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Патент USA US2121840

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Patented June'28, 1938 i
A Y2,121,846Y
PATENT , v.o1-1Fici:
l i
Everard Stubbs', Springfield, ~»Vt., >assigner .to The
.FellowsGearShaper Company, Springfield, Wt,
_a corporationof Vermont
~ ,
' Application JuneV 26, >1935, seríarNo; 128,435
20 HClaims.
`>Thepresent ¿invention :relates "to the generation
o‘f i ’gears V“by “relative `-reciprocation between ' the
I work~'piece,f(agear blank) land'cutters of thefgear
Shaper type, in the >direction of the axes ofthe
spaced teeth. V“This principle maybe combined;
ciitters,` together with `relative rotation between
such >cutters jand lthe - work `piece lrin the lmanner
ofìintermeshing'gears; The cutters >herein re
ferre-d'to as ¿of >the Lgear shaper rtyperhave 4teeth
and-is» so shown in `-th'e'ïpresent illustration, »with
two or ymore Aseries of teeth or cutting units,ïof
,_ arranged similarly‘tothe-teeth of a gearcon
Y ro*
number of teeth to§be~-cut andthe «correlation-"of
the kcuttersewith one another -so »that :their ¿joint
‘eiïoirt produces a complete ¿series olf equally '
which ’the `second set, ¿and the'ffollowing sets if
more than two Aareprovided,‘are'designed >toifcut ' Y
deeper an-d/or wider spaces than'those out by'A the `
jugateito the teeth ‘to be cut in the ffwork, ybut precedingv . series; ’the cutters “being - sol ucorrelated.'` lof
differing Afrom gear‘jteeth in‘fthat vthey lhave ycut- ' that"- a `subsequent -seriesri of teethxon «each-'cutter
enlarges'the >spaces'cut >'by the primary, »or other
ting edges -atene end andvtheirside `iîaces'arein
clined --convergently‘ away from ¿the Vcutting-'endV preceding,À tooth-seriesßof the preceding cutter. *
to `provide iside ¿clearance-'in the cutting yaction. y
’The-object of this‘invention‘is to effect >rapid
'The Adrawing >furnished herewith :illustratesiin‘ "
a'diagrammatic manner ithe stepsand operations
generation of Vgears; and~to~do-fthiswîth a most ' i-n which this »method is comprised, andithefprin
compact assemblage -of cutter *andA »workspindles ciples of a'machineifor performing’the method. ,
and with .cutters :of AAthe `dimensions, and 'other
-In 4this
characteristics :substantially conforming v'with
those „used in ÍtheA practice 4which has 'long been
commencement of ‘the `'cutting cycle;
standard'v heretofore. In .carrying «out 'thisv object
, `-Fig. I2lisï;a«similarfviewbut showing-:the cutters
I„provid_e a number of interrupted -or~'incomplete
cutters distributed around 'the --location «of -lthe
and work after `the A'cycle `»has Vbeen completed;
Fig. 3 `is adiag-rammatic view showinglin'sec
tion the principles ïof Vmechanisrns‘suîtable V-i’or
work Apiece in positions 'such as fto > permit all Aoi.’
them `to 'act ,simultaneously Ñat diiïerent points on
the workpiece, wherebyeach cutter generates-.a
fractionof‘the whole; number of teeth,^but all of
giving reciprocating and -planetary r'movements -to_ „
such cutters ~relatively~to a 'stationary-work piece.
¿Referring to ‘Figs ‘1»and"2_,ìthe\w‘ork` piece, «a
them ,îtogether‘ generate a lcomplete ¿gear -wlth
teeth_.correctly1spaced from one 'another about
gear blank; is "designated a., > and ` the »fcutters nare
its _en'tirepitch circle. Either completegears'or Y
another Vby exponents |„'2, 3,'-et-c. ‘Thera-re allA
gear segments maybe .made nby thi‘swmethod. The
all designated «11), "but are >distinguished'¿from one
alike; and'eachis provided'wlthfteeth throughout
principlejis “thej samein -either case. -Between Yonly-a «fraction-ofïits’circumference. y The char
such cutters and the work are effected relative acteristics of such teeth, as to cutting edgesï'and
»movements of reciprocatlon >in the'direction yof ’ side clearance, correspond Asubstantially vtothose
ï thecutter axes and >relative_movements o‘f »rota
setîforthin the Fellows ` Patent 676,226,` vJ une “ 1ï1, ’
Vtion about their respective axes in >theinanner
of .conjugate gearsv running in `mesh `with one
another; and such‘rotational movements may -be
knownfgear -shaper cutter'~ type.
