chambers such as are used in‘
particular in internal combustion turbines for
.producing highly compressed, highly heated
combustion gases, the explosion is effected at
constant volume in a combustion chamber which
10 is closed on all sides, without the delivery of
external work. For carrying‘ out this method of
operation it is necessary to produce in the ex
plosion chamber an ignitable mixture of air
(oxygen) and fuel. It has been found to be
‘is highly desirable to complete the charging of the‘
explosion chamber with ignitable mixture at
pressures which lie considerably above the at
?‘mosphere, as thereby the operating process de
velops with high, efficiency. The charge of the
so combustion chamber with the operating media
as, for example, combustion air, fuel or mixture
is effected in such a‘ manner that the operating
medium is compressed to the charging pressure
outside the explosion chamber and introduced
26 into the ‘explosion chamber under the charging
pressure. According to one known method, the
pressure approximately equal to the back pres
sure on the chamber during the scavenging and
considerably below the‘ pressure in the chamber
at ignition. Upon the introduction of combus
tion air at the charging pressure, that-is, at [a 5
pressure considerably above the scavenging air
pressure, expansion of such combustion airloc
curred at the beginning of the charging phase
of the operating cycle the expansion diminishing
as the pressure in the chamber was built up to 10
the charging pressure, the high pressure com
bustion air losing a considerable part of its en
ergy owing to this expansion. The loss of en
ergy takes place owing to the fact that the air
assumesa very high velocity, in consequence'of 15
the great pressure drop between the charging
pressure-and the pressure of the body of scaveng
ing air in the explosion chamber, such velocity
being then retarded in the explosion chamber
with the formation of eddies. To this loss of'en- 20
ergy corresponds an expenditure of work which
is necessary to drive the ‘high pressure combus- .
tion’airv out of the compression chamber of the
compressor into the explosion chamber. This‘
expenditure of work may be expressed brie?y by 26
the term expulsion work.
‘The present invention ‘thus relates, to a-charg
operating media compressed to the charging ing apparatus for constant volume explosion
pressure‘ were introduced into the explosion‘ turbines which operates in such manner that
chamber at a moment when the pressure of they
80 combustion gases in the chamber, owing to the
expansion of the gases, had fallen to a value
which approximately corresponded
charging pressure.
introduced into
to the
Thus the operating media
the explosion chamber must _
35 drive the residual combustion gases in the cham
ber in front of them and expel them irom the
,chamber. It was therefore of the ‘essence of
this method that the operating media, in par
ticular the whole of the air for combustion, had
after scavenging air of a pressure approximately 30
equal 7 to the back pressure on the explosion
chamber has been-introduced into the latter to
expel the residual combustion gases therefrom,
the chamber is charged during a super-charging
step accomplished by such apparatus with com- 35
bustion-supporting air of still higher pressure
with elimination of the above-mentioned expul
sion work.
' The problem is solved in accordance with the
invention by bringing the chamber space to be 40
charged with operating media, "after the scaveng
~ ing is completed and durin'g compression of the
great. In order\‘ to reduce this work of compres
operating medium, into connection with the
sion, according to a. second method, the expan
compression space of a piston compressor for
'40 to be compressed-to the full charging pressure,
so that the work of compression was relatively
sion of the combustion gases ‘was carried to a
the operatingmedium with the aidof suitable 45
‘timing and synchronizing mechanisms, so that
_ in this case the expulsion-‘of the residual'com
the pressure of the operating medium during this
bustion gases was no longer effected by com
compression varies in the explosion chamber ac
bustion air under
cording ‘to the same law as in the compression >
by air, which may be designated as scavenging chamber of the compressor.
1 "50
50 air, ofla pressure of the residual combustion gases
A preferred form of my invention will be
46 pressure which lay below the charging pressure;_
or of a pressure which, in order to overcome the
resistance to movement, lay only slightly above
the pressure of the residual combustion gases.
explained with the aid of the accompanying
drawings, inv which
Fig. 1. represents a diagram in which are plot
When the scavrnging was completed, therefore, ' ted as abscissae the various compr.-ssion spaces 55
.; the chamber was ?lled with scavenging air of a
I of a piston compressor
cylinder volume
of 1 cubic meter, and as ordinates the compres
sion pressures resulting in‘ ‘the compressor at a
suction pressure. of 1 atm.
