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Патент USA US2121867

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June 28, 1938.l
` 2,121,867
Filed Aug. 20, 1936-
4 Sheets-Sheet l
l June 28, 1938.
Filed Aug. 20, 1936
4 Sheets-Sheet 2
- June ¿28, 1938.
y 2,121,867
Filed Aug. 20, 195e
4 sheets-sheet :5
June 28, 1938.
Filed Aug. 2o, 193e
4 sheets-sheet 4
741 MM
Patented June 28, 193s
> .2,121,867¥
Ebenhard S. Gandrud, Pipestone, Minn.
Application August 20, 1936, Serial No. 96,977 l
5 claims.
(c1. 33_141)
My present invention provides an extremely
simple and highly efiicient low cost land >measuru
ing or surveying instrument. Generally stated,
theinvention consists of the novel devices, com
UK ïbinations of- devices and arrangement of parts
hereinafter described vand defined in> the claims.
Fig. 7 is a detail with some pai‘ts sectioned on
and immediatelyV associated parts, some (parts
>being broken away;
Fig.- 9 is a View corresponding to Fig. 8, but» with the. Wheel spokes and various other parts
removed so as to show the star wheel'of the count'
er and> the co-operating tappet carried by the
handle bar or device that serves as a handle for
running the wheel over the ground and as a staff
for n supporting the transit. These several in
Fig. 10 is a section taken on the line Ill-_l0 of
Fig. 8, some parts being shown in full;
Fig. 11 is a fragmentary View in side elevation
showing the wheel spokes separated from. the
wheel hub and disconnected, the one from the
strumentalities are combined in such a way that
the instrument may, without addition or substi
ï tution of parts or.- readjustments the one in re
spect to the other, be used at will for thelineal
measuring of the land or for the ordinary work
Fig. 12 is an elevation showing the instrument
as it will appearV when the combined staff, and
operating handle is set vertically so as to present
the transit for use;
performed bythe use 'of a surveyor’s transit.
'I'he instrument is accurate enough for ordinaryY
20 purposes, and will be found very generally useful
for the quick and substantially correct measur-.
Fig. 13 is a plan View of the transit;
Fig. 14 is a fragmentary section taken on th
~ ‘ ing and surveying of-land.
" The measuring wheel may be made invarious
sizes, but for general purposes, will have a cir- »
rod, which is the customary dimension of meas
urement‘used in landl surveying.Y For some pur
Fig. 8 is a left side elevation of the Wheel'hub
ister of the-rotationsrthereof, a transit, and a
.2.5 »cumference of siXteen’and one-half feet orone
the line 'l--l of Fig. 6;
More specifically stated, my invention, 'in its pre
ferred form, involves a measuring wheel,.a freg
lll-_i4 of Fig. 13;
modification of the wheel hub and spokes;
Fig. 16 is ajfragmentary view showing. the rim
and spoke structure of the modification> illus- T
Y, ,
poses, the wheel `may be maderas an integral or trated in> Fig. >15;
,non-folding member; but ras an additional'feature. v » Figi »17 is a transverse section taken on
30 .fof novelty, the wheel maybe made foldable so ` line I'l-l‘l of Fig. 15;l and
that it will occupy a less> space in shipmentror
» ¿ Commercial forms ofthe device are illustrated
in the accompanying drawings `wherein like char-`
35 - acters indicate like parts- throughout the several
Referring tothe drawings: ,
, Fig. lis a right side elevation showing the corn
plete measuring instrument;` .
40 ' `Fig.-2 is a detail in sectionron the line 2--2 of
Fig. 3 is a fragmentary viewshowing a hinge
joint found in the vicinity of the line markedii-B
45 ,
Fig. 4 is a fragmentary sectionon the lined-4
of Fig. 1;V
Fig. 1, some parts being broken/away and the
Y, parts `beingsh'own on"a\1arger"scale than in'
In the structure illustrated in Figs. 1 to 14, ‘Y
inclusive, the wheel is arrangedto be folded into>
quadrants or Afour sections, and this structure
will first be described. The wheel rim 2l is made
up of four sections connected by hinge joints 22,
23, 24 and 25, which hinges are located 90° apart.
'I'he hinges 22, 23 and 24 are alike and project
from the same side, While the hinge 25 projects 40..
from the opposite side, this beingY done for >a
purpose which will hereinafter appear. The
wheel is shown as provided with four spokes. 26 v
that are offset 'from -lines'radiating from the
axis ofthe wheel and are brought together in an 45
flange 21„as shown, has fourprojecting arms; but
>the projecting flange 21 of the wheel'hubV 28.,A The
Fig. 6 is a section taken on the line 6_6 of
inner ends are rigidly but detachably secured to
Figi’ >5,is’a planview vof vthe parts shown in
offset rectangular arrangement, and these offset
Fig.'_1,'except that the headof the transit has
been removed :from'the combined staff Vand oper-r
ating handle;
theV Y
.Fig 18 Aillustrates a stillfurther modification
of the wheel hub.