`v4In Ithis » illustration each -cutter ` has »two series
imparted .to both the cutters and‘the'work piece
1901. -fIn other word-sthe cutters are ofthe well
of‘teeth designated respectively’t’ andtä'o?which,
simultaneously; >orzto the cutters onlycompo-und >those vof the ¿first series constitute v'one Ycutting 40
ed `of rotation about their ownaxes‘andrevolu-4 Vunit andare designed *to -generate «spaces »or
tion -fabout > the -axis 4of the work, in Vthe manner grooves -in A'the -work -of less Mwidth `»and »depth
o‘fjplanet pinîons.
' `Mechanismsr *for 'effecting ' these movements,
and *for leffecting relief -between the cutter teeth
than `the >prescribed final dimensions, lwhile the
teeth t2, longer-and'widenthan Ythe :teeth t’--constitute rthe »second uni-t wand yare v4designed to #cut
and ¿the Awork ' to lavoid rub «on lthe unoncuttingY
Y (return) strokes-have'been developed'as part of an
spaces of the l'full »prescribed-depth and `width, _
organized machine 4rfor practising this method.
Such "machinevand mechanisms, however, beyond
.the generic lformulation >of means hereinafter
referred ~to,- are ~not lof `my invention. What vI
lengthfof- the incomplete teethñrst generated.
' have invented is theemethod of, and theprinciples
'.offfmeans "for, acting on a single-work piece by~a
i plurality- of L cutters simultaneously.' with genera
55 VVtionibyfeach» cutter o'faa fraction only-ofthe whole
thus <reducing theïwidth and l'increasing 4the
So I‘far»as«=the-basic principles ofthe method ~are
concerned,:eachofsaidlunlts isa complete cutter.Y
Thatlis,1the teeth t'y mayëbe> of îsuch 'form andf‘dl
mensions -as )to :cut »spaces fand vgenerate ßteeth -of
the prescribed fiinal .dimensions The 7provision
ofîftwo «.‘diiferent nun/its :fmerely divides .ithe com'-V
plete process into :twosuccessive istèpsgïiIn other 55
words, the first unit or group of teeth embodies
nection I mean the unit spacing multiplied by
the essentials of the cutter for the purposes of
an integer greater than one. The cutters may
be secured to their respective spindles with any
generic deñnition.
These cutters are mounted on rotatable cutter
spindles designated as c', c2, etc.
They are all '
at the same distance from the center of the work
and their centers are spaced equally apart from
one another on a circular arc or circumference
concentric with the work spindle. Where the
10 work piece is a complete gear, the cutter spin
dles are equally distributed in a <complete circuit
around the work; but for cutting gear segments
the cutters need not occupy a complete circum
ference, and may be spaced at any convenient
15 distance apart (properly correlated with the pre
scribed spacing of the teeth to be out) without
requiring the distance between them to be an in
tegral divisor rof 360° of arc. The absence of
teeth from a suiiîciently large fraction of the
20 circumference of the cutters dispenses with the
necessity of any radial depth feed.V
The number of cutters and the number of teeth
on each is determined by the diameter of the
work piece and the number of teeth to be cut,
but with a considerable range of variation. For
example, six cutters with four teeth each, as
, here shown, can cut a maximum of twenty-four
teeth in the work piece, but may also cut a small
er number of teeth.> The present illustration
aoV shows them arranged to generate twenty-one
teeth in a complete gear.
When the number of
teeth generated'is less than the sum total of all
the cutter teeth, the actions of the successive cut
ters overlap one another somewhat. Cutters of
35 different pitch circle radius may be substituted
for one another on the same spindles, or on a
likeçnumber of spindles suitably spaced from
the work spindle to‘ accommodate such cutters
without interference; and the` number of cutter
spindles may -be anything within practical limits.