Fig. 2 represents a diagram in which ‘are plot
I ted as abscissae the compression ratios and as or
the curve I, so that the working area
corresponds to the expenditure of work'in the
?rst stage.
The amount of operating medium
dinates the expenditure in work of compression
which is compressed in the ?rst stage and fills
which takes place according to the prior and
according to my improved :atpparatus.v
the explosion chamber at the intermediate pres
Fig. 3 shows a longitudinal section through a
the intermediate pressure, was not different from
sure does not need to be compressed any more in
the second stage, so that the compression line III 10
constant volume explosion turbine provided with of the ‘second stage begins at the point 1‘ of the
a piston compressor in accordance, with the in
horizontal intermediate pressure line. The work
vention i'or compressing the charging air, the ' of compression in the second stage is thus given
working cycles of such compressor being coordi
by the diagram area f—g-c—h-f. The new
mated with those of the explosion chambers.
method di?ers from the former method in that 15
Fig. 4 is‘a view in elevation showing the com
the chamber space to be charged with operating
mon drive for the compressor, valve controlling medium is in communication with the cbmpres
distributor andfuel oil pump.
sion chamber of the piston compressor during the
Fig. 5 shows an enlarged section through the
20 throttle nozzles at the discharge end of the com
pressor, and
Fig. 6 is an enlarged section through one of
the fuel pumps and its associated fuel inlet valve.
According to the known method the compres
25 sion of the combustion air, which generally comes
?rst into consideration as an operating medium
because of its large volume, was e?ected accord
ing to'line I in Fig. 1, so that work of compres
sion to be expended is determined by the dia
80 gram area a—-b-—c—d-a. According to the new
method the compression line runs according to
II and the work of compression is given by the
diagram w—c--d—a. It will be seen at once that
the expenditure of work in the new method is
35 considerably less than according to the old
method; the gain in work corresponds to the
area a--b—c—a. The percentage amount of
gain can at once be ascertained from ‘Fig. 2, in
which curve I’ corresponds to the work of com
pression, with single stage‘ compression, accord
ing to the old method, and curve II’ to the work
of compression, with single stage compression,
according to the new.
What holds good for single stage compres
sion holds good the more so for multistage com
pression, by which in particular a considerable
reduction in the dimensions of'the compressor re
sults, particularly in the second stage, and espe
cially when, as pointed out below the ?rst stage
is in the form of a centrifugal compressor. The
natural employment of the method developed for
the single stage compression for the multistage
compression leads to the following modi?cation
of the new process. The operating medium is
55 ?rst compressed to an intermediate pressure.
After this the operating mediumvalready under
corresponding compression of the operating me
dium. The compression in the ?rst stage there 20
fore runs no longer according to line I,‘ but ac
cording to line IV. The compression line of the
second stage is given by the line V, which begins
at the point k of the intermediate pressure line.
Consequently the working area in the ?rst stage 25
is given by the diagram area
in the second stage it is given by the diagram
area k—c—h. Consequently the working area
a--e—i-—a corresponds to the gain in work by
the new method in the ?rst stage and the work 30
ing area f—g—-c—-‘-k—j to the gain in work by
the new method in the second stage.‘ The work
ing areas gained a¢—e—1'»—a and f-g—-c—_k—j
are hatched for better clearness. In Fig. 2 the
corresponding works of compression are illus 35
trated in dependence on- thecompression ratio.