' Fig.,15 is a fragmentary view illustrating the
l_of course the structure Vmay be varied.v -The
wheel rim sections 2l and spokes 26 are prefer
ably steel tubes. The spokes k26 attheir inner
ends, see particularlyFig, 11, are provided with „
projectinglugs 29 through which and the hub
Vflange 21 nut-equipped bolts,_3_û are app1ied._`
equipped bolt 32, see particularly Fig. 10, is rig
semi-circular arrangement. This wheel has three
spokes 53, the inner ends of which are Vrigidly
secured to the flange 21a of a wheel hub 28u
idly clamped to a bar 33 that isV supported as
presently to be described. A flange 21 of the
of which is hinged to an ear 58 on the hub flange
The wheel hub 28 is shown as directly jour
naled on a tubular spindle 3l which, by a nut
and has a fourth spoke 51, the inner end 5'!a
wheel hub is shown as providedV with an an
nular flange 34 that añords a weed guard for
a counter` star wheel which is positioned within
said weed guard, see particularly Fig. 10. This
counter may be, and preferably is, of the well;
known type used in connection with bicycles,
and for the purpose of this case, it is only de
sirable to designate the counter casing 35 and
its star wheel 36. The casing 35 has a ñange
15 3'! that is rigidly clamp-ed to the bar- 33 by the
nut of the bolt 32.
For operating the star Wheel and through the
mechanism, recording each rotation of the meas
uring wheel, the wheel carries a tappet. VThis
20 tappet, as shown, is in the form of a stud or
linger 38, Vsee Figs. 9 and 10', carried. by a small»
sleeve 39 that is mounted for radial adjustments
of semi-circular rim sections 2|a that are con
nected at diametrically opposite points by hinge 15
lugs 50, see Fig. 16.
Fig. 18 shows the hub of the measuring wheel
which will have an integral or continuous rigid
rim supported by spokes 5l that are rigidly se
cured to the flange 62 of a hub 63, and which 20
hub is adapted to be supported in the, same man
Directing attention now particularly- to Figs.. 5,
6,. 7 andV 12, it will. .be noted. that the bar 33
ner as the Wheels previously described.
rFne use and operation of the surveying in
strument is probably obvious fromy the foregoing
statements, but may be briefly summarized as 25
follows: The surveyor or operator Walking along
tachably` secured. to the. yoke-like. projection M
of him, and this wheel under the ground frió
of a staiî or rod; ¿i2 Vthat servesv as a combined
for each’rotation of the wheel and which, of 30
on a rod 55, the ends of which. arev secured to
the wheel hub and to its flange 34.
21a. The hinged spoke 5l is adapted to-'be rig
idly locked to the flange plate 27a by a nut-Y
equipped eye bolt 59, see Figs. 15 and 17. The
wheel'hub 2Ba is adapted to be mounted in the
same manneras the previously described wheel.
Also, as shown in Fig.. 15, the hub flange 2la
is provided with an annular weed guard 34a.
The rim of this two-section wheel is made .up
which acts as. a bridge. bar is rigidly but de~ Y the line to be measured pushes the wheel ahead
30.I staff for the transit and an operating'hamdle for
the measuring wheel. As shown, this4 bar 53
has a short open slot. ¿i3 in one» end and a long
open slot dâ at. its. other end and that nut
equipped bolts 4,5 are. passed. through. the yoke
35 5I and through the said slots 43 and e4..
this arrangement to remove the bar 33 from the
yoke 4H, itis only necessary, after loosening the
nut-equipped bolts 32, to move" the. bar .down
ward in respect to Fig; '7 far enoughto Vdiscon
nect the upper end of the bar from the upper
40 bolt, and then to withdraw the bar from the
lower bolt, this being done without entireLy, re
moving the nuts from the bolts;
Thev rod vor >staff d2 isv provided'withv a long
„ lateral projecting arm 4E located outward. of the
The lower end of. the staif
@il is preferablysharpened so that it may be eas
45 rim. of the wheel.
ily forced into the ground. VThe staff.V is also
provided with a secondaryv or shorter arm 51
that projects in an angle to the arm 45 so
that when the stai i's forced into the ground
far .enough to engage the arms 46 and ¿l? with
the ground, the staff: will. be heldin a vertical
position, provided of course that the ground is
level.> The staff 42 and arms Q6 and @l like
the rim and spokes of the wheel are preferably
made from, steel tubes.