That is, this number should not be so large as to
require cutters vof smaller diameter and lower
diametral pitch than can be conveniently and
eil‘iciently -made or satisfactorily used.
In general it may be said that the purposes of
the invention are best carried out by providing
as many cutters of-approximately the smallest
practicable pitch radius as ycan be accommodated
in a circular series around the work piece with
50; out interfering with one another; since by so
doing the number of teeth required to be gen
erated by each cutter is reduced to the minimum
and the production of the work expedited to that
extent. But the invention is not limited in that
55 respect,> and> may be embodied in conditions
where the number of cutters is less than the
maximum and the number of teeth in each unit
is proportionally increased. By providing a suit
able number of cutters at a suitable center dis
60 tance from the work, with a proper number of
teeth on each and proper adjustment of the cut
ters angularlyy on their respective spindles, gears
can be cut `with any number of teeth equally
spaced around their pitch circumference even
though the number of teeth is a prime number.
In the embodiment here described, the pitch
circle spacing of the cutter teeth is equal to the
pitch circle spacing of the teeth to beprocluced
in the work, and the angular spacing of the cut
70 , ters around the axis of the work, and the posi
tions of the cutters on their respective spindles,
are such as to locate the cuts made by the respec
tive cutters at a distance apart equal to an in
tegral multiple of the prescribed tooth spacing
in the work. VBy “integral multiple” in this con
angular adjustment. That is, they need not be
adjusted so as to begin cutting all at the same
instant, but may come into action successively
in any sequence necessary to cut any given num
ber of teeth with equal spacing. Thus,.for in
stance, in the illustration shown, the cutters b',
b3 and b5 are located so as to begin cutting at 10
the same instant and to locate corresponding cuts
made by each at any given instant exactly 120°
apart around the axis of the work. But the in
termediate cutters b2, b4 and D6 are adjusted with
anlangular displacement about their axes equal 15
to the spacing of one, tooth, relatively to the
previously speciñed cutters, in order to be prop
verly correlated for cutting twenty-one teeth. For
vcutting other numbers of teeth,rthe cutters may
be otherwise adjusted; but in all cases they are 20
so correlated that the teeth which each cutter
generates are in uniform and equal spacing with
the adjoining teeth` produced» by the adjacent
The necessary rolling motion between cutters 25
and work for generating correct tooth forms may
be obtained by rotating the cutters about their
respective axes all at the same speed and in the
same direction of angular rotation, for instance,
that indicated by the arrows d', d2, d3, etc., and 30
simultaneously'rotatìng the work about its axis
in the opposite‘direction at the same peripheral
speed; or by holding the work stationary and
revolving the cutters bodily around the axis of
the work in the `direction of the arrow-f, at a 35
speed which causes them to roll with respect to
the work in the manner of planet gears. In the
illustration of Figs. l and 2 it is assumed that
the work `and'cutters are rotated in ñxed loca
tions; Further on in this specification means 40
are “described whereby the cutters are both ro
The use Aof cutters with teeth occupying less
than’ their full lcircumference eliminates neces
sity -for any-change of center distance between 4,5
cutters yand work for depth feed. This is be
cause the- large gap in the circumference of the
cutters-where there are no teeth permits place
ment of the work in pitch circle relationship
with the cutters, or Vice versa, when the blank
sides of the cutters‘are turned toward the loca
tion of the work piece, without interference be
-tween` the cutter teeth and the circumference of
the work piece.