The curve I’, III’ ‘corresponds to the work of‘
compression with two-stage compression which
must be expended in the old method owing to
the expenditure of expulsion work, while the 40
curve IV’, V’ corresponds to the work of com
pression with two-stage compression when em
ploying the new method. There will be seen at
once the considerable advance made by the ‘new
method by reducing the expenditure of work for
compression at the same compression ratio as
compared with the expenditure of work in com
pression in the old method. This gain ‘is in
creased to a greater extent as the compression
ratios employed become greater, so that a pro 50
gressive increase in efficiency is to be expected, if
it is considered that with the increase of the
charging pressure itself an increase in e?iciency
is already associated, which remains independent
of the gain in work of compression corresponding 55
to the di?erence‘between the curves 1’ and II’ or
the intermediate pressure is compressed from the. I’, III’ and IV’, V’.
intermediate pressure up to the charging pres
What has been stated for two-stage compres—
sure while the explosion chamber space is in sion naturally holds good for‘v each multi-stage
communication with the compression space of the compression of the operating medium, in particu 60
compressor compressing from the intermediate lar the combustion air.
pressure to the charging pressure, that is without
A consideration of Fig. 1 shows that the
performing expulsion work. In this process the hatched diagram area i-g-c-k-i correspond
initial compression of the operating medium ing to the gain in work in the second stage is con
which is supplied to the second compression stage siderably greater than the area a——e—i—-a cor 65
already under the intermediate pressure, takes responding to the gain in work in the ?rst stage.
place outside the second stage compressor and In a i‘urther‘development of the inventive idea.
combustion chamber, so that work must be ex
it is therefore proposed to dispense with the elim~
pended in expulsion. This expulsion work, how
ination of the expulsion work in the‘ lower com
70 ‘ever, is not lost since it is regained in the second pression stages, in particular in the ?rst stage in
compression stage.
the case of two stage compression, in order to ob—
Figs. 1 and 2 illustrate my improved mode of tain in place of this a structurally simpler and
operation for the case of two-stage compression. more reliable arrangement. Dispensing with this
According to the known method, the compression ensures the further advantage that the total com
-78 in the ?rst stage, i._e. during the compression to pression in the ?rst stage may be done as hither 76
2,121,812 ’
to, and in my improved construction independent—.
the conduit Saand the valve 5 enters the scaveng-,
ly of the compressor explosion chamber arrange
'ment for saving expulsion work, and also the ad~
vantage that the compressor necessary for the
higher compression stages, in particular for the
- highest stage, turns out'very small and'simple,
so that in this case the gain in work of com
pression is obtained with particularly {simple
Thus for example for two stage com
10 pression, curve VI inFig. 2 represents the total
work of compression. which has to be expended
‘ when the work of expulsion is eliminated only for
the second stage. The curve VI lies very near
to,the curve IV’, V’ and is still at such a consid
15 erable distance from the curve I’, III’ that the
employment of the intermediate solution allows
the advantages aimed at to be'obtained without
an unnecessary excess of operating medium being
required in comparison with the operating media
which are necessary with the old method.
ing air which is compressed by a centrifugal
compressor l6 driven by an electric motor l1 and
expels the combustion gases, after expansion of
the gases'to the scavenging air pressure has oc
curred, in'known manner through the opened
nozzle valve 2. The inlet valve 6 serves for con
trolling the charging air which is one of, the oper
ating media which have to be delivered to the ex
plosion chamber in a compressed condition. The 10
control of the valve is effected in known manner
by way of the oil cylinder 1 actuated by means
of pressure oil which is admitted through the
oil distributor l5, as described more in detail
The inlet valve 6 for the charging air simul—
taneously forms the controlled outlet valve of a
compressor, the piston of which is indicated by
8 and the cylinder by 8. Throttle nozzles H, 20
which are arranged between the compression
A particularly simple form of operation with chamber ll) of the compressor and the interior'
l2 oi the valve prevent the combustion gases from
my improved arrangement results if the charg
ing processes of several, preferably all, explosion striking back from the explosion chamber l into
chambers of an internal combustion engine plant the»: compression chamber II! should premature 25.
ignition occur while the air valve 6 is still open,
are displaced as regards time in such a manner
such nozzles checking or dampening the ?ow of
that there takes place a succession of the charg
gases in the-direction of the compressor.
ing processes which is effected by a common com
On the inward stroke of the piston 8 and simul
pressor for these chambers. In particularv the .