The transit head is made up of a dial 48 with
a. Vernier scale, and aV sighting bar 49 pivoted
to the axis of> the dial at 50. As preferably de
60 signed, this bar 49 has upturned ends 5| and
V52 formed with sighting slots, Vrespectively 53
tion, due to its weight, will register. one rod
course, represents one rod of travel of the opera
tor. The wheel is adapted to travel> through high
grass, weeds, and over roughageV without slip
page, and hence, accurately record each .rod of
travel.. Obviously, if. the Wheel were made in» 35
other dimensions than for rod measurement, it
‘ would record the' unit of travel Yrepresented by a
revolution of the particular wheel. .
The weed guard or hub flange 34 prevents high
grass or weeds from getting tangled up with the
star wheel 35 and tappet 38. When the transit.
is to be'used, the staifis, as Valready stated,
forced into the ground and set in a vertical posi
tion so that the dial 38 will be level, or approxi
mately level, and then the sighting bar 49 may
be used in the manner well-«known to surveyors.
The above statements as to operation apply to
all of the several forms of the wheel> illustrated.
Also,»in all of the Wheel structuresV illustrated.
the wheel may be readilyA disconnected from the
staff or bar ¿2 simply by disconnecting the bridge
'I‘he four-section wheel illustrated in Figs. 1 to
14, inclusive, may be readily folded into» a
quadrantal assembly, as follows: The four bolts
30`are first removed which disconnects the inner
ends of the wheelV spokes from- -the wheel» hub
flange. Then the wheel will be folded into semi
circular formation by folding of the wheel rim
on the hinges 22V and 23. This turns the hinge 25
upside down or places the same on the same. side
of the semi-circular assembly 4so'that the wheel
may then be folded into quadrantal form by
The dial shown’is rigidly' secured to a hub Amovement on the hinges 24 and 25. The wheel
55 that is internally threaded to ñt the threads thus disassembled will, of course, occupy a very
and 54.
on the upper end of the staff 42 and also to
fit- similar threads on the end of the stub armv
di. When the transit' is to be used, it will be
applied to the upper end of the staff when the
lower end of the latter is forced into the ground;
but when out of use, it may be, and at certain
small space as compared with the total diameter
of the wheel.
The modified wheel illustrated ‘in Figs. 15 and
16 is adaptedV to be folded only into semi-circular
formation. To accomplish this folding, it is only
necessary tc remove the nut of the clamping
eye bolt 59, thereby releasing the spoke 5l from
times will be, applied to- the stub arm 6l.
Figs. 15, 16 and 17 show hub and rim portions Vthe hub ñange 21a so that the .Wheel can then
of. a wheel that will operate like-the wheel al
Y iai-easy described, but which will f_oid only into
be folded on the hinges >lill.
YI-líere it will be noted
that one of the lspokes 55 is approximately
aligned with the hingesl 6o and with the pivotal
,Y connection between the hinge- lug 58 and the
end portion 5l8L of the spoke 51, which arrange
ment permits'the free folding of the Wheel into
segmental formation.
' Of course, the rigid Wheel structure illustrated
in Fig. 18 is not capable of folding, and hence, the
Wheel always remains at its full size. > f'
What I claim is:
form Within a segment approximately co'exten-VV
sive with a rim segment.
3. In a land-measuring instrument, a ground-r
engaging Wheel
comprising a Y hub,
rim and
spokes, said rim involving four segments hingedly 5
connected, thev said spokes being four in number,
one rigidly connected to each of said rim segments, and at least three of said spokes being de
' tachable from said hub, the said wheel thereby
1. In an instrument of the kind described, a being capableV of being, folded into >compactseg 10
staiî` having a laterally offset yoke, a bar rigidly mentalform .within a segment approximately co.. t
but detachably secured to said yoke, a spindle se
extensive with arim segment. Y
cured to said yoke, a ground engaging VWheel jour
, 4. The' structure defined in claim `2 in which
naled to said spindle, a register supported by saidl said Wheel has four spokes connected to said'
15 bar, said Wheel having a tappet for operating
hubi in overlapping arrangement tangentially 15y
said register to indicate the distance travelled by to Van imaginaryVV circle struck from the axis of
the Wheel, said wheel being directly journaled to the hub, at least Athree of said spokes being de
said bar and said bar being rigidly but detach tachable from said hub.
ably securedto said yoke.
5. 'I'he structure defined in claim 3 in which
y2. In a `land-measuring instrument, a ground
said wheel has four spokes connected to said 20
engaging wheel comprising a hub, rim and hub in overlapping arrangement tangentially to
spokes, said rim being made up of a plurality an imaginary _circle struck from the axis _of the
of hingedly connected sections, certain of said hub, at least three of said spokes being detach
spokes being detachable from said hub and mov
able :from said hub.
25 able with the respective rim sections, whereby
said Wheel may be folded into compact segmental
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