It will be understood from the foregoing eX
planation that relative »rolling movement be
tween‘the cutters and work suiìcient to bring all
of the teeth t’ (the teeth of a single cutter unit)
of all the cutters into mesh with the work, in
connection with a proper number of cutting 60
strokes, suffices to generate al1 the teeth of the
work piece; and the teeth Ysogenerated may be
of ñnished dimensions, or over size, depending
o_n the dimensions'and proportions of the teeth t’.
lli/'hen ltwo series of teeth,>as those designated t’ 6,5
and t2 in the present illustration, are provided,v
the teeth of the second series or unit are brought
into action by continuing the rolling movement
through a sufficient additional angle. l'n so do
ing, the teeth t2 of cutter'b' enlarge the "spaces 70
and reduce the ,width of the teeth of the Work
piece cut by the teeth t’ of cutter b2; and each
cutter thus performs a second cutting actionY
on the teeth generated by the i'lrst cutting unit
of thepreceding cutter. But it is a matter of 75
' formed .fin fone..j step sor stwci or: more; steps. »s Gen
. e'rially :a~.l'better=‘=.'ñnish isfsobtai'ned `)by :the plural
this ¿purpose .i "Whenfthespindlesaare-jalear :di .fthe
wcrkratzthezfendçof their‘fy return strokesgthetgear
2l pullsathe rod ;outward`~and therebyabrings-rthe
stepfembodirhentfofitheiprocessithe teethk ofthe tapered
the Vspindle,:returning
'sleevesfagain fintofclose
the cutterstto
:cutting zpnsi.
tion. fElseiwhere îthroughout'the flength -îfïf ¿the
n '
second-«or -ffinal Auriitgzbeing¿designed :to take :av .ïIfhave shovvnîin Eig: Stof theLdraWing,iin'<,-a:dia-
spindles ¿there : ¿is ssufiìcient ¿clearance "ehetweenfïthe
grammaticnmay, aan -apparatus ¿,by. :.Which. :the
spindles andcarrier tofzpermitít-hisfoutward .move
" . foregoing'methodmay ¿be performed.` .fflI‘hissap
paratus-` embodies .fthe¿principles> .of :the means
which fI fhav‘e .-:devfised for the ‘,fpurpose; :together
with » -Ifurther 1 developments çinvented ~by -
Miller :of iSpringñeld, 'îvermontg :1in applyingithese
principles àto .1an f'drganize‘ds. `commercial machine.
15. Hereilfthe ßwork :piece la, v¿is ¿mounted y'on' wanuiarbor
¿am V¿aware that -the simultaneous .generation ‘_
Vcf f a number ¿of zgears V:by: a'ssing'le 1 cutter ¿is not
new. isFcrpinstance,
No." 113990§240,rthe
35, hv193.5,v
showszthe useoffan'interruptedycutter'with tazgplu
rality «ci liseri'es @of *teeth lof aprogressivelyelarger ‘I6
t0 securediinraîholderì lil which is‘ïs'taticnary- While ` dimensions tto .lcooperatefzwith @Work fpiecesncar
the ^ sgenerating »factionitakes fplace; and «may êbe
' displaced i'for‘ila'pplying' and removing i the work.
'I-’hei‘cuttenspindle's lare ' :rotatably'afrnounted fin a
20 cylindrical «carrier M2 V1fvvl'ii'c‘h is ":rotatableaand
~ movable .endwise Lin Ía »fstationary'ïbearing ¿[3 l co
. axial with-‘the Workspindle -axis.-‘~*«'I'his-carrier is
reciprocatedl'by-y a îgear` segment êtd `:which Imeshes
with-encircling.rackteethfl âgon the circumference
rëied hyf 'spindlesninßa a‘planetaty arrangement. .