number of the explosion chambers, the number taneous opening of the valve 6, charging air is 30
directly compressed into the explosion chamber I,
30 of their working cycles and the number of the '
working cycles of vthe compressor can be timed,
so that the number of the working cycles of the
compressor is the same as the product of the
the outlet valve being then closed, after which the
inlet valve 6 closes. The charging air inlet .valve
may, as illustrated, be hollow and embody in
known manner the supply valve for the liquid
number of the chambers charged by it and their
cycle‘ number. In this case the compressor oper _ fuel; at the moment when the piston 8 has reached
ates with one cycle of operations to each of the
closed the fuel injection takes place and imme
diately thereafter ignition by the spark plug M of
a working cycle number of 100 per minute can be the ignitableimixture formed in the chamber. 40
The mechanism for charging the fuel is described
40 supplied with charging air from one vcompressor, - more in detail below. During ignition in the
if the duration of charging aniount to 112 of the
duration of one working cyclepf an explosion chamber I and the expansion oi the combustion
different I chambers
in _ succession.
‘Thus, for example, 6 explosion chambers having
chamber and the speed of revolution of the com
pressor, which is constructed as a piston com
45 pressor, is 600 revolutions per minute.
My improved apparatus is characterized by a
control of the inlet valves for the compressed
operating medium whereby the inlet valves are
kept open during the compression'of the operat
ing medium or during a part of this compression,
50 in the case of multi-stage compression prefer
ably during the highest compression stage, or in
the case of two stage compression during the
gases upon the opening of the nozzle valve 2 as
well as during the scavenging oi the explosion
chamber by scavenging air enterigig through the
valve 5, there takes place one aft r another dur
ing equal time intervals the suct on of fresh air
by the piston compressor and the charging of the
other explosion chambers l iron} the same coin
pressor 8, 9 one after another. ?'his process pre
supposes a corresponding displacement as re
gards time of the working cycles in these cham
The described form of construction of the appa
ratus holds good both for single stage as well as 55
' the piston compressor and the chambers of a for two-stage compression or according to'the
multi-chamber machine are so arranged that the method, in which the expulsion work for the ?rst
. inlet members of the explosion chambers for the I stage is done, so that it is only eliminated in
the second stage. In the arrangement shown in
operating medium, which the compressor sup
second compression stage.
plies in the compressed condition, lie directly.
adjacent to the outlet valves of the compressor.v
If the inlet valve of each explosion chamber
simultaneously forms the controlled outlet valve
' of the compressor, the apparatus for carrying out
65 the method of the invention is simpli?ed to a
particularly great extent.
In the form of' the invention shown in Fig. 3,
i represents one of the explosion chambers which
are arranged with their longitudinal axes on a
70 cylinder surface the axis of which coincides with
the shaft ‘axis of the turbine rotor. Each ex
plosion chamber has an outlet valve 2 through
- which the combustion gases, after ignition and.
explosion, ?ow to the rotor 3 and impinge the
75 latter after expansion in the nozzle 4. Through
Fig. 3 the piston compressonduring its suction
stroke, that is upon movement of the piston 8
from the left to the right, the valve I8 being open
and the valve l9 closed, sucks atmospheric air
through the valves l3, conduit 28, valve l8 and
strainer 2|, so that upon the compression stroke 65
of the piston the whole compression of the air
takes place in the piston space H).
In the above-described arrangement the com
pression takes place in ,a single stage. -A more
advantageous operation, however, occurs when 70
the valve I8‘ is closed and the valve I9 open. In
such case the compressor sucks air which has been
pre-compressed to the scavenging air pressure
by the centrifugal compressor IS, the air passing
through valve [9 into the conduit 28. Naturally 76
when employing the latter/method the output of
the turbine with the same'dimensions of the com
pressor and the explosion chambers is greater by
several times. Consequently in carrying out the
last method, the ‘compressor receives charging air
at the intermediate pressure through the inletv
valves l3, which air on further compression dur
ing the inward stroke of the compressor ?ows
through the already opened valve 6 under charg
10 ing pressure into the explosion chamber I. Work
of expulsion during thissecond compression stage
therefore no longer occurs and the necessary ex
penditure of work follows the curve VI of Fig. 2
as compared with the expenditure 'of work ac
'16 cording to line I’, III’, which took place when
carrying out the known method.