And the patent to G. FornacaleiNo. ‘.1;6U4~-,984,
November xl92`6, :showsathree :work-'spindles -sur--`
pounding,v ;and „Y acted tupon :simultaneously tby; -ïa
largeilcutter l:havingiaseries. lof f_identicalrteethiuœ
cupyingfitsaentire circumference. gaßuhmyfmethod `
differsifundamentallyffrom' both of,;these1patents
in ìhaving a.1;.plurality o'f fouttersf;a11^.pperafting
of Athe carrier and -is oscíllated -at a i suitablespeed simultaneously :.onfonegear, and `eachsgenerating f A
by'mechanismlnotshown. ‘The carrier-ïlzvisrotat- l teethaim onlyja A¿Emotional part' of :the :circum
ed~fto~carry theßspindleslin ansorbit around the
axis offthewoifkjby a-Worm'ilö fmeshing‘with a
. Wide facedigearál'l-Whichiremainslin 4rneshj-vvith
v throughout 'fthe fstroke »i of the fca'rr-i‘er,
the ‘ Worm@
and isnrigidly >secure'diito‘»fthe v4oarrier`.«.-l2.y This
gearV serves» alsocas :a-‘thrustïblook «acting ¿through
ball t bearings 'il 8 fforapropelling the "cutters «e'n‘d
ference of the gear. :Tofthe'rbestof myïifknowledge
and ibeli’ef, fthis Lrnetl'iod ‘is-,wholly-¿new _;Itlhas a
number @of :important -¿advantages .'over-¿the'zprior
methods fin :that it ¿permits :the fuse :not sonlyz’ot>v
cutters 4'ofsthe :dimensions long .fpreviously :con
side'redrassstandard, fbut-:cuttersi which? have .only
atsmallïfraction >ofitheznurr'iber,A of'steethfreverïrhere
wise Iinlfthe cuttingv idirection «and i» withdrawing
of fcutter manufacturing cost. 'Then 'thefsize o‘f
them. VëRotationH-of >ftl'iefc‘utters :about their 1in
dividual axesat :thei proper =speediis :caused’by f-a y gears Whichsmayrbezzthus»generatedfis practicallyV
gear I9, >normally y‘held stationary, iwithf-.Which unlimitednand cuttersvarying Within'onlyfa small ,
range ;of'tradial ¿dimensions .ìmay abe used :to pro
' meshcgears .2U Yon the respective .cutterfspin’dles
. TheA gears 'F20 „slide lengthwise rin` mesh > withsgear
|:9 fasfthegcuttersv are reciprocated, :and ythe. inter.
eng-aging :teeth :of ftherse. gears guide'the ¿cutter
vteeth :in their '.true' paths ynecessary "for ‘shaping
the teethßof the-Work.' >Whenzhelical¿teethuare
duce gears iofxzanyrrandzrzall «dimensionsyfin `fo'f
course a small fractionr of ttlre time~regu1nedrto
produce fany :such ~¿gear with sa'rsingle cutter.
Again, the .rapidity :_of s production :due to amultlple
simultaneous action 'lis obtainablezwithiaieutting
to .îbe generated, icutters are .used ¿otzwhich ’the assemblage rtivorfk‘èholder,:cutter sspindlfestand-'co->
teeth :are'li'elical lin «the x prescribed fdegreey' and ’ operating :partslfiof compact :proportions: ~
the gears i9 and 2i! arey helical gears-'ofrthefsame
lead as the ,cutter'teeth
To ‘eiîect .vbacking'oiîof :the cutters =suflicient
`4to Vavoid `¿cub on their :return strokes, ¿the
spindles :are formed Iwith tapered portions '12|
sists- in -fpr'ovidingsa Iplurality-of =g`ear xs’haperacut- '
ters around the circumference of 'ethesworkgpleca
near :the @end Von vwhich A'the rcutters .lare mount
ineall »of f which <«the n`teeth Pare equally Laird:- un.
' ed, >which jñt vcornplementally v.tapered `@bores
in vvsleeves :"22 :whichrin‘turn'have rotative bearing
formly spaced, ‘locating ¿the cutters "to: fact ,-fsim'ul
taneously iat-'points --spaced »apart 4on fsuch‘ -cir
in a ',head 2:3 :ïñtted Yfin f the adjacent gend :.‘of 1 the
carrier :1:2 with .lprovisionïfor '.-endWi-se, i movement
l i~e1ativel§nthereto,;but in> splinediconnection‘there
oumferenoe l by vfan `integral 1 multiple> 'of fthe‘fpre
scribed tooth spacing,«and-effectingsimultaneous "
relative cutting reciprocation" 'andirollingimotion .
between "the f_cutters dand i ‘work piece Yuntil w‘the
- Mireactíbetweenrthe spindle carrierfan'd headz23
with to prevent iiindependent’rotation.
teeth ‘generated «by thefseveral Y cutters'ffeach-iin fa
tending‘to move ¿the latteriinïthe directiontoward
ycu the cutteralfandïthus vvvithdraw‘itheA tapered: sleeve
2 2 ffrom .the ¿tapered 'izonesfo'f ëthesspin'dle. ~. Av rod
25,_ coaxial *y with the `:spindle lcarrier, lis; movable
endwise »both A:with ,and 'relatively' to `:the carrier.
Itis’equipped'withfa rack-.sleeve Zïôqrneshingxwith
a .gear .f2-l, «which -latter .-is »rotated vby„~suitable
limited -sector >c_f 'fthe «work '-pieee;
. tinuous >series fof-teeth. "
Y “2. y"I‘hedrne'thod ~o'f generating/1 gearsfwl'iich non#
vs’ists ' in #cutting 'teeth _simultaneously »in Adifferent
portions o‘f the'circumference-‘ofv-afsinglerwork
piece'by ~-gear `VShaper cutters A:all of“ Which l-have'
means when Vithe ' >.cutters reach -the 4¿end fof’ their
teeth Elike "one v>ancther"irl-?fcrm and spacing n»and .
Which-arefsoicorrelatedfto one another‘an‘drtothe ‘
cutting strokes vto ,move ithe=rodî 2-5îfurther v1in-¿the
same direction; thereby permitting# springsïfZ-A‘l yto
free thetapered ysleeve 2.2Y from the:taper.ed;zones
>Workïthat @the ycuts "simultaneously "marde 'by ‘ *cor-1
responding teeth of the respective cutters are
ofthe spindles. SpringsAZ-Bçthen push theispindles
' and cutters radially outward to ïthe-,distance per
mitted by the displacement ofthe sleeve
ball' thrust bearings |'8,~being ata longidistance
'frcmîthe cutters;v permit such displacement` ofthe
cutters :to .the small extent >Lwhich `is »Ysufñcient‘ior
spaced :apart L'ori *the --oircum’ìferen'ce "off the -work
piecefby-a distanceß-equalfto'the prescrib'edtooth
spacingY 'o‘f f'the fwoiï'k piecey multiplied by aniinteger
greater than one; Vand effecting relative cutting
and ' rolling V»motions."betvveen" the V“cuttersf'an’d»ïtlie
» :3. .lI’h'e imethod of. .gear tgenerationl’whi'ch icon»
sists in operating simultaneously on a single gear
blank by means of a plurality of cutters of the
gear Shaper type, each having a number of
teeth sufficient to generate a fraction of the whole
number of teeth to be cut in the work.
4. The method of gear generation which con
sists in providing a plurality of segmental gear
Shaper cutters equally spaced apart from one an
other ln a circular arc concentric with the axis of
10 the gear being out, simultaneously effecting rela
tive cutting traverse between said cutters and
the Work piece in the direction of the axes of
the cutters, and simultaneously effecting relative
rolling motion between the work piece and cut
15 ters through an angle suflìcient to bring a subse
quently acting tooth of a given cutter into the
space cut by a precedently acting tooth of the next
preceding cutter.
5. The method of gear generation which con
20 sists in simultaneously cutting and generating a
the number of which on each cutter 1S at least as
great as the number of teeth required to be cut
in the sector of the work bounded by the radii
of the blank on which the centers of such cutter
and of the next adjacent cutter respectively are
located, adjusting the cutters about their re
spective axes so that the first tooth of each to
come into cutting action will incise the blank at
a point distant from the out made by the ñrst
acting tooth of the next adjacent cutter equal to 10
an integral multiple of the prescribed tooth spac
ing, effecting a relative motion of axial recipro
cation between the blank and cutters for cutting
the work with a shaping action, and simulta
neously eiîecting relative rotation between the
cutters and blank'about their respective axes in
the manner of gears running'in mesh together.
10. The method of gear generation which com
prises mounting a plurality of cutting tools around
the axis of a gear blank in position to cut simul 20
taneously at different points in the circumference
plurality of teeth by individual cutters in different
parts of the circumference of a workpiece, sepa ` of the blank and with an angular spacing from
rated from one another by a distance greater one another greater than the angular spacing
than the prescribed tooth spacing, and continuing of the teeth to be cut, effecting repeated relative
movements between the gear blank and all of the 25
25 the tooth generation until intermediate teeth are
made, formingV with those first out a complete tools lengthwise of said axis ñrst in one direction
and then in the opposite direction to such extent
uninterrupted series of teeth.