, The coupling between the piston compressor
8, 9, which is driven by an electric motor 911
(Fig. 4) independently of-the rotation of the tur
bine rotor 3, the oil distributor l5, the fuel pump
21 and the oil ‘pump 28 is accomplished by means
of a vertical shaft 22 which is driven from the
shaft 22a of the piston compressor 8, 9 by suitable
- worm gearing 9b. The rotary movement is trans
25 mitted from the vertical shaft through a bevel
gear drive 23 to the horizontal shaft 24 to which
the fuel pump 21 andoil pump 28 are coupled.
The drive of the rotor 42 of the oil distributor I5
is effected from this horizontal shaft 24 through
30 the bevel gears 25 and 26 (Fig. 3). Through the
common drive of the piston compressor 8, 9, the
oil distributor l5 and the fuel pump 27, a uniform
working cycle for these devices is automatically
obtained. The oil distributor l5 controls the actu
ating cylinders 1' of the valves 2, 5 and 6 of the
individual explosion chambers, according to a
selected cycle frequency, through the oil conduits
31, 38 and 39. This actuation proceeds in known
manner in such a way that the oil pump 28 feeds
pressure oil into the interior of the rotating re
volver 42 of the oil distributor‘, whence it flows,
by-pass valve 63 is opened at an instant depend
ing upon the amount of fuel required through
suitable adjustment of thelever 64 during the
compression stroke of the plunger and so operates
in known manner for regulating the amount of
fuel fed per cycle.
The fuel pump structure, the fuel valve, the
oil distributor and the turbo-compressor shown
on the drawings are known perse and are dis
closed, respectively, in “Oel-und Gasmaschinen" 10
by Heinrich Dubbel (Julius Springer, Berlin, 1926,
page 188, Fig. 197), Patent No. 1,786,946 to
Hofmann, Patent 'No. 1,763,154 to Holzwarth,
and “Kolben-und Turbo-Kompressoren” by P.
Ostertag (Julius Springer, Berlin, 1923, page 252, 15
Fig. 276).
Where in the claims I speak of a “piston com
pressor” such term is to be understood to mean a
true or pure compressor wherein a charge of
gaseous medium is compressed and discharged at 20'
every two strokes of the piston, as contradis
tinguished from a structure of the gasoline engine
type in which one or more compression up-strokes
alternate with one or more exhaust up-sti'okes,
such structure being primarily a power-producing 25
engine and not a continually work-absorbing com
I claim:
1. The combination of a plurality of constant
volume explosion chambers having inlet members 30
for high pressure charging air- and for fuel, ‘and
outlet members for the high pressure, high tem
perature explosion gases, said chambers-having
also scavenging air valves adapted to charge
scavenging air of relatively low pressure into the 35
explosion chamber following the expansion of an
exploded charge to expel the residual combustion
gases in the chamber, air compressor mechanism
including a piston compressor common to said
chambers, the outlet of said piston compressor
lying in the vicinity of and leading into .the
charging air inlet members ‘of said explosion
depending upon the position of the revolver 42, in
succession into the conduits leading to the differ
chambers, an inlet in the compressor cylinder ent explosion chambers. The annular chambe/ ./for charging air thereinto of a pressure approxi
_ 44 is connected through the port 45 with th/eloil mately equal to that of_ the scavenging air charged
drain, and at the proper instant in each/cycle into the explosion chambers, timing mechanism 45
discharges the pressure oil from the contr, 1 con
for the inlet and outlet members of the explosion
duits. If, for example, pressure oil passes hrough chambers andsynchronized with the movement of
the conduit 39 to the piston 46 of the valve 6, the the piston compressor and operating to open said
valve 6 is opened against the pressure ‘of the inlet members in succession to bring the respec
spring 41. When, on the other hand, the oil pres
tive chambers, after the scavenging thereof, and
sure‘ in conduit 39 is released through connection after the closing of the resmective outlet valve,
with the port 45', the spring 41 closes the valve into communication with the compression space
6 (see Fig. 6)..
Fig. 6 illustrates a section through the fuel
pump 21 and'shows the fuel injection device 48
arranged in the valve 6, all on an enlarged scale.