6. The method of gear generation which con
sists in providing a number of gear Shaper cut
30. ters in a planetary arrangement around a single
work piece, effecting relative axial reciprocating
movements between the work piece and all of
said cutters in unison, correlating the cutters with
one another so that the grooves cut by each are
36 at a distance apart from one another equal to a
prescribed multiple of the spacing of the teeth
to be generated in the Work, and effecting rela
tive angular movement about their respective
axes of the cutters and work like that oi! gears
rolling in mesh with one another.
7j. TheY method of gear generation which con
sists in simultaneously cutting a fraction of the
whole prescribed number of teeth by individual
gear Shaper cutters in diiîerent parts of the cir-`
cumference of a workpiece, and continuing the
tooth generation, with relative rolling motion be
tween the cutters and work, until a subsequently
acting tooth of each cutter enters the tooth-space
generated by the first acting tooth of the next
preceding cutter.
8. The method of gear generation which con
sists in providing a number of gear Shaper cut
ters each having teeth equally spaced throughout
a fraction only of its circumference and substan
tially identical with corresponding teeth of the
other cutters, placing said cutters at equal center
distances from a gear blank in circular series
around the axis of the blank, adjusting the cut
ters about their respective axes so that their
toothless Sides are next to the blank and so that
their respective first cuts made in the generating
action will be spaced apart on the circumference
of the blank by an integral multiple of the pre
determined tooth spacing, and elïecting simul
taneous axial reciprocative cutting movements
and relative rolling movements like those of gears
running in mesh between the blank and all of
the cutters.
that grooves are cut in the blank from one end
toward the other by the tools, and effecting rela
tive lateral movements between the blank and 30
tools at such a slow rate with respect to the rate
cf- said lengthwise movements as to cause each
tool in the course of a multiplicity of said length
wise movements to cut a plurality of grooves and
to shape the material between such grooves into 35
gear teeth- of predetermined outline.
1l. The method of spur and helical gear gener
ation Which consists in simultaneously cutting
grooves in different sides of a cylindrical gear
blank Separated from one another by an angular 40
spacing greater than that prescribed between
adjacent finished teeth of the gear to be cut,
throughout the length of the blank, thereafter
simultaneously cutting other grooves one after
another in sectors of the gear blank between the 45
grooves ñrst cut.
l2. The method of gear generation which con
sists in cutting a number of grooves simultane
ously in different sides of a gear blank by a like
number of different tools spaced equidistantly 50
from the geometrical axis of such blank and an
gularly around such axis with a spacing greater
than the prescribed angular spacing of the teeth
to be cut, progressively cutting other grooves by
each tool simultaneously in different Sectors of
the blank'between the grooves first cut, and caus
ing the several tools each to generate to ñnal
finished dimensions and outlines, as tooth Spaces
conjugate to the teeth of a mating gear, the
grooves cut previously by another tool.
13. A gear generating apparatus comprising a
Series of cutter spindles supported in circular ar
rangement about, and with their axes parallel to
and equidistant from, a central axial line, a work
holder having means for supporting a gear blank 65
with the center of its rim in which teeth are to
be out coincident with said central line, means
for eiîecting relative rotation between the work
9. The method of gear generation which com , holder and cutter spindles simultaneously around
said central line and the axes of the several spin 70
70 prises locating a series of cutters with equal an
gular spacing around a gear blank at equal center dles, and means for effecting relative reciprocat
distances from the axis of the blank, such cutters ing movements between the Work holder and cut
having radial teeth with outing edges at one end, ter spindles in the direction of said central line.