The cams 49 are positioned upon the shaft 24
which drives the fuel pump 21, such cams being
60 so displaced circumferentially that they raise
of the compressor during the successive compres
sion strokes of the latter, said compressor being 65
arranged .with its compression space out of the
path of the live explosion gases discharging from
said chambers, the speed of the timing mecha~'
nism and that of the compressor 'being so related '"
that the number of piston strokes Iper unit of
the rollers 50 against the pressure of the springs “ time bears the relationship of a whole
5| and thereby raisetthe fuel ‘pump pistons 52 in ' to the product of the number of chambers by the
proper sequence. The fuel in the compression ‘number of cycles per chamber in the same unit
space 53 is in this way forced into the conduit 55 of time.
through the pressure valve 54 and passes through
2. The combination of a plurality of constant 65
the port 56 into the hollow spindle 51 of the valve volume explosion chambers having inlet members
6. The fuel, under, its own pressure, then opens ‘ for high pressure charging air and for fuel, and’;
the check valve 58 against the pressure of .the outlet members for the high pressure, hightem;
spring 59 and passes through the ?ne openings 66 perature explosion gases, said chambers having
70 in ?nely divided streams into the explosion also scavenging air valves and conduits leading
chamber, where it becomes intimately mixed with air of relatively low pressure to such valves, air 70
the air charged-by the valve 6. Upon'return of compressor mechanism including a piston com
the piston 52 under the pressure of the spring 5|, pressor common to said chambers, conduitslead
fuel is sucked into the compression space 53 ing from the compressor to the charging air inlet
through the conduit 6| and suction valve 62. The valve of each of the chambers, the inlet ends‘of
said chambers and'the outlet end of said com
pressor lying in the vicinity of each‘ other to're
duce the size of the connections between the
compressor and chambers, a conduit for leading
air of approximately scavenging air pressure into
the compressor, mechanism for driving the com
pressor at approximately constant speed, timing
mechanism for the inlet and outlet members of
the explosion chambers synchronized with the
movement of the’ piston compressor and acting to
open the scavenging air valves of the chambers
in rotation while the corresponding outlet mem
bar is open and subsequently to close the scaveng
ing air valve and the outlet member and open, the
charging air valve of the chamber being charged
to connect the chambers in succession with the
piston compressor at approximately the begin
ning of a compression stroke when the pressures
in the connected chamber and compressor‘ are
bers having inlet members for the components of
the mixture to be exploded therein and for
scavenging air, and outlet members for the high
pressure, high temperature explosion gases; a‘
piston compressor common to two of said cham
bers for compressing a gaseous component of the
explosive mixture, the discharge end of the com
pressor being connected with such chambers by _
way of the respective inlet members; a conduit for
leading the component to'be compressed into the
compressor; mechanism separate from the rotor
shaft for driving the compressor at substantially
constant speed; and timing mechanism for the
inlet and outlet members of the explosion chembers synchronized with the movement of the
compressor and constructed to cause opening of
the scavenging air inlet member of a chamber
following an explosion and the subsequent expan
sion out of the outlet member, while the corre
sponding outlet member remains open and‘then to 20.
close the outlet member substantially simul
timing mechanism and of the compressor being so “ taneously with the beginning of the compression
related that the number of strokes of the come stroke of the compressor, said compressor hav
ing a two-stroke cycle and said timing mecha-.'
pressor piston perlunit of time bears the rela
tion‘ of a whole number to the product of the nism acting to connect the explosion chambers
alternation with the compression space of the
number of chambersby the cycle frequency of in
compressor substantially at the beginning of the _ the chambers for the same unit of time, the com
pression space of'the compressor being arranged compression stroke, whereby during the whole
of the compression stroke of the compressor the
out of the path of the live explosion gases dis
is compressed into an explo 30
charging from said chambers.
sion chamber and the pressure of such component
3. In an explosion turbine plant, ‘the combina
,tion with the rotor and driven shaft of such plant, ' continuously increases.
'20 approximately the same, the outlet member of
the chamber remaining closed, the speed of the
of a plurality of constant volume explosion cham- _
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