the circular pitch of which is equal to the circular
14. A gear generating apparatus comprising a
75 pitchof the teeth designed to be generated, and plurality of cutters each having peripheral teeth 75
' s
of similar outline to gear teeth extending through vrotatable and axially reciprocable cutter spindle>
carrier, a plurality .of spindles rotatablymounted
less than its entire circumference, means for sup
porting said cutters' equidistanly spaced from a in said carrier equidistant from the axis of rota
central point with their toothless sides» facingY tion thereof, each protruding at one end from
towardsuch point, a work holder having means one and Athe same end of Ythe carrier, a work
holder having means for holding argear blank
a for mountingv a gear blank with its axis in coin
adjacent to the end Aof the carrier from which
` cidence with said central point, means for effect
the spindles protrude and in axial alinement with
'ing relative reciprocation between the work hold
er and all the cutters lengthwise of such axis, and said axis, cutters mounted on the protruding ends
means for relatively rotating the cutters and work Vof the spindles in a location to be carried back 10
and forth by reciprocation of the carrier across
_holder around said axisv and simultaneously ro
tating the several cutters Varound their own axes. the rim of a gear blank so located, means for re
15. A gear generating apparatus comprising a ciprocating the carrier, and means for rotating
plurality of cutters each> having peripheral teeth the carrier, and simultaneously rotating the spin
of similar outline to gear teeth extending through dles about their own axes.
19.Y A gear generating apparatus comprising a
less _than its entire circumference, means for
supporting said cutters equidistantly spaced' from rotatable and axially reciprocable- cutter spindle
Va central point with their toothless sides facing carrier, a plurality of spindles rotatably mounted
toward such point, a work holder having means in said‘carrier equidistant from the axis of rota
tion thereof, each protruding at one end from oneV 20
20 >for mounting a gear blank with its axis in vco
and the same end of the carrier, cutters mounted»
incidence with. said central point, means for re
on the protruding endsof the spindles, each hav
volving the cutters around said» axis and simul
taneously rotating them individually around their -ing peripheral teeth of outline similar to gear
teeth throughout a fraction only of their pe- .
own axes, and means for effecting relative re
25 ciprocation betweenlthe cutters and work holder I ripheries, a work holder having means for holding 25
a gearv blank with its rim in a location between
in the direction of said axis. '
16. A gear generating apparatus comprising a the limit of reciprocation- of the cutters and With
'plurality' of cutters each havingperipheral teeth in the orbit of the cutters, means for reciprocating
of similar outline to gear teeth extending through the carrier, and means for rotating the vcarrier
about said axis and simultaneously rotating the y30
less than its entire circumference, means for sup
porting said cutters equidistantly spaced from a
central point with their toothless sides facing to
ward such point, a Work holder having means for
mounting a gear blank with its axis in coincidence
>35 with said central point, means for revolving the
«cutters around said. axis and simultaneously ro
tating them individually around their own axes,
and means for reciprocating the cutters relatively
to the work piece inA paths such that their teeth/
40 are caused torgenerate teeth in the work piece.
1'7. A gear generating apparatus comprising a
spindles about their respective axes. '
20. A gear generating apparatus comprising a -
l rotatable and axially reciprocable cutter spindle
carrier, a plurality of spindles rotatably mounted ~
in said carrier equidistant from the axis of rota 35
tion thereof, each protruding at one end fromv
one and the same end of the carrier, cutters
mounted on the protruding ends of the spindles,
each having peripheral teeth of outline similar
to gear teeth throughout a fraction only of their
peripheries connected to their respective spindles 40
rotatable and axially reciprocable cutter spindle
so that, in one position of the assemblage, Vthe
carrier, a plurality of spindles rotatably mounted
in said carrier equidistant from the axis of rota
Í 45 tion thereof, a Work holder having means for
work holder having means for holding a gear
holding a gear blank in alinementvwith said axis,
means for rotating saidspindle carrier and simul
` taneously rotating the spindles about their respec
tive axes,4 and means for reciprocating the spindle
18. A gear generating apparatus comprising a
toothless sectors of all face toward said axis, a Y'
blank with its rim in a location between the limits Y
of reciprocation of the cutters and .within the 45
orbit of the cutters, means for reciprocating the
carrier, and means for rotating the carrier about
said axis and simultaneously-rotating the spindles
about their respective axes.
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